Week 4  vikings in america
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Week 4 vikings in america Presentation Transcript

  • 1. September 12th:The Peopling of the New World:Who ELSE Discovered America before Columbus?
  • 2. The Mississippian Boom and Bust: A Demographic Perspective on the Late Pre-Columbian Period in the Lower Midwest A Presentation by: Dr. Jeremy Wilson Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) Friday, September 14th, 4:00 pm, Lafferty Hall, room 108 University of Kentucky Archaeology Roundtable
  • 3. Siberia vs. IberiaAncestors of today’s Native Americans People from what is now Spain and FranceCame from Asia… may have made it to Americas long ago… --shovel shaped incisors --genetic evidence…But we don’t know exactly how …But they died out or did not stay for very long
  • 4. Kensington Runestone, Kensington ,Minnesota Olof Ohman
  • 5. Kensington Runestone Norse Runes
  • 6. Kensington Runestone
  • 7. Kensington Runestone Funny runestone prank: “John Doe went east, year 1953, and discovered Europe. Holy Smokes!”
  • 8. Kensington Runestone 10th century runestone , near Karlevi, southern Sweden (the runes have been colored red in modern times to make them easy to see)
  • 9. 10th century runestone , nearViking cemetery at Karlevi, southern SwedenLindholm, Denmark. (the runes have been colored red inA.D. 400-1,000. modern times to make them easy to see)
  • 10. Kensington Runestone says: 8 Goths and 22 Norwegians on an expedition from Vinland. While we were fishing, ten of our men were killed. Year 1362.
  • 11. 870 AD
  • 12. Viking ships from the time of exploration •Vikings ships were designed for many purposes, including rowing and sailing. •The three Vikings ships that are well -known come from Norwegian burial mounds that lie near Oslo Fjord at Gokstad, Oseberg, and Tune. •Left above: photo of the Gokstad ship with oar-rudder mounted on starboard quarter, 16 oar holes and rotted mask probably 40 feet high. •Left bottom: hull of merchant ship found in Roskilde Fjord. •Right: Photo of Oseberg ship found in 1903 illustrates lavish richness, not designed for the open sea but instead probably for pleasure cruising in a sheltered fjord. Simpson 1969.
  • 13. The Gaia, a replica Viking ship, enters Newfoundland’s water in a reenactment of the voyageof Leif Eiriksson in 1991. From Ingstad 2001.
  • 14. 870 AD
  • 15. Helluland(Baffin Island) 870 AD Markland (Labrador) Vinland (Newfoundland)
  • 16. Let’s use the scientific method: -We have a hypothesis (the Kensington Runestone was carved in 1362 by Norse) -What expectation should be met if the hypothesis were correct? In other words, if the Kensignton Runestone were authentic, what other information would we expect to find Think, Pair, Share1) Think about it2) “Hi, how are ya?” …introduce yourself to your neighbor and talk about it3) Tell the class about it
  • 17. 19th century Scandinavian axes
  • 18. Example of a Medieval halberd
  • 19. Example of a Medieval halberd
  • 20. Swords(sorry, I have no images of Scandinavian swords)
  • 21. Kensington Runestone Chiseling (used on Kensington Pecking stone) (used by Norse)
  • 22. Newport Tower, Newport, Rhode Island
  • 23. Newport Tower is said to be made by Vikings because:--Documents suggest the Tower predates the founding of Newport in 1639 These “documents” have been completely misread--Stylistically similar to pre-1639 buildings Actually quite similar to a tower near where the builder (Benedict Arnold) grew up in England Chesterton Newport tower mill, England
  • 24. Newport Tower is said to be made by Vikings because:--Documents suggest the Tower predates the founding of Newport in 1639 These “documents” have been completely misread--Stylistically similar to pre-1639 buildings Actually quite similar to a tower near where the builder (Benedict Arnold) grew up in England--Built according to a Norse unit of measure: the Rhineland Norse foot Despite the name, this unit of measure was common in Scotland, rare in Norway--Newport was a fledgling colony…not enough labor to build it Rather easy to build (would a few Norse travelers have more manpower than Newport colonyBut if it really were Norse, what else would we expect archeologically? Some Norse artifacts near it! Excavations (1948-1949, and 2006-2008) show that earliest artifacts were all British colonial artifacts from the 1600s.
  • 25. The Real Viking Settlement in America: L’Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland Utilizing historical documents such as the Viking Sagas, researchers looked for the route to Vinland, assuming it must be far south where grapes would grow. With the help of maps, Helge Ingstad (at left with wife Anne Ingstad) realized that Vinland may not be as far south and began searching in Newfoundland. At L’Anse aux Meadows, Instad met George Decker This included the fishing (above), a fisherman from village of L’Anse aux who knew where there Meadows. were some old house ruins.
  • 26. Helluland(Baffin Island) 870 AD Markland (Labrador) Vinland (Newfoundland)
  • 27. •Systematic excavations of the site continued from 1961 to 1968 with seven expeditionsassisted by Sweden, Iceland, Canada, the U.S.A. and Norway. From Ingstad 2001.
  • 28. Eight complete house structures and one fragmentary house structure were uncovered.From Ingstad 2001.
  • 29. The outlines of thehouses were clearly inevidence (photo house-site F) as werenumerous features suchas the cooking pit fromhouse site B (photoright top) and theember pit in house siteB (photo right bottom-similar to ember pits onGreenland).
  • 30. Bronze ring-headed pinmade in Norway, foundat house site A, L’Anseaux Meadows. Note archaeological context!
  • 31. Artifacts recovered from the excavations are, not surprisingly, nearly identical to artifactsused at the same time in Greenland, such as these spindles whorls for spinning thread. Artifacts recovered from house site A include --4 fragmentary iron rivets --iron nails --13 fragments of iron --6 lumps of slag (from a foundry at the site) The norse were smelting iron and bronze. Native Americans did not smelt metals. Other neat stuff found: A boatshed 2 pieces of red jasper (from Ireland and Greenland), A pig bone An arrowhead of the Dorset Eskimo type,
  • 32. Numerous radiocarbon dates (somefrom the ember box) at the site fromcharcoal, bone and turf from the housesand features yield a mean date of A.D.1000 (A.D. 920 ± 30) which agrees withthe Viking Sagas which indicate thatvoyages to Vinland occurred at this time.Note that the settlement did not last very long(it lasted until 1100 at the latest).Greenland abandoned around 1400 AD.
  • 33. L’Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • 34. Coin minted in Norway, during the reign of King Olaf Kyrre, from 1067 to 1093,found in a Native American ruin in Maine that dates to 1000 – 1200 AD what did the Norse get in return for this kind of trade? Walnuts and butternuts Wood (to send to Greenland) Walrus tusks (to send to Norway) Polar bear fur (to send to Norway)