بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم<br />يا أيها الناس اتقوا ربكم الذى خلقكم من نفس واحدة و خلق منها زوجها وبث منهما رجالا كثيرا و نساء و اتقوا الله الذى تساءلون به و الارحام ان الله كان عليكم رقيبا<br />النساء 1<br />
Others include coercion, intimidation, and premeditated social ostracism of others (Lewis, 2005).</li></li></ul><li>Aggressive Behaviour In Children<br />PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECT<br />
I- FAMILY-RELATED RISK FACTORS<br />A. Sexual and Physical Abuse<br />B. Parental Violence <br />C. Broken Home<br />D. Parental Characteristics<br />E. Mental Disorders of Parents<br />F. Perceived Parenting Styles(Barnow and Freyberger, 2003).<br />
Sexual, <br />Physical Abuse<br />Pre/Perinatal<br />Complications that<br />cause brain damage<br />Maternal <br />rejection<br />Increased<br />Risk For <br />Aggressive<br />Behavior<br />Difficult <br />temperament<br />Negative<br />Parental Style<br />Psychological risks<br />Low social status , young age<br />Of Mother ,broken home , <br />Mental Disorder of parents<br />Increased risk for <br />Postnatal <br />Complications<br />Time<br />The role of family environment in early life for later aggressive behavior (Mattson, 2003).<br />
II- Community-Related Risk Factors<br />A- Peers:Peer groups appear to be a place for consolidation of aggressive behaviors for youth, later on (Loeber & Hay, 1994).<br />B- School Factors:Disorganized school structures with lax discipline, enforcement of rules and crowded physical space(Flannery, 1997).<br />C- Neighborhood Factors: include poverty, gang involvement, availability of drugs and low neighborhood attachment (Maguin et al., 1995).<br />
III- Television, Rock Music and Videos, and Computer and Video Games<br />Television and Movie Violence<br /><ul><li> Correlation between media violence and aggression (0.3) is greater than that of condom nonuse and sexually (HIV) infection (0.2), or environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer (0.15)(Christopher, 2007).</li></ul>Rock Music and Music Videos<br />Great exposure was associated with being 3.0 times more likely to hit a teacher, 2.6 times to be arrested, and 1.6 times to have an incident of STD and drug abuse (Kader, 2006). <br />
Computer and Video Games<br /><ul><li>Violent video games causes increased aggression or aggressive play immediately after the video game (Benseley and Van Eenwyk, 2001).</li></li></ul><li>Aggressive Behaviour In Children<br />GENETIC ASPECT<br />
The influence of genetic factors appears to increase over the course of development and is followed by a concomitant decrease in shared environmental factors (Blonigen & Krueger, 2007).<br />Furthermore, genetic effects may be moderated by gender differences, as well as interactions with adverse environmental factors (Blonigen & Krueger, 2007).<br />
Genetic Effects on Aggressive Behavior<br /><ul><li>Genetic factors play at least some role in the etiology of aggression (DiLalla, 2002).
Studies of children using parental reports have noted substantial genetic contributions to aggressive behaviors among twins across a wide developmental span (ages 7–16) (Eley et al., 1999).</li></li></ul><li>II- Gender Differences<br /><ul><li>Several studies conclude that males exhibit higher mean levels of aggression than females (Hudziak et al., 2005).
In a longitudinal study of twins ages 3-12, gender differences were evident after age 7, with greater genetic contributions for males and larger shared environmental contributions for females (van Beijsterveldt et al., 2004).</li></li></ul><li>Aggressive Behaviour In Children<br />NEURAL ASPECT<br />
I- ACETYLCHOLINE :<br />♦ ACh generally has facilitatory effects on aggressive behavior (Gay and Leaf, 1986).<br />♦ In most cases, the primary target is the hypothalamus (Brudzynski, 1994).<br />II- DOPAMINE :<br />◊ The studies showed that dopamine facilitates aggressive behavior (Siegel, 2005).<br />◊ Van Erp and Miczek (2003) reported increased dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex during aggressive encounters.<br />
III- SEROTONIN:<br />Serotonin suppresses several different forms of aggressive behavior (Siegel, 2005).<br />A strategy using knockout mice genetically engineered to disrupt the neuronal nitric acid sythase gene, which inhibits aggression, by acting through 5-HT1A and 5- HT1B receptors leading to a dramatic increase in aggressive behavior (Chiavegatto et al., 2004).<br />
IV- PEPTIDES :<br />■ Include opioid peptides, substance P (SP), and cholecystokinin (CCK)<br />■ Opioid peptides have antiaggressive properties (Siegel, 2005).<br />■ SP have an excitatory action on neurons (Otsuka and Yoshioka, 1993).<br />■ CCK potentiates defensive rage behavior elicited from the medial hypothalamus (Siegel, 2005).<br />
Aggressive Behaviour In Children<br />Neural Areas & Circuits Mediating <br />Aggressive Behavior<br />
Brain areas affecting aggressive behavior<br /><ul><li>The periaqueductal gray of the midbrain (PAG)
Nucleus accumbens(Gregg and Siegel, 2001).</li></li></ul><li>Summary of functional anatomical connections relevant for aggressive behavior (Gregg, 2003).<br />
Peri-aqueductal Gray Of The Midbrain<br />The organizing center for the expression of all the behavioral components of the aggressive response (Ogawa et al., 2005).<br />Sends commands to effector regions in the brainstem, which send commands to the muscles and glands, producing the components of defensive rage (e.g., pupillary dilation, increased heart rate, vocalization) (Gregg, 2003).<br />
Efferent projections from PAG (Gregg, 2003)<br />
Hypothalamus<br />Second in importance to the PAG in the expression of defensive aggressive behavior (Gregg, 2003).<br />Limbic And Cortical Areas<br />Modify the propensity of the hypothalamus and PAG to produce aggression (Halász et al., 2006).<br />Include septal nuclei, amygdaloid complex, bed nucleus of the striaterminalis (BNST), prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens(Gregg and Siegel, 2001).<br />
Aggressive Behaviour In Children<br />HORMONAL ASPECT<br />
ADRENERGIC–NORADRENERGIC SYSTEM<br /><ul><li>Aggressive behavior leads to activation of the peripheral sympathoadrenal and central noradrenergic systems (Halasz et al., 2002).
Brunner et al. (1993) have identified a large Dutch kindred showing a genetic deficiency of the MAOA enzyme. All affected males in this family showed very characteristic aggressive behavior.
Subsequent research in MAOA knockout mice confirmed human findings (Cases et al., 1995).
So, enhanced noradrenergic neurotransmission increases aggressiveness in both humans and laboratory animals (Haller and Kruk, 2003).</li></li></ul><li>GLUCOCORTICOIDS<br /><ul><li>Plasma glucocorticoid levels are inversely correlated with aggressiveness in children with conduct disorder (McBurnett et al., 2000).
Hyporesponsiveness of plasma glucocorticoids is associated with persistent aggression in humans (including females) (Kariyawasam et al., 2004) and various animal species (e.g., dogs and fish) (Pottinger and Carrick, 2003).</li></li></ul><li>NEXT<br />Aggressive Behaviour In Children<br />Part II<br /><ul><li>Aggressive Behavior In Child Psychiatric Disorders