See the

references of
the people
who are
responsible
for slides on
the last page
Liberty Leading The People by Delacroix
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.

Crisis in the French Monarchy
The Revolution of 1789
The Reconstruction of France
The Second Revolutio...
A.
B.
C.

The financial crisis
Louis XIV was a weak ruler
The Estates General

10.2 Causes and consequences of the French ...
France was in massive debt
 The 7 year war
 The American Revolution
 Lifestyle of the Bourbon family

Nobility or the...
Little influence over nobility
 Nobility did not want to increase taxes
 Would not raise taxes unless Estates General m...
 The First Estate: Catholic Church
 Controlled about 10% of the land.
 Paid a 2% gift to the monarch
 The Second Estat...
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.

Meeting of the Estates General
The National Assembly
The Tennis Court Oath
Fall of the Bastille
The Gre...
All Estates agreed change was needed
 Political reform
 Address corruption

But bitter division over how to vote.
 Vo...
10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution

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Third Estate refuses and forms National Assembly
Invites 2nd and 3rd Estate to sit with them
Seized power away from the...
Vowed to write a

constitution
Members of other estates
joined
King capitulated to
National Assembly
The Declaration o...
10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution

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 Paris was a model of instability.
 Poor wheat crop cause price increases.
 High price of bread diminished demand for o...
10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution

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Peasant mobs rise against

nobility.
 Attacked manors
 Destroyed legal documents
 Seized land
 Stopped paying taxes

...
Rising bread prices anger woman of Paris.
 They march on the assembly.
 They march to Versailles.

The woman and mobs ...
10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution

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10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution

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10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution

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A.
B.
C.
D.

Political reorganization
Economic policy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
The Counter Revolution

10.2 Causes...
Citizenship and voting based on tax payers
Created 83 departments
 Replaced all provincial power
 Further crippled nob...
Assembly outlawed labor unions
 Counter to individualism

Assembly confiscated the land of the Church
Issued Assignats...
Transformed Catholic Church into secular part of

state.
 Between loss of lands and this catholic church was very

angry...
The revolution threatened political and social order

across Europe
 The Vatican
 French Nobility or Emigres
 The King...
A.
B.
C.

The Jacobins
The Paris Commune
The Sans-Culottes

10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution

03/07/1...
Political Party of the Revolution
 Influenced by Rousseau and Enlightenment
 Emerged as early leaders of assembly

Dec...
Formed to govern Paris during the war
Consisted of mobs of people to protect the revolution
 Feared the counter revolut...
Shop keepers, workers and artisans
 Primarily the poor

Very angry at price of food
 People have a right to food
 Ang...
10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution

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10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution

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A.
B.
C.
D.

War with Europe
The Levee en Masse
Committee on Public safety
The end of Terror

10.2 Causes and consequences...
France was at war with Britain, Austria and Prussia
 Europe feared the revolution

The radicals of the revolution saw a...
Mobilize the entire population
 Over 1 million men
 Included women

10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revoluti...
Had power to defend the revolution from internal

threats

 Headed by Maximillian Robespierre

Determined to build a “R...
10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution

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Robespierre creates “Cult of Supreme Being”
Remaining leaders fear his power
Robespierre accuses them of conspiracy
Th...
10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution

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It was the best of times,
it was the worst of times,
it was the age of wisdom,
it was the age of foolishness,
it was the e...
French Revolution
Trouble is brewing
in France
Why it matters:
• The French Revolution became the
model for revolution in ...
The French Revolution of 1789
student outline
1. Rule of kings until 1789
2. Estates general called in 1789
3. Fall of Bas...
The Rulers of France
Louis XVI

Marie Antionette
Queen Marie Antoinette: Love Her or Hate Her

• When she was 14 years old, her mother sent her to Paris to marry the
Dauph...
For 7 years and 3 months, then, Marie
Antoinette filled her life with other
gay pursuits--dancing, music,
gambling; theatr...
Queen Marie Antoinette: Love Her or Hate Her

•Finally in 1778, thanks to the intervention in 1777

of Marie Antoinette's ...
Marie
Antoinette
and the
Royal
Children
Marie Antoinette’s
“Peasant Cottage”
Marie Antoinette’s
“Peasant Cottage”
The Necklace Scandal

1,600,000 livres
[$100 million today]

Y Cardinal Louis René Édouard de Rohan
Y The Countess de LaMo...
Let Them Eat Cake!

Y Marie Antoinette NEVER said that!
Y “Madame Deficit”
Y “The Austrian Whore”
Queen Marie Antoinette: Love Her or Hate Her

What will happen to
her next?
Wait and see….
The French Urban Poor
80
70
60
50
1787
1788

40
30
20
10
0

% of Income Spent on Bread
Financial Problems
in France, 1789
a

Urban Commoner’s
Budget:
– Food
–
–
–
–
–

80%
Rent
25%
Tithe
10%
Taxes
35%
Clothing...
The Three Estates
The Estates General is the French body of lawmaking

Nobility

Bourgeoisie
Commoners
Peasants

Clergy
The Three Estates
First and Second Estates
First Estate: Clergy (1% population)
-control lots of land
-operated the school...
The Three Estates
The Third Estate
-Workers (sans culottes)
-Bourgeoisie (businessmen)
-Peasants were forced to do militar...
The Number of Representatives
in the Estates General: Vote by
Head! Clergy
300

1st Estate

Aristocracy
2nd Estate

300
64...
Convening the Estates General
May, 1789

Last time it was called into session was 1614!
King Louis XVI and Marie Antionette ran out of
money. He spent lots of money on two wars
against Britain.

1.

1.
2.

One ...
2. Problems faced by peasants. They were so poor
they couldn’t feed their families. Then there
were 2 years of bad harvest...
3. Clergy and Nobles would not give the king more
money. Clergy and nobles had lots of land and
money but would not pay mo...
4. Final cause of the French Revolution was ideas. A
new set of ideas called the Enlightenment
attacked the power of the k...
“The Third Estate Awakens”
Y The commoners finally presented their credentials not
as delegates of the Third Estate, but a...
“ The Tennis Court Oath”
by Jacques Louis David

June 20, 1789
link
You tell me who said what: worksheet
What happened after the Tennis
June 20, 1789
Court oath?
The National
Assembly ruled and
created documents
and new decrees...
Storming the Bastille, July 14,
1789

Y A rumor that the king was planning a military coup
against the National Assembly.
...
Bastille - a symbol of tyranny
The Great Fear: Peasant
Revolt
(July 20, 1789)

Y There was chaos and fear everywhere as the National
Assembly took over
Y...
The Path of the “Great Fear”
Why did the Great Fear occur?
____Peasants believed nobles
were planning to kill them and
sto...
The Creation of the
National Assembly
and the new
Constitution
National Constituent
Assembly
1789 - 1791

Liberté!

Egalité!

Fraternité!

During that August there were
decrees (laws) p...
1789 The National Assembly
continued to meet.

3 reforms of the National Assembly which occurred in
August, 1789? (August ...
The Declaration of the
Rights of Man and of the
Citizen (Aug 26, 1789)
5 rights stated in the
Declaration of the Rights of...
Olympe de Gouges (1745-1793)
V Women played a vital
role in the Revolution.
V But, The Declaration of
the Rights of Man di...
BUT . . . .
Y

Feudal dues were not renounced outright [this
had been too strong a threat to the principle of
private prop...
BUT . . . .
Y

Many nobles flee to Europe - they hope the
other noble families will protect them and try to
retake the thr...
The Tricolor (1789)

The WHITE of the
Bourbons + the RED &
BLUE of Paris.

