 Voice is a set of a verb showing relation  of the subject to action as active or  passive voice. A verb is in the activ...
 Change the arrangements of the  words.bring the object to the beginning  so as to show that it is acted upon. Change th...
Subject   Verb       Object          be     V3 (by subject)
Asim           wrote        a letter.      into:    A letter was written           by Asim.We used „was‟ as one of the for...
We used „was‟ as one of the forms of verb „ be ‟, and it is the simple past tense.      That‟s because…..     The main ver...
Verb       Object   Asim        wrote      a letter.A Passive Sentence Object   be     V3     (by Subject) A letter was wr...
To use one of the forms of verb to be,we have to meet two conditions:                 be                      What agrees ...
The samebe   tense of the      main verb
The Simple Present             Active                                           PassiveThey write / don’t write the scienc...
The Present Progressive               Active                                           PassiveHe is fixing the stove.     ...
The Present Perfect             Active                                          PassiveHe has broken / hasn’t broken the w...
The Present Perfect Progressive                                               Passive          Active                     ...
The Simple Past              Active                                          Passive                                      ...
The Past Progressive             Active                                         PassiveHe was cleaning the attic when he f...
The Future Simple and other Modal AuxiliaryStructures             Active                                        PassiveThe...
The Past Perfect              Active                                         PassiveThey broke the window after they had h...
Ali         takes    the                     pills.The pills      are            taken by Ali.
People speak English in many countries.   English is spoken in many countries.
Someone robbed the bankyesterday.  The bank was robbed yesterday.
Our teacher will collect the projects tomorrow.  The projects will be collected tomorrow.
The tailor has made this suit for me.This suit has been made for me.
Builders had made this house using mud.This house had been made usingmud .
Jill paints the fence once a year.The fence is painted once a year.
Sue bought a silk dress for her sister‟s wedding.    A silk dress was bought by Sue.
The police arrested them yesterday.    They were arrested yesterday.
John and Paul have taken a lot of               pictures   since they arrived on the island. A lot of pictures have been t...
We asked her to help with thehousework.She was asked to help with thehousework.
Passive Questions: (Simple Present) Does Do                    Subject             verb      Object ?AmIs                 ...
Passive Questions: (Simple Past) Did                Subject          verb      Object ?WasWere             Object         ...
Passive Questions: (Simple Future: be going to + stem verb) Am Is               Subject       going to        verb      Ob...
 1. when the main interest of the speaker  or writer is on the predicate so the  natural tendency is to begin with the  p...
 1. Only a transitive verb can be changed  into the passive voice because only a  transitive verb can have an object.Thus...
 When the agent is unknowne.g. this book was written 1000 years ago. When what was done is more important  than who did ...
Pedagogical grammar(voice system)
Pedagogical grammar(voice system)
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Pedagogical grammar(voice system)

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Lecture of Saturday on voice system

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Pedagogical grammar(voice system)

