Aggressive Behavior In ChildrenPresentation Transcript
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم يا أيها الناس اتقوا ربكم الذى خلقكم من نفس واحدة و خلق منها زوجها وبث منهما رجالا كثيرا و نساء و اتقوا الله الذى تساءلون به و الارحام ان الله كان عليكم رقيبا النساء 1
Aggressive Behaviour In Children Subject : By Mohamed Abdel-Ghani Moustafa Ali M.B., B.CH. Zagazig University
Supervisors Prof. Dr. Wael Mohamed Ahmed Professor of Psychiatry Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University Dr. Haythem Mohamed Abou Hashem Assistant Prof. of Psychiatry Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University Dr. Mohamed Gamal Sehlo Lecturer of Psychiatry Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University
Prof. Dr. Abdel-Shafy Metwaly Khashaba Professor and Head of Psychiatry Department Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University Prof. Dr. Abdouh Elsayed El-Dodd Professor of Psychiatry Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University Prof. Dr. Wael Mohamed Ahmed Professor of Psychiatry Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University Discussion Committee
Aggression is "the maladaptive behavior which leads to the damage or destruction of some goal entity.” (Alia-Klein et al., 2008).
Many behaviors are aggressive even though they do not involve physical injury.
Verbal aggression is one example. Others include coercion, intimidation, and premeditated social ostracism of others (Lewis, 2005).
Aggressive Behaviour In Children PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECT
I- FAMILY-RELATED RISK FACTORS A. Sexual and Physical Abuse B. Parental Violence C. Broken Home D. Parental Characteristics E. Mental Disorders of Parents F. Perceived Parenting Styles (Barnow and Freyberger, 2003).
The role of family environment in early life for later aggressive behavior (Mattson, 2003). Pre/Perinatal Complications that cause brain damage Maternal rejection Sexual, Physical Abuse Increased Risk For Aggressive Behavior Difficult temperament Psychological risks Low social status , young age Of Mother ,broken home , Mental Disorder of parents Increased risk for Postnatal Complications Negative Parental Style Time
II - Community-Related Risk Factors A- Peers: Peer groups appear to be a place for consolidation of aggressive behaviors for youth, later on (Loeber & Hay, 1994). B- School Factors: Disorganized school structures with lax discipline, enforcement of rules and crowded physical space (Flannery, 1997). C- Neighborhood Factors : include poverty, gang involvement, availability of drugs and low neighborhood attachment (Maguin et al., 1995).
III - Television, Rock Music and Videos, and Computer and Video Games
Television and Movie Violence
Correlation between media violence and aggression (0.3) is greater than that of condom nonuse and sexually (HIV) infection (0.2) , or environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer (0.15) (Christopher, 2007).
2) Rock Music and Music Videos Great exposure was associated with being 3.0 times more likely to hit a teacher, 2.6 times to be arrested, and 1.6 times to have an incident of STD and drug abuse (Kader, 2006). 3) Computer and Video Games Violent video games causes increased aggression or aggressive play immediately after the video game (Benseley and Van Eenwyk, 2001) .
Aggressive Behaviour In Children GENETIC ASPECT
♦ The influence of genetic factors appears to increase over the course of development and is followed by a concomitant decrease in shared environmental factors (Blonigen & Krueger, 2007). ♦ Furthermore, genetic effects may be moderated by gender differences, as well as interactions with adverse environmental factors (Blonigen & Krueger, 2007).
I- Genetic Effects on Aggressive Behavior
Genetic factors play at least some role in the etiology of aggression (DiLalla, 2002).
Studies of children using parental reports have noted substantial genetic contributions to aggressive behaviors among twins across a wide developmental span (ages 7–16) (Eley et al., 1999).
II- Gender Differences
Several studies conclude that males exhibit higher mean levels of aggression than females (Hudziak et al., 2005).
In a longitudinal study of twins ages 3-12, gender differences were evident after age 7, with greater genetic contributions for males and larger shared environmental contributions for females (van Beijsterveldt et al., 2004).
Aggressive Behaviour In Children NEURAL ASPECT
I- ACETYLCHOLINE: ♦ ACh generally has facilitatory effects on aggressive behavior (Gay and Leaf, 1986). ♦ In most cases, the primary target is the hypothalamus (Brudzynski, 1994). II- DOPAMINE: ◊ The studies showed that dopamine facilitates aggressive behavior (Siegel, 2005). ◊ Van Erp and Miczek (2003) reported increased dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex during aggressive encounters.
III- SEROTONIN : Serotonin suppresses several different forms of aggressive behavior (Siegel, 2005). A strategy using knockout mice genetically engineered to disrupt the neuronal nitric acid sythase gene , which inhibits aggression, by acting through 5-HT 1A and 5- HT 1B receptors leading to a dramatic increase in aggressive behavior (Chiavegatto et al., 2004).