Citizen!
The Tricolor is the
Fashion!
The “Liberty Cap”: Bonne
Rouge
Laws Passed by The National
Assembly
2 laws passed by the National
Assembly which reformed France?
Divided France into 83 ...
83 Revolutionary
Departments are created

February 26, 1790
The Creation of the New Constitution
•

The Assembly adopted its Constitution of 1791,
which set up a limited monarchy wit...
1791
How to Finance the New
Govt.?
1. Confiscate and sell Church
Lands (1790)

One of the most controversial decisions of the e...
How to Finance the New
Govt.?
Why did the National Assembly seize lands
from the Catholic Church?

land was sold to the pe...
The Civil Constitution of the
Clergy
People in parishes would
elect their own clergy and
government pay salaries
of priest...
New Relations Between
Church & State
V Government paid the salaries of the French
clergy and maintained the churches.

V T...
2. Print
Assignats

V Issued by the National Constituent Assembly.
V Interest-bearing notes which had the church lands as
...
What did the National
Assembly Accomplish?
limited the authority of the king and
divided the government into 3
branches--e...
4 Provisions of the 1791
Constitution?
a. king couldn’t make or stop law
b. .tax paying males elected members to

Legislat...
How did Louis XIV feel about
the 1791 Constitution?
Louis XVI “Accepts” the
Constitution
& the National Assembly. 1791
Agreed, but plotted with emigres to
overthrow gov’t and...
What were the problems with the
Legislative Assembly of 1791?

weak executive branch,
inexperienced legislature
elected by...
Revolutionary France prepares a new army
Europe on the Eve of the
French Revolution
French Expansion: 1791-1799
During the revolution in
France other countries
are scared. They are
frightened the revolution...
Why did the Legislative
Assembly and Louis XVI favor
war?

Louis XVI-would defeat
revolutionary army and restore
him to po...
Checking for Understanding
Define Match each definition in the left column with the
appropriate term in the right column.
...
1793-1794
The Political Spectrum
conservative. Group that does not want
change--revolution had gone far enough-king
with limited aut...
The Political Spectrum
TODAY:

1790s:

Montagnards

The Plain

(swing votes)

Girondists

(“The Mountain”)

Monarchíen
(Ro...
Now there is an uprising
Due to all the continued problems and discontent

What led to uprisings in France? Failures in wa...
The Political Chaos

• The Girondins (rural) wanted to keep the

king alive.

• The Jacobins (especially the Mountain -lef...
There is murder and mayhem and chaos in the streets.
The Jacobins take over.
The Reign of Terror begins.
The September Massacres,
1792






Rumors that the anti-revolutionary political prisoners
were plotting to break out &...
They called themselves the Commune
Radicals/Jacobins who seized government in
Paris
The steps leading to the end of the monarchy
a. Prussia vowed to destroy Paris if royal family is harmed

b. Commune deman...
Legislative Assembly voted itself out of existence
and sets date for new elections--Legis Assembly a
constitutional monarc...
The National Assembly added universal manhood
suffrage

every adult male could vote no matter
if owned property or not
1. Georges Danton

2. Maximilien Robespierre
3. Jean Paul Marat
Important Jacobins

A. One of the more important radical leaders
was Jean-Paul Marat, who published the
radical journal Fr...
“ The Death of Marat”
by Jacques Louis David,
1793
The Assassination of
Marat
by Charlotte
Corday
Paul Jacques
Aimee
Baudry, 19c
[A Romantic
View]
1. The Sans-Culottes:

The Parisian Working Class

 Workers

 Small shopkeepers.
 Tradesmen.
 Artisans.
They felt the ...
2. The Jacobins

Jacobin Meeting House



Started as a debating society.



Membership mostly middle class
unlike the Sa...
Who were the important
Jacobins?
B. To respond, the National Convention formed the 12member Committee of Public Safety, le...
Committee for Public
Safety





Revolutionary Tribunals.
300,000 arrested.
16,000 – 50,000 executed.
Committee for Public
Safety

 It’s task was to
try enemies of
the Revolution
 To direct the
army to try to
stop invading...
The “Monster” Guillotine

The last guillotine execution in France was in 1939!
A French physician, JosephIgnace Guillotin, was
instrumental in having a law
passed requiring all
sentences of death to be...
The Reign of Terror
Terror is nothing other than justice,
prompt, severe, inflexible. -Robespierre

Let terror be
the orde...
Louis XVI’s Head
1793)

(January 21,

Louis XIV is
accused of
plotting against
the gov’t of
The National
Convention and
ag...
Marie Antoinette Died in
October, 1793

The rest of the world is shocked that
the king and queen were executed!
Different Social Classes
Executed
8%

7%
28%

25%
31%
Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Netherlands, Spain,
Sardinia.
They feared France would try to export revolutionary ideas
...
The French Army was different than the old
regime
A conscription is passed.
Conscription is to draft all
unmarried 18-25 y...
The Creation of the Republic
Wars
•

The French revolutionary army changed the nature of
modern warfare and was an importa...
The Reign of Terror (cont.)
• A new calendar was adopted. Years were

numbered from September 22, 1792, the
first day of t...
The New Republican Calendar
New Name

Meaning

Time Period

Vendemaire

Vintage

September 22 – October 21

Brumaire

Fog
...
Religious Terror:

De-Christianization (1793

1794)
The Catholic Church was linked with

The Catholic Church was linked w...
The De-Christianization
Program

2. The public exercise of religion was
banned.

3. The Paris Commune supported the:
 des...
The “Temple of
Reason”

Come, holy Liberty, inhabit this temple,
Become the goddess of the French people.
The Festival of Supreme
Being

A new secular holiday
The
Radical’s
Arms:
No God!
No Religion!
No King!
No Constitution!
Jacobins lost power, bourgeoisie took control of National Convention,
Fashions became fancier, inflation increased
_______...
The Thermidoran Reaction
1794
The “Thermidorean
Reaction,” 1794

P July 26  Robespierre gives a
speech illustrating new
plots & conspiracies.
 he alie...
The “Thermidorean Reaction,” 1794

The Arrest of Robespierre
The Revolution
Consumes
Its Own Children!

Danton Awaits
Execution, 1793

Robespierre Lies Wounded
Before the Revolutionar...
What was the impact anyway?
a. Opened new schools
b. supported ideas of universal elementary education
c. encouraged religious toleration
d. establish...
A new constitution is written
It creates a Directory
The Directory
The Directory
New ruling gov’t of France 1795-1799
Elector choose legislators
They choose 5 men to direct th...
How is it organized?
2 House legislature-500 members
Council of 500 - propose laws.
250 members - House of Ancients-vote o...
Who voted in Directory
elections? How was this
different from elections during
the National Convention?
Male property owne...
What problems did the
Directory face?
weak, corrupt rulers,
Inflation, Used army to put
down revolts
Old Regime – socio-political system which existed

in most of Europe during the 18th century
Countries were ruled by abs...
In France, people were divided into three estates
 First Estate
High-ranking members of the Church
Privileged class

...
What does this contemporary political cartoon say about conditions
in France under the Old Regime?
Monarch ruled by divine right
 God put the world in motion
 God put some people in positions of power
 Power is given ...
France’s economy was based primarily on agriculture
Peasant farmers of France bore the burden of taxation
Poor harvests...
The king (Louis XVI) lavished money on himself and

residences like Versailles
Government found its funds depleted as a ...
•Queen Marie

Antoinette was seen
as a wasteful
spender
Scientists during the Renaissance had discovered laws

that govern the natural world
Intellectuals – philosophies – bega...
 Long-term causes

 Also known as underlying causes
 Causes which can stem back many years

 Short-term causes

 Also...
Winter of 1788-1789
 Members of the estates elected representatives

Cahiers
 Traditional lists of grievances written ...
Voting was conducted by estate
 Each estate had one vote
 First and Second Estates could operate as a bloc to stop

the...
Tennis Court Oath by Jacques Louis David
“The National Assembly, considering that it has been summoned
to establish the constitution of the kingdom, to effect the
...
Louis XVI did not

actually want a written
constitution
When news of his plan
to use military force
against the National...
Parisian Commune feared that Louis XVI would have

foreign troops invade France to put down the
rebellion
 Louis XVI’s w...
Church lands were seized, divided, and sold to

peasants
Civil Constitution of the Clergy required that
Church officials...
The 30 provinces and their “petty tyrants”

