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Language teaching: Approaches and methods
 

Language teaching: Approaches and methods

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    Language teaching: Approaches and methods Language teaching: Approaches and methods Presentation Transcript

    • Language Teaching Methodologies Didáctica de las Lenguas Extranjeras I (2012) Module 3 Issue 2 Prof. Lic. María Alejandra Soto
    • Why approaches and methods?“When teachers are exposed to methods andasked to reflect on their principles and activelyengage with their techniques, they can become clearer about why they do what they do. They become aware of their own fundamental assumptions, values and beliefs” (Larsen Freeman, 2000: ix)
    • And because methods can shed light on: 1. the teacher’s goals 2. the teacher’s role 3. the learner’s role 4. the main characteristics of the teaching and learning processes 5. the nature of teacher-student interaction 6. the consideration of learner feelings 7. the role of language & the role of culture 8. the role of the L1 9. assessment 10.the treatment of learner error
    • Approach – Method - Procedure
    • Approach – Design – Procedure (Richards & Rogers, 1986)
    • Popular methodologyGrammar-Translation Direct Method Audiolingulism Community The Silent Way (De)Suggestopedia Language Learning Content-Based Total Physical Communicative Task-Based Response Language Teaching Participatory Approaches Learning Strategy Training, The Lexical Cooperative The Natural Approach Approach Learning Multiple Intelligences
    • Grammar Translation (1)• First half of the 19th century• A “nonscientific” method• Aim: to help students appreciate L2 literature• Translation from L2 to L1 and viceversa: a central goal• L2 culture was literature and fine arts• Written language is superior to spoken language• Communication: not emphasized
    • Grammar Translation (2)• L2 grammar helps students learn L1 grammar & grow mentally• Form superior to content• Grammar: deduction over induction• Explicit and conscious knowledge of grammar• L1 equivalents for L2 words• L1/ L2 similarities: emphasized• Reading and writing: emphasized over other skills• T = authority
    • The Direct Method (1)• Beginning of the 20th century• A “nonscientific method”• Based on the principles of child language acquisition• Basic principle: NO L1 use + direct connection between L2 and meaning• Main goal: oral communication  Language is mainly speech• Culture includes more than fine arts• Language and culture: interwoven
    • The Direct Method (2)• Concrete objects are used to make the direct link between form (language) and meaning• Topic based lessons (not structurally designed)• Reading & Writing taught from the beginning• Fluency over accuracy• Pronunciation: primary focus• Grammar: induction over deduction• Demonstration rather than explanation or translation• Errors: to be avoided; self-correction mainly
    • The Audio-Lingual Method (1)• Developed in the USA during WW1• First “scientific” method: rooted in both psychology (Behaviourism, Skinner) and linguistics (Structuralism, Bloomfiled)• Prior goal: communication• Form in context (e.g. use of dialogue)• Different L1 and L2 systems  treated differently to avoid interference.• Teacher = model  importance of native-like accent
    • The Audio-Lingual Method (2)• Language learning = habit formation  Filling in slots in sentences• Automatic repetition is the result of overlearning; drilling and mechanical repetition• L2 learning = L1 acquisition• Rules: induced (implicit) from examples.• Contrastive analysis of L1 and L2 shows the areas of difficulty  Natural order of acquisition• Errors = barriers for habit formation (inhibition)• Positive reinforcement
    • The “Designer” Methods• 1970s• Birth of the field of Second Language Learning and Teaching• “Innovative” flair A reaction against Behaviourism and Structuralism 1. Communicative Language Learning 2. Suggestopedia 3. The Silent Way 4. TPR
    • The Communicative Approach andCommunicative Language Teaching (CLT) • A British approach to L2 learning and teaching • Communication includes functions. • Functions are what we do with the language: arguing, persuading, promising, rejection or accepting an invitation, etc. • These functions happen inside a social context. • Based on Wilkin’s Notional-Functional Approach (1970s)