IV- PEPTIDES ■ Include opioid peptides, substance P (SP), and cholecystokinin (CCK) ■ Opioid peptides have antiaggressive properties (Siegel, 2005). ■ SP have an excitatory action on neurons (Otsuka and Yoshioka, 1993). ■ CCK potentiates defensive rage behavior elicited from the medial hypothalamus (Siegel, 2005).
Aggressive Behaviour In Children Neural Areas & Circuits Mediating Aggressive Behavior
Brain areas affecting aggressive behavior
The periaqued uctal gray of the midbrain (PAG)
Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST)
Nucleus accumbens (Gregg and Siegel, 2001) .
Summary of functional anatomical connections relevant for aggressive behavior (Gregg, 2003).
Peri-aqueductal Gray Of The Midbrain
The organizing center for the expression of all the behavioral components of the aggressive response (Ogawa et al., 2005).
Sends commands to effector regions in the brainstem, which send commands to the muscles and glands, producing the components of defensive rage (e.g., pupillary dilation, increased heart rate, vocalization) (Gregg, 2003).
Efferent projections from PAG (Gregg, 2003)
Second in importance to the PAG in the expression of defensive aggressive behavior (Gregg, 2003).
Limbic And Cortical Areas
Modify the propensity of the hypothalamus and PAG to produce aggression (Halász et al., 2006).
Include septal nuclei, amygdaloid complex, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens (Gregg and Siegel, 2001).
Aggressive Behaviour In Children HORMONAL ASPECT
Aggressive behavior leads to activation of the peripheral sympathoadrenal and central noradrenergic systems (Halasz et al., 2002).
Brunner et al. (1993) have identified a large Dutch kindred showing a genetic deficiency of the MAOA enzyme. All affected males in this family showed very characteristic aggressive behavior.
Subsequent research in MAOA knockout mice confirmed human findings (Cases et al., 1995).
So, enhanced noradrenergic neurotransmission increases aggressiveness in both humans and laboratory animals (Haller and Kruk, 2003).
It has been shown that plasma glucocorticoid levels are inversely correlated with aggressiveness in children with conduct disorder (McBurnett et al., 2000).
Hyporesponsiveness of plasma glucocorticoids is associated with persistent aggression in humans (including females) (Kariyawasam et al., 2004) and various animal species (e.g., dogs and fish) (Pottinger and Carrick, 2003).
Aggressive Behaviour In Children AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR IN CHILD PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Pervasive Developmental Disorders
Intermittent Explosive Disorder
Some Epileptic Patients (Turgay, 2004).
I- Disruptive Behavior Disorders 1- Conduct disorder: The commonest aggression-related psychiatric disorder of childhood ( Rutter et al., 1985). Characterized by a repetitive, persistent pattern of behavior violating the basic rights of others (Tynan, 2006). Aggressive acts include persistent bullying, initiating fights, using a weapon, stealing while confronting the victim, forcing someone into sexual activity, and showing physical cruelty (Christophersen and Mortweet, 2001).
2- Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
In ODD, aggression is usually verbal rather than physical.
The child loses his or her temper, argues with adults, deliberately annoys others and is in turn easily annoyed, blames others, and is often angry, resentful, spiteful, or vindictive (Lavigne et al., 2001).
II- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
A neuro-developmental disorder with core symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior present from an early age (Davies and Jennings, 2006).
Children with ADHD can be rude and disinhibited leading to rule-breaking behavior.
With increasing age, the symptoms of ADHD affect all areas of functioning.
Later, during adolescence, some of ADHD features may be masked by delinquent behavior, drug misuse and risk-taking behavior (Davies and Jennings, 2006).
III- Mental Retardation
Aggressive behavior is the most common reason for psychiatric referral in children with mental retardation (Prater and Zylstra, 2006).
More males than females showed problems of aggressive behavior.
Although physical and verbal aggression were the most frequently reported behaviors, other forms of challenging behavior are present, particularly self-injurious, and stereotypical behavior (Harris, 1993).
IV- Pervasive Developmental Disorders Involve a triad of deficits in social skills, communication, and behavior (Semple et al., 2005). DSM-IV-TR categorizes PDDs as follows:
Childhood disintegrative disorder
PDD-NOS (American Psychiatric Association, 2000)
Aggressive Behavior in PDD:
They have a tendency to “lose control,” particularly when they are in a strange environment, or when angry and frustrated.
They may at times break things, attack others, hurt themselves, bang their heads, pull their hair, or bite their arms (National Institute of Mental Health, 2007).
V- Tourette's Syndrome
Multiple motor and one or more vocal tics, present for at least a year, causing distress and impaired function (Semple et al., 2005).
Aggression takes the form of abrupt uncontrollable episodes of severe verbal and/or physical outbursts which are distressing and out of proportion to any provocation.
Aggressive behavior tends to worsen when the tics increase (Budman, 2007).
VI- Bipolar Disorder in Children
Rare in prepubescent children but rates of diagnosis are increasing.