(Intendants) were replaced with 83 new departments
 Ruled by elected governo...
Democratic features
 France became a limited monarchy
King became merely the head of state

 All laws were created by ...
 Royal family sought help from Austria
 In June, 1791, they were caught trying to escape to Austria

 Nobles who fled t...
 European monarchs feared that revolution would spread

to their own countries
 France was invaded by Austrian and Pruss...
On September 22, 1792, the Convention met for the

first time
Established the First French Republic
Faced domestic oppo...
The Convention abolished the monarchy
 As long as the royal family lived, the monarchy could be

restored
 Put the roya...
The three most memorable
Jacobins were Georges
Danton, Maximilien
Robespierre, and JeanPaul Marat.
Because of a debilitati...
Convention drafted Frenchmen into the army to

defeat the foreign Coalition

 These troops were led by General Carnot
 ...
Despite military successes, the Convention continued

to face problems domestically
Danton and his Jacobin political par...
 Members of the Girondist political party tried to end the

Reign of Terror initiated by the Jacobin political party

 T...
With the foreign invaders vanquished and the Reign

of Terror at an end, the Convention was finally able to
inaugurate it...
Enlightenment ideals (liberty, equality, etc.)
Divided nation
Huge national debt (extravagance, wars, etc.)
Corruption
Population pressures
Society of Orders (The Three Estates)
Seven Year’s War
War of American Independence
Harsh winter/food shortage
Estates General/ National Assembly
Since the Middle Ages, French society had been

divided into three separate classes:
 The First Estate = clergy
 The Se...
Discontent grew in 1700s
First Estate  always exempt from taxes (resented)
Second Estate  many privileges & rights:
...
First & Second Estates held power
Third Estate = 97% of population
Substructure:
 Bourgeoisie = middle class, usually ...
Peasants lived in poverty & burdened by:
 Feudal dues to lords
 Rent payments for land they worked
 “Taille” (heaviest...
Louis XVI convened the Estates General
Representatives from each of the three estates –

Louis hoped to gain approval to...
Each estate had its own agenda & wanted to

improve its position by taking power from the
monarchy
Abbé de Sieyès – “Wha...
1st. What is the third estate?

Everything.

2nd. What has it been heretofore

in the political order? Nothing.

3rd. W...
Discuss as a group then write
(individually) your answers in the
journal section of your notebooks:
Who are the subjects ...
Third Estate formed the National Assembly
Main goal = French Constitution
Louis closed down their meeting
National Assembly met on a tennis court
Took the Tennis Court Oath – vowed to stay until

they had written a Constitutio...
Louis recognized the N. A.
Tremendous citizen support allowed the N. A. to

assume power
By mid-summer 1789, rumors tha...
Louis XVI fired the beloved finance minister,

Jacques Necker
July 14, 1789 – working people of Paris stormed

the Basti...
Revolutionary mentality created – drives the

revolutionaries forward
Two distinct stages: Moderate & Radical
July 14, ...
Looking for weapons & gunpowder
Stormed the prison – 98 killed and 73 wounded
No weapons, but significant because La

B...
RIEN
To many – no turning

back

Moderate Stage = Clash

between 2nd Estate
(nobility) and 3rd Estate
(peasants) WHY??
Includes fall of Bastille

and the general events
that led to it

After the fall of the

Bastille, many nobles
fled & Lo...
Peasantry believed Estates General would

solve the problems they had outlined in a list
of grievances called “cahiers de...
Peasants refuse to pay taxes, tithes, and manorial

dues as they perceived their landlords to be
responsible for their ec...
Rumors began – aristocracy to raise an army and

kill the peasants – known as “The Great Fear”
The Fear – advantage to t...
August 4, 1789- French aristocrats surrendered

privileges by decree
That night, the General Assembly drew up

“Declarat...
Louis XVI did not approve
October 5, 1789 – Parisians marched 12

miles to Versailles to protest the lack of bread
20,0...
“We are going to cut off her head, tear out her heart,
fry her liver, and that won’t be the end of it!”
Louis promised bread &

approved
decrees/declaration and
returned to Paris
Called “October Days”
Restored peasant’s fai...
June 20, 1791 – attempted to flee France
In contact with Leopold II – plan to raise army

in Austria and crush the revol...
"Arrest of Louis Capet at Varennes, June 22, 1791"This print shows an angry
crowd of fervent revolutionaries breaking down...
Showed Louis could not

be trusted
NA had wanted a

Constitutional Monarchy
– now, this was unlikely
Goal = dismantle the Ancién Regime
Six basic reforms to accomplish:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Abolish birthright – legalize equ...
End of Sept. 1791 – N. A.’s work done
Revolution over
1792 – drastic change – not desired or

anticipated
Was this the...
Bell Ringer
What were some of the consequences of
King Louis XVI’s “Flight to Varennes”?
Discuss with Partner
30 Seconds
The Radical Stage
1792-1794
The Players…
The Sans-Culottes
French for “without knee

britches”
Term created by the nobility to
describe the poorer members of
the...
Sans-Culottes (cont.)
Typical dress of a sans-culotte

 Page 349 in your textbook
Red liberty cap
Pantaloons (long tro...
Sans-Culottes (cont.)
 They demanded that the

revolutionary
government
immediately:

 Increase wages
 Fix prices

 En...
Sans-Culottes (cont.)

Wanted laws to prevent extremes of both wealth &

poverty
Ideal nation = one of small shopkeepers...
Predominately bourgeoisie
Well-organized & disciplined
Wanted a strong central

government with Paris being
the center ...
The Jacobins (cont.)
Combined with the

sans-culottes, the
Jacobins WERE the
revolution
Above all else, the
Jacobins unl...
Girondins
 This moderate faction of

the Assembly drew its
support from
businessmen, merchants,
and government officials
...
La Montagne
 The Mountain
 A political group

(members =
Montagnards)
 Sat on highest benches
in NA
 Often synonymous ...
Jean Paul Marat
Swiss-born
Physician
“L’Ami du Peuple”
The Death of Marat by David
Charlotte Corday
by Baudry
 S.Krishna.(2012).French Revolution: Social Project.

http://www.slideshare.net/KrishnaCooldude/french-revolution-1146263...
Thank you
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
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Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
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Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
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Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
Banele Mabuza match up presentation
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Banele Mabuza match up presentation
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Banele Mabuza match up presentation

