Solar optimal power generation for electrical appliances-ECE/EEE/E&I/ICE/MECHANICAL

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  • 1. Solar Optimal Power Generation for Home AppliancesIntroductionWeve used the Sun for drying clothes and food forthousands of years, but only recently have we been ableto use it for generating power.The Sun is 150 million kilometres away, and amazinglypowerful.Just the tiny fraction of the Suns energy that hits theEarth (around a hundredth of a millionth of a percent) isenough to meet all our power needs many times over.In fact, every minute, enough energy arrives at the Earthto meet our demands for a whole year - if only we couldharness it properly.AbstractSOLAR TRACKER starts following the SUN right fromdawn, throughout the day, till evening, and starts allover again from dawn next day. On cloudy weathers, itremains still and catches the SUN again as it slips outof clouds. It does all this automatically, employs cheapand inexpensive components, and is very accurate.Letus see how it does all this. Aim To use the solar cells efficiently which is used for power generation Implementation of the Project Normally solar cells are placed in a ground in one direction only. But sun moves in a elliptical path. So only few hours the sunlight falls into the cell. During the rest of the hours the percentage of Sunlight, which falls into the cell, is very less. Which results in less amount of energy generation. To overcome this problem we can construct a model where we can place the solar cell in it and which can move in elliptical path .To track the sunlight. This is achieved with the help of light intensity sensors. The sensors are fixed into the model in an elliptical path. So depending on the sunlight the sensors output differs. So according position the solar panel, which results in good efficiency. 89 RANGARAJAPURAM MAIN ROAD,KODAMBAKKAM,CHENNAI-24 PL VISIT www.maastechindia.com,mobile:098402 34766
  • 2. (i.e.).the solar cell can produce energy by tracking the sunlight with the help ofsensors and mechanical model. The Movement is controlled by a PICMicrocontroller. Also we have an LCD Display to Show the current Position.The delivered power of a Solar Panel is used to charge a DC Battery. Whichis finally provided to the run a small fan or to provide dc light source. TheBattery will be keep on charging using the solar panel. The source from thebattery is fed to the invertor circuit and is used to glow a CFL Lamp.Mechanical arrangement: Motor Solar cell Sensors-2 Sensors-1 Sensors-3Block diagram: 89 RANGARAJAPURAM MAIN ROAD,KODAMBAKKAM,CHENNAI-24 PL VISIT www.maastechindia.com,mobile:098402 34766
  • 3. Light intensity sensors LCD Display Potential Divider PIC Microcontroller Power PIC 16F877 Supply Opto Opto Opto Opto Coupler Coupler Coupler Coupler Pre Pre Pre Pre Driver Driver Driver Driver Signal Power Power Power Power Conditioner Driver Driver Driver Driver Circuit Solar Cell Stepper Motor Mechanical Model Invertor Circuit CFL Light Battery +12VDC Block Diagram ExplanationPower Supply: Generates +5V Power supply from the given 230VAC 89 RANGARAJAPURAM MAIN ROAD,KODAMBAKKAM,CHENNAI-24 PL VISIT www.maastechindia.com,mobile:098402 34766
  • 4. Dual Power Supply: Generates+12V and –12V DC power supply for opamp circuitsStepper motor Power Supply: Generates+12V power supply for Stepper motorStepper Driver Board: Converts the singal from the controller and amplifies the current requiredby the stepper motorPotential divider: Used to convert the voltage level to a low level which is accepted by themicrocontrollerPIC 16F877 Micro controller: PIC 16F877 Micro controller is used as the CPU for processing the I/p andOutput.LCD Display: Used to display the output parameters like voltage current etc.LDR: Used to identify the light intensitySignal conditioning circuit: Used to convert the voltage levels from the sensors to be accepted by themicrocontroller.Opto-coupler: It consists of opto-emitter and phototransistor in opto-emitter exists infrared radiation which in turn drives the phototransistor.Pre-driver: We cannot directly couple the TIP122 (NPN) to the opto-coupler since itrequires large current for driving. We use the driver SL100 to boost the currentlevel.Driver: The main principle of the driver is to amplify the current. It amplifies the50mA current to2A, which is needed to drive the motor.Opto-coupler: It consists of opto-emitter and phototransistor in opto-emitter exists infrared radiation which in turn drives the phototransistorInvertor: 89 RANGARAJAPURAM MAIN ROAD,KODAMBAKKAM,CHENNAI-24 PL VISIT www.maastechindia.com,mobile:098402 34766
  • 5. The invertor circuit is used to convert the DC source from the battery toglow the CFL Lamp.Software Requirements 1. MPLAB IDE V5.6 2. Hitech C Compiler 3. PIC PLUS Programmer Software 89 RANGARAJAPURAM MAIN ROAD,KODAMBAKKAM,CHENNAI-24 PL VISIT www.maastechindia.com,mobile:098402 34766