Children with BPD participate in threatening behavior toward family members, teachers, and other children (Spencer et al., 2001).
Increased catecholaminergic and HPA axis activities may explain the association between BPD and aggression (Swann et al., 1994).
VII- Major Depressive Disorder
Children with depression may be at risk for future aggression (Schubiner et al., 1993).
One of the factors implicated in the association between depression and aggression is 5-HT, which has been associated with depression and aggression (Coccaro, 1995).
Comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders may also be involved e.g. comorbid ODD or CD (Knox et al., 2000).
VIII- Schizophrenia in Children
Twenty-five percent of children with EOS have a history of aggression or legal problems (Moran, 2007).
Yesavage (1983) and Tardiff and Sewillam (1982) attribute aggression to persecutory delusions.
Cheung et al. (1997) found aggression in patients with schizophrenia to be related to overall psychopathology, and both positive and negative symptoms.
IX- Intermittent Explosive Disorder Discrete episodes of losing control of aggressive impulses resulting in serious assault or the destruction of property. The symptoms appear within minutes or hours and remit spontaneously. Other disorders of impulse control and substance use and mood, anxiety disorders have also been associated with intermittent explosive disorder (Hollander et al., 2006).
Aggressive Behaviour In Children Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Childhood Aggressive behavior
Cognitions are one important link between environmental events and behavioral outcomes.
The goal of cognitive-behavioral treatment is to teach children to use cognitive mediators to guide their behavior toward nonaggressive responses (Hudley, 2003).
THE BRAINPOWER PROGRAM According to social cognitive theory, the aggressive children attend selectively to social cues, make biased interpretations of the available cues, and act on beliefs that aggressive response is the appropriate course of action (Hudley, 2003). The BrainPower Program seeks to modify this dysfunctional pattern of attributional bias (Hudley, 2001) .
Aggressive Behaviour In Children PHARMACOLOGICAL INTERVENTION
There are no studies to date that would support the use of medication specifically to treat child aggressive behavior.
Moreover, the appropriate treatment of aggression cannot be reduced to the mere administration of medicine (Lyons et al., 2000).
Can reduce bullying, fighting, and temper outbursts in severely aggressive, inpatient children with CD (Campbell et al., 1984; Campbell et al., 1995; Malone et al., 2000).
Short- and long-term side effects limit the clinical use of lithium with children, particularly those with co-morbid neurological or medical conditions (Hagino et al., 1995) .
III- STIMULANTS (Methylphenidate and Dextroamphetamine)
Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of stimulants in managing ADHD symptoms for up to 24 months (Greenhill; 2008).
However , stimulants can be associated with insomnia, reduced appetite, stomachache, headache, and dizziness as well as long-term adverse events, including height and weight suppression (Lisska & Rivkees, 2003).
b)Carbamazepine V- SEROTONERGIC AGENTS
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
VI- BENZODIAZAPINES Use of short-acting benzodiazepines like lorazepam to treat aggression is limited to acute cases (Salzman et al., 1991) . VII- ANTIPSYCHOTICS ☺ Typical Antipsychotics ☺ Atypical Antipsychotics
Have replaced conventional antipsychotics because of their decreased propensity for serious adverse events, such as neuroleptic malignant syndrome, extrapyramidal symptoms, and tardive dyskinesia (McConville & Sorter, 2004).
However, they are also associated with significant risks, including weight gain, type II diabetes, and cardiac rhythm abnormalities (Schur et al., 2003).
Among first-line atypicals:
Risperidone is the most extensively studied medication for the treatment of aggression in children (Pappadopulos et al., 2006).
Risperidone produces significant reductions in aggression in subjects with a variety of diagnoses, including:
CD (Aman et al., 2002)
Autism (McDougal et al., 2005)
ODD (LeBlanc et al., 2005)
ADHD (Aman et al., 2004)
M.R. (George et al., 2008)
Finally, I would like to express my deepest appreciation and gratitude to MY SUPERVISORS Prof. Dr. Wael Mohamed Ahmed Professor of Psychiatry Faculty of Medicine Zagazig University Dr. Haythem Mohamed Abou Hashem Assistant Professor of Psychiatry Faculty of Medicine Zagazig University Dr. Mohamed Gamal Sehlo Lecturer of Psychiatry Faculty of Medicine Zagazig University DISCUSSION COMMITTEE Prof. Dr. Abdel-Shafy Metwaly Khashaba Professor and Head of Psychiatry Department Faculty of Medicine Zagazig University Prof. Dr. Abdouh Elsayed El-dodd Professor of Psychiatry Faculty of Medicine Tanta University Prof. Dr. Wael Mohamed Ahmed Professor of Psychiatry Faculty of Medicine Zagazig University A ll my professors, staff members and colleagues for their continuous supervision, patience, generous help and fruitful remarks that are inscribed within this work Ramadan Karim