  1. 1. See the references of the people who are responsible for slides on the last page
  2. 2. Liberty Leading The People by Delacroix
  3. 3. I. II. III. IV. V. Crisis in the French Monarchy The Revolution of 1789 The Reconstruction of France The Second Revolution The Reign of Terror 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 4
  4. 4. A. B. C. The financial crisis Louis XIV was a weak ruler The Estates General 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 5
  5. 5. France was in massive debt  The 7 year war  The American Revolution  Lifestyle of the Bourbon family Nobility or the Parlements refused to increase taxes 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 6
  6. 6. Little influence over nobility  Nobility did not want to increase taxes  Would not raise taxes unless Estates General met  It had not met since 1614. Little influence with public  Sex scandals Often unable to address pressing issues 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 7
  7. 7.  The First Estate: Catholic Church  Controlled about 10% of the land.  Paid a 2% gift to the monarch  The Second Estate: The Nobility  Less than 2% of the population.  Owned 25% of the land  Could tax peasants at will.  Resented authority of crown  The Third Estate: everyone else  The emerging Bourgeoisie.  The urban working class.  Peasant farmers.  Carried the majority of the tax burden. 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 8
  8. 8. A. B. C. D. E. F. Meeting of the Estates General The National Assembly The Tennis Court Oath Fall of the Bastille The Great Fear March on Versailles 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 9
  9. 9. All Estates agreed change was needed  Political reform  Address corruption But bitter division over how to vote.  Vote by order, Third Estate will lose 2-1.  Vote by Head, Third Estate wins 610-591. King Louis XVI requests estates to meet separately 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 10
  10. 10. 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 11
  11. 11. Third Estate refuses and forms National Assembly Invites 2nd and 3rd Estate to sit with them Seized power away from the First and Second estates 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 12
  12. 12. Vowed to write a constitution Members of other estates joined King capitulated to National Assembly The Declaration of the Rights of Man and citizen’s. 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 13
  13. 13. 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 14
  14. 14.  Paris was a model of instability.  Poor wheat crop cause price increases.  High price of bread diminished demand for other goods.  Riots over rising prices of bread.  Louis XVI called for his Swiss guards to come to Paris  To Protect the crown  The crowds feared this move.  The National Assembly feared the Guards were coming after them.  Peasants attack Bastille to seize weapons for defense  This is NOT the Assembly 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 15
  15. 15. 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 16
  16. 16. Peasant mobs rise against nobility.  Attacked manors  Destroyed legal documents  Seized land  Stopped paying taxes National Assembly forces Louis XVI to end Feudalism 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 17
  17. 17. Rising bread prices anger woman of Paris.  They march on the assembly.  They march to Versailles. The woman and mobs attack Versailles. Force King to agree to return to Paris. 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 18
  18. 18. 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 19
  19. 19. 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 20
  20. 20. 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 21
  21. 21. A. B. C. D. Political reorganization Economic policy Civil Constitution of the Clergy The Counter Revolution 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 22
  22. 22. Citizenship and voting based on tax payers Created 83 departments  Replaced all provincial power  Further crippled nobility 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 23
  23. 23. Assembly outlawed labor unions  Counter to individualism Assembly confiscated the land of the Church Issued Assignats or bonds  Issued too many and led to inflation 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 24
  24. 24. Transformed Catholic Church into secular part of state.  Between loss of lands and this catholic church was very angry  Even members of Church who supported the assembly opposed the Revolution now.  Really angered the Pope 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 25
  25. 25. The revolution threatened political and social order across Europe  The Vatican  French Nobility or Emigres  The King tried to flee, but was caught  Monarchs of Europe saw its as a threat Declaration of Pillnitz  Frederick II of Prussia vowed to protect Marie Antoinette 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 26
  26. 26. A. B. C. The Jacobins The Paris Commune The Sans-Culottes 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 27
  27. 27. Political Party of the Revolution  Influenced by Rousseau and Enlightenment  Emerged as early leaders of assembly Declared war on Austria as a threat to the Revolution (1792) 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 28
  28. 28. Formed to govern Paris during the war Consisted of mobs of people to protect the revolution  Feared the counter revolutionaries Attacked the prison Attacked the royal residence  Imprisoned the family 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 29
  29. 29. Shop keepers, workers and artisans  Primarily the poor Very angry at price of food  People have a right to food  Angry at the Jacobins Divisions in the assembly  The left was extremely revolutionary  The Right wanted a constitutional Monarchy 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 30
  30. 30. 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 31
  31. 31. 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 32
  32. 32. A. B. C. D. War with Europe The Levee en Masse Committee on Public safety The end of Terror 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 33
  33. 33. France was at war with Britain, Austria and Prussia  Europe feared the revolution The radicals of the revolution saw a need to defend the revolution  Viewed early leaders of the revolution as a threat 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 34
  34. 34. Mobilize the entire population  Over 1 million men  Included women 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 35
  35. 35. Had power to defend the revolution from internal threats  Headed by Maximillian Robespierre Determined to build a “Republic of Virtue” From 1793 –1794 put on trial all enemies of the state.  Christians and women  Anyone less radical than Robespierre.  40,000 people killed. 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 36
  36. 36. 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 37
  37. 37. Robespierre creates “Cult of Supreme Being” Remaining leaders fear his power Robespierre accuses them of conspiracy This is the end of Robespierre Period becomes known as Reign of Terror 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 38
  38. 38. 10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution 03/07/14 39
  39. 39. It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity… -- Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities
  40. 40. French Revolution Trouble is brewing in France Why it matters: • The French Revolution became the model for revolution in the modern world. • The power of nationalism was first experienced during the French Revolution and it is still powerful in existing nations and emerging nations today. • The French Revolution spread the principles of liberty and equality, which are held dear by many nations and individuals today.
  41. 41. The French Revolution of 1789 student outline 1. Rule of kings until 1789 2. Estates general called in 1789 3. Fall of Bastille July 1789 4. New Constitution 1789-1791 5. Republic 1792 6. Extremists in power 1793 7. Reign of Terror 1793-1794 8. The Directory 1795 9. Napoleon First Consul 1799
  42. 42. The Rulers of France Louis XVI Marie Antionette
  43. 43. Queen Marie Antoinette: Love Her or Hate Her • When she was 14 years old, her mother sent her to Paris to marry the Dauphin and become France's future Queen. Maria Teresa thought her a silly girl ("Her age craves indulgence," she wrote father-in-law Louis XV)-and only sent her when her other daughters defaulted and she had no other choice (beautiful Marie Elizabeth, for example, contracted small pox and became too ugly to qualify). Indeed, Marie Antoinette had been a lousy student, didn't like to read, and could barely write. • Her 15-year-old husband, the future Louis XVI, was a shy, gawky boy who most loved hunting, reading history, and working in his little locksmith shop. Whereas womanizing Louis XV immediately examined his daughterin-law's breasts (and was disappointed--she was, after all, only 14), the future Louis XVI was not able to complete the sex act with his bride for a whole 7 years and 3 months after the wedding.
  44. 44. For 7 years and 3 months, then, Marie Antoinette filled her life with other gay pursuits--dancing, music, gambling; theatricals, buying things, gambling; riding horses, frisking with dogs, gambling--and she shocked the pants off France when she made an outing with courtiers and her household one morning to watch daybreak--the so-called l'lever d'Aurore. Positively Rousseau-esque! Decadent and unqueenly! It prompted the first of thousands of vitriolic pamphlets written against her specifically. In 1774, Louis XV died, and King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette ascended to the throne.