  1. 1.  Voice is a set of a verb showing relation of the subject to action as active or passive voice. A verb is in the active voice when its subject acts—when the subject does something (to its object)1. Razia studies her lesson carefullyRazia is the subject ,studies is the transitive verb and her lessons is the object
  2. 2.  Change the arrangements of the words.bring the object to the beginning so as to show that it is acted upon. Change the main verb into its third form. Use the necessary helping verb(is,was,be,etc) in the passive voice according to the tense.
  3. 3. Subject Verb Object be V3 (by subject)
  4. 4. Asim wrote a letter. into: A letter was written by Asim.We used „was‟ as one of the forms of verb „ be WHY?‟.
  5. 5. We used „was‟ as one of the forms of verb „ be ‟, and it is the simple past tense. That‟s because….. The main verb in the active sentence was in the simple past tense. Asim wrote a letter. A letter was written by Asim.
  6. 6. Verb Object Asim wrote a letter.A Passive Sentence Object be V3 (by Subject) A letter was written by Asim.
  7. 7. To use one of the forms of verb to be,we have to meet two conditions: be What agrees The same with the new tense of the subject main verb ( object)
  8. 8. The samebe tense of the main verb
  9. 9. The Simple Present Active PassiveThey write / don’t write the science column. The science column is/ isn’t written by them.He writes / doesn’t write the science columns. The science columns are/ aren’t written by him. Do they write the science column? Is the science column written by them? Does he write the science columns? Are the science columns written by him? What do the Dental students write? What is written by the Dental students? What does the Pharma student write? What is written by the Pharma student?
  10. 10. The Present Progressive Active PassiveHe is fixing the stove. The stove is being fixed.They aren’t using the main meeting room. The main meeting room is not being used.Is the worker painting his condominium? Is his condominium being painted?Are they finalizing their biology project? Is their biology project being finalized?Where is he taking the guests? Where are the guests being taken?What are they doing about the new complaints? What is being done about the new complaints?
  11. 11. The Present Perfect Active PassiveHe has broken / hasn’t broken the window. The window has/hasn’t been broken (by him).They have seen / have never seen a UFO in A UFO [has /has never] been seen in thisthis country before. country before.Has he (ever) broken the window? Has the window (ever) been broken (by him)?Have they (ever) seen a UFO in this Has a UFO (ever) been seen in this countrycountry before? before?What has he broken? What has been broken?What have they seen in this country before? What has been seen in this country before?
  12. 12. The Present Perfect Progressive Passive Active (Rarely used and considered awkward with this tense)They have been teaching anatomy Anatomy and other medical coursesand other medical courses in this have been being taught in this collegecollege since 2007. since 2007.Have those kids been torturing Has that kitten been being torturedthat kitten? by those kids?What have they been teaching in What has been being taught in thisthis college since 2007? college since 2007?
  13. 13. The Simple Past Active Passive ‘Sense and Sensibility ‘ was written byJane Austen wrote ‘Sense and Sensibility ‘ in 1811. Jane Austen in 1811.No one knew his real name. His real name wasn’t known.The police didn’t find their hiding place. Their hiding place wasn’t found. Did they arrange her birthday party? Was her birthday party arranged? Where did they send him? Where was he sent ?
  14. 14. The Past Progressive Active PassiveHe was cleaning the attic when he found his The attic was being cleaned when his old jacketold jacket. was found.While they were counting the votes, his While the votes were being counted, hiscampaign manager announced his withdrawal was announced by his campaignwithdrawal. manager.Were they interviewing him when someone Was he being interviewed when his apartmentbroke into his apartment? was broken into? Where were they sending it? Where was it being sent?
  15. 15. The Future Simple and other Modal AuxiliaryStructures Active PassiveThey will send some warning letters soon. Some warning letters will be sent soon.Ahmad is going to write the art column. The art column is going to be written by Ahmad.They must obey the rules. The rules must be obeyed.Will they send the warning letters soon? Will the warning letters be sent soon?Is Ahmad going to write the art column? Is the art column going to be written by Ahmad?Do they have to obey the rules? Do the rules have to be obeyed?Can you deliver this envelope tonight? Can this envelope be delivered tonight? When will they send the warning letters? When will the warning letters be sent? What will the Dental students write? What will be written by the Dental students?
  16. 16. The Past Perfect Active PassiveThey broke the window after they had hit it The window was broken after it had been hitwith a stone. with a stone.Had they completed the housework before Had the housework been completed beforethey called their friends? their friends were called?Why had they sent him to Malaysia earlier? Why had he been sent to Malaysia earlier?
  17. 17. Ali takes the pills.The pills are taken by Ali.
  18. 18. People speak English in many countries. English is spoken in many countries.
  19. 19. Someone robbed the bankyesterday. The bank was robbed yesterday.
  20. 20. Our teacher will collect the projects tomorrow. The projects will be collected tomorrow.
  21. 21. The tailor has made this suit for me.This suit has been made for me.
  22. 22. Builders had made this house using mud.This house had been made usingmud .
  23. 23. Jill paints the fence once a year.The fence is painted once a year.
  24. 24. Sue bought a silk dress for her sister‟s wedding. A silk dress was bought by Sue.
  25. 25. The police arrested them yesterday. They were arrested yesterday.
  26. 26. John and Paul have taken a lot of pictures since they arrived on the island. A lot of pictures have been takenby John and Paul since they arrived on the island.
  27. 27. We asked her to help with thehousework.She was asked to help with thehousework.
  28. 28. Passive Questions: (Simple Present) Does Do Subject verb Object ?AmIs Object Verb 3 (by Subject) ?Are
  29. 29. Passive Questions: (Simple Past) Did Subject verb Object ?WasWere Object Verb 3 (by Subject) ?
  30. 30. Passive Questions: (Simple Future: be going to + stem verb) Am Is Subject going to verb Object ? Are Am Is Object going to be Verb 3 (by Subject) ? Are
  31. 31.  1. when the main interest of the speaker or writer is on the predicate so the natural tendency is to begin with the predicate. e.g People speak English all over the world. We are really concerned with “the speaking of English” not the vague subject “people”.
  32. 32.  1. Only a transitive verb can be changed into the passive voice because only a transitive verb can have an object.Thus we can‟t change this sentence into the passive voice : They sleep at noon. 2.If a passive voice sentence does not have the subject,it cannot be changed into active voice like this; Cocounut trees are grown here.
  33. 33.  When the agent is unknowne.g. this book was written 1000 years ago. When what was done is more important than who did it. e.g. I was born in 1981 To make announcementse.g. A lecture on nutrition will be delivered by Dr Ali in multipurpose hall. In English language theme is mentioned first.

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