    • CLT: main tenets• Linguistic theory underpinning CLT: Communicative Competence (Hymes, 1972): The ability to figure out someone’s communicative intentions• The use of authentic language in real contexts• Language = A vehicle for communication• Knowledge of forms, meanings and functions can be positive if they help the learner in the process of meaning exchange1. Real communication2. Task-based activities3. Meaningfulness (= authenticity)
    • CLT: meaning negotiation• Opportunities for self-expression• Negotiation of meaning• Linguistic knowledge = not very critical for communicative ability• Choosing what to say and how to say it (Communicative Competence development)1. Situations that promote communication2. Cooperation and team work3. Role play and information gap• L1 = no role  Communication happens in L2 context
    • CLT: the teacher’s role1. Facilitator of the learning process2. Manager of classroom activities - T innitiates activities - Ss interact3. Advisor4. Co-communicator
    • CLT: assessment & error treatment •Errors = a natural outcome of the development of communicative skills •Accuracy and fluency •Evaluation = informal and in the process of thecommunicative act •Communicative tests •Skill integration
    • Content-based, task-based, and Participatory Approaches (1) Three approaches that make communication central• Importance given to the process of learning over linguistic content• Using English to learn• English AS communication• Content and language integration (e.g. ESP - English for special purposes; content oriented/based)• No pre-determined syllabus; syllabus based on the learners’ communicative needs
    • Content-based, task-based, and Participatory Approaches (2)• The subject matter (content) = platform for language learning• Previous knowledge = the basis; schema activation• Language = the medium of instruction (cf. not the purpose of instruction)  used to complete tasks• Learners work with meaningful, cognitively demanding, and authentic texts and tasks (learning by doing).• Problem-solving = key concept• Tasks: clear and purposeful; challenging; developed by teacher-learner interaction
    • Content-based, task-based, and Participatory Approaches (3)• Authentic activity through authentic language use encouraged.• Focus on meaning. .• Feedback is given upon task completion• Self evaluation encouraged = Ss’ own evaluation of outcomes and learning process
    • Learning Strategy Training, CooperativeLearning, and Multiple Intelligences (1)• Three methodological innovations• Learner oriented methodologies = focus on the learner• Learners1. are willing and accurate guessers2. have great desire to communicate3. pay attention to both meaning and form4. practice and monitor their own and others’ speech5. should become independent and self regulated
    • Learning Strategy Training, CooperativeLearning, and Multiple Intelligences (1)• Prior knowledge and experiences: used to build up new knowledge• Learning strategies: lead to academic success• Learning should be taught, as well as language• Autonomy and “positive interdependence” encouragement• Strategies: transferable to new learning situations• Cooperation and social skills development (e.g. apologizing, repetition, asking for help)• Attention given to Ss’ multiple intelligences
    • Approaches and methods in language teaching: conclusion• The methods and approaches here discussed are all still practised today. However, they carry different weights and distributions.• Every method represents either a reaction against or . an improvement on its predecessor.• There are no “good” and “bad” methods.• At present, the use of technology , strategies, styles, innovations, interaction, cooperation, and affective factors are given primary attention by language teaching methodologies.
    • The best method, no method?• Deciding upon which method to implement should consider a myriad of impinging factors. Research suggest that the best approach is principled eclecticism.• This is not a method in itself but the use of different methods and/or different techniques depending on factors such as the learners’ age and gender and needs; the goals and objectives set, the available materials, and the teacher’s views about what learning and teaching encompasses
    • Bibliography• Anthony, E. M. (1963): Approach, method and technique, English Language Teaching, 17, 63-67.• Brown, H.D. (2000): Principles of language learning and teaching, Chapter 5, pp.112-141. Harlow: Longman.• Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000): Techniques and principles in language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.• Richards, J. C. & Rodgers, T. S. (2001): Approaches and methods in language teaching (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.