  45. 45. Queen Marie Antoinette: Love Her or Hate Her •Finally in 1778, thanks to the intervention in 1777 of Marie Antoinette's brother Joseph (the future Holy Roman Emperor) in the role of sex therapist, the King and Queen delivered a healthy baby girl...followed by a son in 1781, the coveted Dauphin and future King...another son in 1785...and daughter Sophie in 1786. These were the Queen's happiest years--so fulfilled as a mother, by her own account, that she packed on weight and mostly gave up her antic behavior. But sad days followed fast: Sophie died in 1787. The Dauphin, always a sickly boy, became hideously diseased, crippled, and feverish as he slipped into advanced tuberculosis. And, with the treasury empty, bread riots everywhere, and the fear of war rampant, the Queen got the blame.
  46. 46. Marie Antoinette and the Royal Children
  47. 47. Marie Antoinette’s “Peasant Cottage”
  48. 48. Marie Antoinette’s “Peasant Cottage”
  49. 49. The Necklace Scandal 1,600,000 livres [$100 million today] Y Cardinal Louis René Édouard de Rohan Y The Countess de LaMotte
  50. 50. Let Them Eat Cake! Y Marie Antoinette NEVER said that! Y “Madame Deficit” Y “The Austrian Whore”
  51. 51. Queen Marie Antoinette: Love Her or Hate Her What will happen to her next? Wait and see….
  52. 52. The French Urban Poor 80 70 60 50 1787 1788 40 30 20 10 0 % of Income Spent on Bread
  53. 53. Financial Problems in France, 1789 a Urban Commoner’s Budget: – Food – – – – – 80% Rent 25% Tithe 10% Taxes 35% Clothing 20% TOTAL 170% a King’s Budget: – Interest – – – – – – 50% Army 25% Versailles 25% Coronation 10% Loans 25% Admin. 25% TOTAL 160%
  54. 54. The Three Estates The Estates General is the French body of lawmaking Nobility Bourgeoisie Commoners Peasants Clergy
  55. 55. The Three Estates First and Second Estates First Estate: Clergy (1% population) -control lots of land -operated the schools -aided the poor -lived in great luxury – chateaux -doesn’t have to pay tax (taille) to King (common people pay tax to King and tithe to church) Second Estate: nobles -Nobles had almost complete authority over peasants -Nobles did not have to do military service -Nobles were exempt from most taxes -Nobles collected tolls from people using roads and markets
  56. 56. The Three Estates The Third Estate -Workers (sans culottes) -Bourgeoisie (businessmen) -Peasants were forced to do military service - Peasants could not hunt or fish on noble’s estates --Peasants had to pay taxes to their lord, the king, and the Church --Peasants had to use the lord’s mill, oven and winepress, and pay for them -- Peasants made up 90% of the population
  57. 57. The Number of Representatives in the Estates General: Vote by Head! Clergy 300 1st Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate 300 648 Commoners 3rd Estate
  58. 58. Convening the Estates General May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was 1614!
  59. 59. King Louis XVI and Marie Antionette ran out of money. He spent lots of money on two wars against Britain. 1. 1. 2. One in 1756 (French and Indian War or the 7 Years War) One in 1778 (American Revolution against Britain)
  60. 60. 2. Problems faced by peasants. They were so poor they couldn’t feed their families. Then there were 2 years of bad harvest.
  61. 61. 3. Clergy and Nobles would not give the king more money. Clergy and nobles had lots of land and money but would not pay more taxes.
  62. 62. 4. Final cause of the French Revolution was ideas. A new set of ideas called the Enlightenment attacked the power of the king and the church. These made lots of ordinary French people think that they should have some of the power of the gov’t.
  63. 63. “The Third Estate Awakens” Y The commoners finally presented their credentials not as delegates of the Third Estate, but as “representatives of the nation.” Y They proclaimed themselves the “National Assembly” of France.
  64. 64. “ The Tennis Court Oath” by Jacques Louis David June 20, 1789
  65. 65. link You tell me who said what: worksheet
  66. 66. What happened after the Tennis June 20, 1789 Court oath? The National Assembly ruled and created documents and new decrees (laws)
  67. 67. Storming the Bastille, July 14, 1789 Y A rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly. Y 18 died. Y 73 wounded. Y 7 guards killed. Y It held 7 prisoners [5 ordinary criminals & 2 madmen].
  68. 68. Bastille - a symbol of tyranny
  69. 69. The Great Fear: Peasant Revolt (July 20, 1789) Y There was chaos and fear everywhere as the National Assembly took over Y Rumors that the feudal aristocracy [the aristos] were sending hired brigands to attack peasants and pillage their land.
  70. 70. The Path of the “Great Fear” Why did the Great Fear occur? ____Peasants believed nobles were planning to kill them and stop revolution. Many food shortages, so people hungry and angry______ What was the Great Fear? ____Peasants attacked manor houses and monasteries. Destroyed possessions and documents recording rents, feudal dues and other feudal obligations
  71. 71. The Creation of the National Assembly and the new Constitution
  72. 72. National Constituent Assembly 1789 - 1791 Liberté! Egalité! Fraternité! During that August there were decrees (laws) passed that ended the privileges of the rich aristocracy
  73. 73. 1789 The National Assembly continued to meet. 3 reforms of the National Assembly which occurred in August, 1789? (August Decrees) a. Outlawed the 10% tithe to Catholic Church b. Canceled all feudal dues and services from peasants to nobility c. Removed privileges of First and Second Estates, therefore outlawed Feudalism in France_ Equality & Meritocracy!
  74. 74. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (Aug 26, 1789) 5 rights stated in the Declaration of the Rights of Man. a. men are born and remain equal before the law b. Freedom of speech, press, and religion c. Right to take part in government d. Right to hold public office e. Right to a fair trial
  75. 75. Olympe de Gouges (1745-1793) V Women played a vital role in the Revolution. V But, The Declaration of the Rights of Man did NOT extend the rights and protections of citizenship to women. Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Citizen (1791)
  76. 76. BUT . . . . Y Feudal dues were not renounced outright [this had been too strong a threat to the principle of private property!] Y Peasants would compensate their landlords through a series of direct payments for obligations from which they had supposedly been freed.  Therefore, the National Assembly made revolutionary gestures, but remained essentially moderate. Their Goal Safeguard the right of private property!!
  77. 77. BUT . . . . Y Many nobles flee to Europe - they hope the other noble families will protect them and try to retake the throne for the French king. Y What is an emigre?French nobles who fled to Britain, Prussia, Switzerland
  78. 78. The Tricolor (1789) The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris. Citizen!
  79. 79. The Tricolor is the Fashion!
  80. 80. The “Liberty Cap”: Bonne Rouge
  81. 81. Laws Passed by The National Assembly 2 laws passed by the National Assembly which reformed France? Divided France into 83 departments instead of unequal provinces all local officials to be elected
  82. 82. 83 Revolutionary Departments are created February 26, 1790
  83. 83. The Creation of the New Constitution • The Assembly adopted its Constitution of 1791, which set up a limited monarchy with a king and a legislative Assembly with the power to make laws • Only the most affluent(rich) members would be elected. • Only men over 25 who paid a specified amount in taxes could vote. This keeps the mob from running the gov’t. •Many people–Catholic priests, nobles, and lower classes hurt by economic hard times–opposed the new order. •The king tried to flee France, but he was recognized and returned to France.
  84. 84. 1791
  85. 85. How to Finance the New Govt.? 1. Confiscate and sell Church Lands (1790) One of the most controversial decisions of the entire revolutionary period.
  86. 86. How to Finance the New Govt.? Why did the National Assembly seize lands from the Catholic Church? land was sold to the people and money used to pay down the national debt
  87. 87. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy People in parishes would elect their own clergy and government pay salaries of priests and bishops What was the result of this law? Catholic Church upset and many Catholics began to oppose the Revolution
  88. 88. New Relations Between Church & State V Government paid the salaries of the French clergy and maintained the churches. V The church was reorganized:  The pope had NO voice in the appointment of the French clergy. V It transformed France’s Roman Catholic Church into a branch of the state!! Pope Pius VI [1775-1799]
  89. 89. 2. Print Assignats V Issued by the National Constituent Assembly. V Interest-bearing notes which had the church lands as V security. Caused inflation
  90. 90. What did the National Assembly Accomplish? limited the authority of the king and divided the government into 3 branches--executive, judicial, legislative--who believed in 3 branches of government?????
  91. 91. 4 Provisions of the 1791 Constitution? a. king couldn’t make or stop law b. .tax paying males elected members to Legislative Assembly c. National Assembly abolished, Legislative Assembly established d. No member of National Assembly could be a member of the Legislative Assembly
  92. 92. How did Louis XIV feel about the 1791 Constitution?
  93. 93. Louis XVI “Accepts” the Constitution & the National Assembly. 1791 Agreed, but plotted with emigres to overthrow gov’t and restore Old Regime j
  94. 94. What were the problems with the Legislative Assembly of 1791? weak executive branch, inexperienced legislature elected by minority of population, discontent among poor, inflation
  95. 95. Revolutionary France prepares a new army
  96. 96. Europe on the Eve of the French Revolution
  97. 97. French Expansion: 1791-1799 During the revolution in France other countries are scared. They are frightened the revolution will spread to their lands. Some offer support to Louis XVI and nobles of France. New French army (commoners) expands Fr territory. Out of this Napoleon will arise.
  98. 98. Why did the Legislative Assembly and Louis XVI favor war? Louis XVI-would defeat revolutionary army and restore him to power. Legis Assemb--increase their power and spread revolution
  99. 99. Checking for Understanding Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. C __ 1. the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people A. estate B. relics of feudalism B __ 2. obligations of peasants to C. bourgeoisie noble landlords that survived D. sans-culottes into the modern era D __ 3. “without breeches,” members of the Paris Commune who considered themselves ordinary patriots (in other words, they wore long trousers instead of fine knee-length breeches) A __ 4. one of the three classes into which French society was divided before the revolution: the clergy (first estate), the nobles (second estate), and the townspeople (third estate)
  100. 100. 1793-1794
  101. 101. The Political Spectrum conservative. Group that does not want change--revolution had gone far enough-king with limited authority radical. Person who wants more changewants to get rid of king, set up republic and more reforms moderate. Person who does not hold extreme views--sided with both sides depending on the issue
  102. 102. The Political Spectrum TODAY: 1790s: Montagnards The Plain (swing votes) Girondists (“The Mountain”) Monarchíen (Royalists) Jacobins
  103. 103. Now there is an uprising Due to all the continued problems and discontent What led to uprisings in France? Failures in war and economic/food shortages From all this discontent new voices/groups will rise in power in the France….
  104. 104. The Political Chaos • The Girondins (rural) wanted to keep the king alive. • The Jacobins (especially the Mountain -left branch) wanted the King killed.
  105. 105. There is murder and mayhem and chaos in the streets. The Jacobins take over. The Reign of Terror begins.
  106. 106. The September Massacres, 1792    Rumors that the anti-revolutionary political prisoners were plotting to break out & attack from the rear the armies defending France, while the Prussians attacked from the front. Buveurs de sang [“drinkers of blood.”] over 1000 killed! It discredited the Revolution among its remaining sympathizers abroad.
  107. 107. They called themselves the Commune Radicals/Jacobins who seized government in Paris
  108. 108. The steps leading to the end of the monarchy a. Prussia vowed to destroy Paris if royal family is harmed b. Commune demanded Legis Assemb abolish monarchy c. Commune accused Louis XIV of plotting with foreign powers to overthrow Const of 1791 d. Legis Assembly suspended office of king e. Parisian mob marched to Tuileries, killed guards, and imprisoned the royal family f. Commune ruled Paris and Legis Assembly tried to govern France
  109. 109. Legislative Assembly voted itself out of existence and sets date for new elections--Legis Assembly a constitutional monarchy and since no longer a king, need a new constitution_
  110. 110. The National Assembly added universal manhood suffrage every adult male could vote no matter if owned property or not
  111. 111. 1. Georges Danton 2. Maximilien Robespierre 3. Jean Paul Marat
  112. 112. Important Jacobins A. One of the more important radical leaders was Jean-Paul Marat, who published the radical journal Friend of the People. • He argued that the poor had a right to take from the rich whatever they needed, even by violence!
  113. 113. “ The Death of Marat” by Jacques Louis David, 1793
  114. 114. The Assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday Paul Jacques Aimee Baudry, 19c [A Romantic View]
  115. 115. 1. The Sans-Culottes: The Parisian Working Class  Workers  Small shopkeepers.  Tradesmen.  Artisans. They felt the gov’t should make sure they had wage increases and the price of food was fixed! They were the voice of the common man!
  116. 116. 2. The Jacobins Jacobin Meeting House  Started as a debating society.  Membership mostly middle class unlike the Sans-Collotes who were more peasant and working class.  Created a vast network of clubs.
  117. 117. Who were the important Jacobins? B. To respond, the National Convention formed the 12member Committee of Public Safety, led first by Danton and then by Maximilian Robespierre. • Robespierre was a lawyer and activist, so known for his honesty that he was called “The Incorruptible.” • He followed Rousseau’s ideas in The Social Contract, and he believed that anyone who would not submit to the general will as he interpreted it should be executed.
  118. 118. Committee for Public Safety    Revolutionary Tribunals. 300,000 arrested. 16,000 – 50,000 executed.
  119. 119. Committee for Public Safety  It’s task was to try enemies of the Revolution  To direct the army to try to stop invading armies  To control the Revolution
  120. 120. The “Monster” Guillotine The last guillotine execution in France was in 1939!
  121. 121. A French physician, JosephIgnace Guillotin, was instrumental in having a law passed requiring all sentences of death to be carried out humanely by “means of a machine.” Use of the guillotine, named for Guillotin,continued in France through the 1970s. In 1981, France outlawed capital punishment.
  122. 122. The Reign of Terror Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible. -Robespierre Let terror be the order of the day! c The Revolutionary Tribunal of Paris alone executed 2,639 victims in 15 months. c The total number of victims nationwide was over 20,000!
  123. 123. Louis XVI’s Head 1793) (January 21, Louis XIV is accused of plotting against the gov’t of The National Convention and against France
  124. 124. Marie Antoinette Died in October, 1793 The rest of the world is shocked that the king and queen were executed!
  125. 125. Different Social Classes Executed 8% 7% 28% 25% 31%
  126. 126. Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Netherlands, Spain, Sardinia. They feared France would try to export revolutionary ideas about overthrowing monarchy
  127. 127. The French Army was different than the old regime A conscription is passed. Conscription is to draft all unmarried 18-25 year old men into the army How was the new French army different from the army of the Old Regime? anyone could become an officer if proved their ability
  128. 128. The Creation of the Republic Wars • The French revolutionary army changed the nature of modern warfare and was an important step in creating modern nationalism. • Previously, small armies fought wars between governments and ruling dynasties. • The new French army was a people’s army fighting a people’s war on behalf of a people’s government. Warfare also became more destructive.
  129. 129. The Reign of Terror (cont.) • A new calendar was adopted. Years were numbered from September 22, 1792, the first day of the French Republic, and not from Christ’s birth. • The calendar contained 12 months with each month having three weeks of 10 days, with the tenth day a day of rest. This practice eliminated Sundays. • Robespierre realized, however, that France was too Catholic to be dechristianized.
  130. 130. The New Republican Calendar New Name Meaning Time Period Vendemaire Vintage September 22 – October 21 Brumaire Fog October 22 – November 20 Frimaire Frost November 21 – December 20 Nivose Snow December 21 – January 19 Pluviose Rain January 20 – February 18 Ventose Wind February 19 – March 20 Germinal Budding March 21 – April 19 Floreal Flowers April 20 – May 19 Prairial Meadow May 20 – June 18 Messidor Harvest June 19 – July 18 Thermidor Heat July 19 – August 17 Fructidor Fruit August 18 – September 21
  131. 131. Religious Terror: De-Christianization (1793 1794) The Catholic Church was linked with The Catholic Church was linked with real or potential counter-revolution.  Religion was associated with the Ancien Régime and superstitious practices.  Very popular among the sans-culottes.  Therefore, religion had no place in a rational, secular republic!
  132. 132. The De-Christianization Program 2. The public exercise of religion was banned. 3. The Paris Commune supported the:  destruction of religious & royal statues.  ban on clerical dress.  encouragement of the clergy to give up their vocations. 2. The Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris was turned into the “Temple of Reason.” 3. The deportation of priests denounced by six citizens.
  133. 133. The “Temple of Reason” Come, holy Liberty, inhabit this temple, Become the goddess of the French people.
  134. 134. The Festival of Supreme Being A new secular holiday
  135. 135. The Radical’s Arms: No God! No Religion! No King! No Constitution!
  136. 136. Jacobins lost power, bourgeoisie took control of National Convention, Fashions became fancier, inflation increased _____________________________
  137. 137. The Thermidoran Reaction 1794
  138. 138. The “Thermidorean Reaction,” 1794 P July 26  Robespierre gives a speech illustrating new plots & conspiracies.  he alienated members of the CPS & CGS.  many felt threatened by his implications. P July 27  the Convention arrests Robespierre. P July 28  Robespierre is tried & guillotined!
  139. 139. The “Thermidorean Reaction,” 1794 The Arrest of Robespierre
  140. 140. The Revolution Consumes Its Own Children! Danton Awaits Execution, 1793 Robespierre Lies Wounded Before the Revolutionary Tribunal that will order him to be guillotined, 1794.
  141. 141. What was the impact anyway?
  142. 142. a. Opened new schools b. supported ideas of universal elementary education c. encouraged religious toleration d. established wage and price controls to stop inflation e. adopted metric system f. abolished slavery in French colonies
  143. 143. A new constitution is written It creates a Directory
  144. 144. The Directory The Directory New ruling gov’t of France 1795-1799 Elector choose legislators They choose 5 men to direct the country – They are called the Directory
  145. 145. How is it organized? 2 House legislature-500 members Council of 500 - propose laws. 250 members - House of Ancients-vote on laws and select executive branch. Executive branch=5 members=directors_
  146. 146. Who voted in Directory elections? How was this different from elections during the National Convention? Male property owners, therefore bourgeoisie controlled govt. all men could vote during National Convention.
  147. 147. What problems did the Directory face? weak, corrupt rulers, Inflation, Used army to put down revolts
  148. 148. Old Regime – socio-political system which existed in most of Europe during the 18th century Countries were ruled by absolutism – the monarch had absolute control over the government Classes of people – privileged and unprivileged  Unprivileged people – paid taxes and treated badly  Privileged people – did not pay taxes and treated well
  149. 149. In France, people were divided into three estates  First Estate High-ranking members of the Church Privileged class  Second Estate Nobility Privileged class  Third Estate Everyone else – from peasants in the countryside to wealthy bourgeoisie merchants in the cities Unprivileged class
  150. 150. What does this contemporary political cartoon say about conditions in France under the Old Regime?
  151. 151. Monarch ruled by divine right  God put the world in motion  God put some people in positions of power  Power is given by God  No one can question God  No one can question someone put in power by God  Questioning the monarchy was blasphemy because it meant questioning God
  152. 152. France’s economy was based primarily on agriculture Peasant farmers of France bore the burden of taxation Poor harvests meant that peasants had trouble paying their regular taxes  Certainly could not afford to have their taxes raised Bourgeoisie often managed to gather wealth  But were upset that they paid taxes while nobles did not
  153. 153. The king (Louis XVI) lavished money on himself and residences like Versailles Government found its funds depleted as a result of wars  Including the funding of the American Revolution Deficit spending – a government spending more money than it takes in from tax revenues Privileged classes would not submit to being taxed
  154. 154. •Queen Marie Antoinette was seen as a wasteful spender
  155. 155. Scientists during the Renaissance had discovered laws that govern the natural world Intellectuals – philosophies – began to ask if natural laws might also apply to human beings  Particularly to human institutions such as governments  Philosophers were secular in thinking – they used reason and logic, rather than faith, religion, and superstition, to answer important questions  Used reason and logic to determine how governments are formed Tried to figure out what logical, rational principles work to tie people to their governments  Questioned the divine right of kings
  156. 156.  Long-term causes  Also known as underlying causes  Causes which can stem back many years  Short-term causes  Also known as immediate causes  Causes which happen close to the moment the change or action happens  Example: A person is fired from his or her job.  Long-term cause(s): The person is often late to work and is generally unproductive on the job.  Short-term cause(s): The person fails to show up for work and does not call the employer.  Key: One typically does not happen without the other. Events which bring important change (or action) need both long-term and short-term causes.
  157. 157. Winter of 1788-1789  Members of the estates elected representatives Cahiers  Traditional lists of grievances written by the people  Nothing out of the ordinary Asked for only moderate changes
  158. 158. Voting was conducted by estate  Each estate had one vote  First and Second Estates could operate as a bloc to stop the Third Estate from having its way ◊ First Estate + ◊ Second Estate - vs. - ◊ Third Estate Representatives from the Third Estate demanded that voting be by population  This would give the Third Estate a great advantage Deadlock resulted
  159. 159. Tennis Court Oath by Jacques Louis David
  160. 160. “The National Assembly, considering that it has been summoned to establish the constitution of the kingdom, to effect the regeneration of the public order, and to maintain the true principles of monarchy; that nothing can prevent it from continuing its deliberations in whatever place it may be forced to establish itself; and, finally, that wheresoever its members are assembled, there is the National Assembly; “Decrees that all members of this Assembly shall immediately take a solemn oath not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established and consolidated upon firm foundations; and that, the said oath taken, all members and each one of them individually shall ratify this steadfast resolution by signature.”
  161. 161. Louis XVI did not actually want a written constitution When news of his plan to use military force against the National Assembly reached Paris on July 14, 1789, people stormed the Bastille
  162. 162. Parisian Commune feared that Louis XVI would have foreign troops invade France to put down the rebellion  Louis XVI’s wife, Marie Antoinette, was the sister of the Austrian emperor A group of women attacked Versailles on October 5, 1789  Forced royal family to relocate to Paris along with National Assembly  Royal family spent next several years in the Tuileries Palace as virtual prisoners
  163. 163. Church lands were seized, divided, and sold to peasants Civil Constitution of the Clergy required that Church officials be elected by the people, with salaries paid by the government  2/3 of Church officials fled the country rather than swear allegiance to this All feudal dues and tithes were eradicated All special privileges of the First and Second Estates were abolished
  164. 164. The 30 provinces and their “petty tyrants” (Intendants) were replaced with 83 new departments  Ruled by elected governors New courts, with judges elected by the people, were established
  165. 165. Democratic features  France became a limited monarchy King became merely the head of state  All laws were created by the Legislative Assembly  Feudalism was abolished Undemocratic features  Voting was limited to taxpayers  Offices were reserved for property owners This new government became known as the Legislative Assembly
  166. 166.  Royal family sought help from Austria  In June, 1791, they were caught trying to escape to Austria  Nobles who fled the revolution lived abroad as émigrés  They hoped that, with foreign help, the Old Regime could be restored in France  Church officials wanted Church lands, rights, and privileges restored  Some devout Catholic peasants also supported the Church  Political parties, representing different interests, emerged  Girondists  Jacobins
  167. 167.  European monarchs feared that revolution would spread to their own countries  France was invaded by Austrian and Prussian troops  In the uproar, the Commune took control of Paris  Commune was led by Danton, a member of the Jacobin political party  Voters began electing representatives for a new convention which would write a republican constitution for France  A republic is a government in which the people elect representatives who will create laws and rule on their behalf  Meanwhile, thousands of nobles were executed under the suspicion that they were conspirators in the foreign invasion
  168. 168. On September 22, 1792, the Convention met for the first time Established the First French Republic Faced domestic opposition and strife  Girondists were moderates who represented the rich middle class of the provinces  Jacobins (led by Marat, Danton, and Robespierre) represented workers Faced opposition from abroad  Austria, England, Holland, Prussia, Sardinia, and Spain formed a Coalition invading France
  169. 169. The Convention abolished the monarchy  As long as the royal family lived, the monarchy could be restored  Put the royal couple on trial for treason Convictions were a foregone conclusion  Louis XVI was guillotined on January 21, 1793  Marie Antoinette was guillotined on October 16, 1793  Daughter Marie-Thérèse was allowed to go to Vienna in 1795 She could not become queen because of Salic law, which did not allow females to succeed to the throne  Son Louis-Charles, a.k.a. Louis XVII (lived 1785-1795) was beaten and mistreated until he died in prison
  170. 170. The three most memorable Jacobins were Georges Danton, Maximilien Robespierre, and JeanPaul Marat. Because of a debilitating illness, Marat was eventually forced to work from home. He was assassinated (in the tub while taking a medicinal bath) by Charlotte Corday, a Girondist sympathizer, in July, 1793. The Death of Marat by Jacques-Louis David
  171. 171. Convention drafted Frenchmen into the army to defeat the foreign Coalition  These troops were led by General Carnot  The people supported military operations because they did not want the country back under the Old Regime Rouget de Lisle wrote the “Marseillaise”  Became the French national anthem  Inspired troops as they were led into battle After two years  Coalition was defeated  France had gained, rather than lost, territory
  172. 172. Despite military successes, the Convention continued to face problems domestically Danton and his Jacobin political party came to dominate French politics Committee of Public Safety  Headed by Danton (and later Robespierre)  Those accused of treason were tried by the Committee’s Revolutionary Tribunal  Approximately 15,000 people died on the guillotine Guillotine became known as the “National Razor” Including innovative thinkers like Olympe de Gouges and Madame Jeanne Roland
  173. 173.  Members of the Girondist political party tried to end the Reign of Terror initiated by the Jacobin political party  This opposition to the Committee of Public Safety caused many Girondists to be tried and executed for treason  Eventually, even Georges Danton wanted to end the executions  This resulted in Danton being tried and executed for treason  Maximilien Robespierre became leader of the Committee of Public Safety  He continued the executions  Convention came to blame Robespierre for the Reign of Terror  Thermidorean Reaction  July 27, 1794 – ended the Reign of Terror  Convention sent Robespierre and other members of the Committee of Public Safety to the guillotine  Robespierre was guillotined on July 28, 1794
  174. 174. With the foreign invaders vanquished and the Reign of Terror at an end, the Convention was finally able to inaugurate its new constitution Constitution of the Year III of the Republic (1795) created the Directory
  175. 175. Enlightenment ideals (liberty, equality, etc.) Divided nation Huge national debt (extravagance, wars, etc.)
  176. 176. Corruption Population pressures Society of Orders (The Three Estates)
  177. 177. Seven Year’s War War of American Independence Harsh winter/food shortage Estates General/ National Assembly
  178. 178. Since the Middle Ages, French society had been divided into three separate classes:  The First Estate = clergy  The Second Estate = nobility  The Third Estate = everyone else
  179. 179. Discontent grew in 1700s First Estate  always exempt from taxes (resented) Second Estate  many privileges & rights:  Land ownership  Hunting rights  Collect money from peasants
  180. 180. First & Second Estates held power Third Estate = 97% of population Substructure:  Bourgeoisie = middle class, usually educated – doctors, lawyers, merchants, manufacturers  Urban poor = laborers & artisans  Peasants = worked as farmers
  181. 181. Peasants lived in poverty & burdened by:  Feudal dues to lords  Rent payments for land they worked  “Taille” (heaviest gov’t tax)  Tithes to the Catholic church (1/10 of income)
  182. 182. Louis XVI convened the Estates General Representatives from each of the three estates – Louis hoped to gain approval to raise taxes Met at Versailles in May 1789
  183. 183. Each estate had its own agenda & wanted to improve its position by taking power from the monarchy Abbé de Sieyès – “What is the Third Estate?”
  184. 184. 1st. What is the third estate? Everything. 2nd. What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing. 3rd. What does it demand? To become something therein.
  185. 185. Discuss as a group then write (individually) your answers in the journal section of your notebooks: Who are the subjects of the political cartoon? What symbolism is used? To which Estate did the artist most likely belong? Why?
  186. 186. Third Estate formed the National Assembly Main goal = French Constitution Louis closed down their meeting
  187. 187. National Assembly met on a tennis court Took the Tennis Court Oath – vowed to stay until they had written a Constitution
  188. 188. Louis recognized the N. A. Tremendous citizen support allowed the N. A. to assume power By mid-summer 1789, rumors that royal troops would crush the N. A.
  189. 189. Louis XVI fired the beloved finance minister, Jacques Necker July 14, 1789 – working people of Paris stormed the Bastille – a prison symbolic of despotism and torture Initial goal = obtain weapons & gunpowder to defend the National Assembly…
  190. 190. Revolutionary mentality created – drives the revolutionaries forward Two distinct stages: Moderate & Radical July 14, 1789 – 800-900 Parisians, mostly women, went to the Bastille
  191. 191. Looking for weapons & gunpowder Stormed the prison – 98 killed and 73 wounded No weapons, but significant because La Bastille was a symbol of the Revolution Louis’ reaction…
  192. 192. RIEN
  193. 193. To many – no turning back Moderate Stage = Clash between 2nd Estate (nobility) and 3rd Estate (peasants) WHY??
  194. 194. Includes fall of Bastille and the general events that led to it After the fall of the Bastille, many nobles fled & Louis withdrew troops
  195. 195. Peasantry believed Estates General would solve the problems they had outlined in a list of grievances called “cahiers de doléances” Cahiers were ignored – Peasants attacked food convoys en route to Paris
  196. 196. Peasants refuse to pay taxes, tithes, and manorial dues as they perceived their landlords to be responsible for their economic plight End of July 1789 – peasants began to burn down the homes of their landlords & with them the records of their obligations
  197. 197. Rumors began – aristocracy to raise an army and kill the peasants – known as “The Great Fear” The Fear – advantage to the reformers – gave National Assembly the opportunity to criticize aristocratic privilege
  198. 198. August 4, 1789- French aristocrats surrendered privileges by decree That night, the General Assembly drew up “Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen” Outlined man’s natural rights – symbolic of the new French Social Order
  199. 199. Louis XVI did not approve October 5, 1789 – Parisians marched 12 miles to Versailles to protest the lack of bread 20,000 Paris Guards joined the mob
  200. 200. “We are going to cut off her head, tear out her heart, fry her liver, and that won’t be the end of it!”
  201. 201. Louis promised bread & approved decrees/declaration and returned to Paris Called “October Days” Restored peasant’s faith
  202. 202. June 20, 1791 – attempted to flee France In contact with Leopold II – plan to raise army in Austria and crush the revolution The Flight to Varennes…
  203. 203. "Arrest of Louis Capet at Varennes, June 22, 1791"This print shows an angry crowd of fervent revolutionaries breaking down doors to arrest the King.”
  204. 204. Showed Louis could not be trusted NA had wanted a Constitutional Monarchy – now, this was unlikely
  205. 205. Goal = dismantle the Ancién Regime Six basic reforms to accomplish: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Abolish birthright – legalize equality Declaration of the Rights of Man Subordinated church to state Constitution (1791) More efficient government Economic reforms
  206. 206. End of Sept. 1791 – N. A.’s work done Revolution over 1792 – drastic change – not desired or anticipated Was this the end??
  207. 207. Bell Ringer What were some of the consequences of King Louis XVI’s “Flight to Varennes”? Discuss with Partner 30 Seconds
  208. 208. The Radical Stage 1792-1794
  209. 209. The Players…
  210. 210. The Sans-Culottes French for “without knee britches” Term created by the nobility to describe the poorer members of the Third Estate because they wore long pants instead of the chic shorter culottes.
  211. 211. Sans-Culottes (cont.) Typical dress of a sans-culotte  Page 349 in your textbook Red liberty cap Pantaloons (long trousers) Carmagnole (short-skirted coat) Sabats (wooden shoes)
  212. 212. Sans-Culottes (cont.)  They demanded that the revolutionary government immediately:  Increase wages  Fix prices  End food shortages  Punish hoarders  Deal with counterrevolutionaries
  213. 213. Sans-Culottes (cont.) Wanted laws to prevent extremes of both wealth & poverty Ideal nation = one of small shopkeepers and farmers
  214. 214. Predominately bourgeoisie Well-organized & disciplined Wanted a strong central government with Paris being the center of power Supported temporary governmental controls to deal with the needs of the economy The Jacobins
  215. 215. The Jacobins (cont.) Combined with the sans-culottes, the Jacobins WERE the revolution Above all else, the Jacobins unleashed extreme terror
  216. 216. Girondins  This moderate faction of the Assembly drew its support from businessmen, merchants, and government officials  Their fall from popularity began with their refusal to join the more radical revolutionaries in overthrowing the monarchy
  217. 217. La Montagne  The Mountain  A political group (members = Montagnards)  Sat on highest benches in NA  Often synonymous with Jacobins  Under the sway of such men as Marat, Danton, & Robespierre
  218. 218. Jean Paul Marat Swiss-born Physician “L’Ami du Peuple”
  219. 219. The Death of Marat by David
  220. 220. Charlotte Corday by Baudry
  221. 221.  S.Krishna.(2012).French Revolution: Social Project. http://www.slideshare.net/KrishnaCooldude/french-revolution-11462631?qid=9d754946-5607-4c03-859d-3fb from_search=10  Acessed on 07 March 2014  W.Batcheller.(2009).The French Revolution. http://www.slideshare.net/wesleybatcheller/the-french-revolution-2097929  Accessed on 07 March 2014  J.,B.Switala.(2010).French Revolution. http://www.slideshare.net/jboyerswitala/french-revolution-part-i  Accessed on 07 March 2014  M.Lynde.(2010).French Revolution for web. http://www.slideshare.net/Mlynde/french-revolution-for-web-2678284  Accessed on 07 March 2014
  222. 222. Thank you

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