Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Ecosystemsandenergyflow 111004211916-phpapp02
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Ecosystemsandenergyflow 111004211916-phpapp02

294

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
294
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
14
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. ECOSYSTEMS & ENERGY FLOW
  • 2. 2 Ecosystem  A community and its physical environment  Made up of two essential components:  Abiotic factors  Biotic factors
  • 3. 3 Abiotic factors  non-living components of an ecosystem  elements which may be found in the environment  May be:  Physical  Chemical
  • 4. 4 Physical factors  Sunlight and shade  Temperature and wind  Amount of precipitation  Altitude and latitude  Nature of soil
  • 5. 5 Chemical factors  Salinity of water  Level of dissolved O2 and other gases  Level of plant nutrients  pH of soil and water  Level of natural or artificial toxic substances
  • 6. 6 Biotic factors  The organisms in an ecosystem are either:  Autotrophs  photoautotrophic  chemoautotrophic  Heterotrophs  include humans  animals and  microorganisms.
  • 7. 7 Autotrophs  Photoautotrophs –  has chlorophyll and carry on photosynthesis.  Chemoautotrophs –  bacteria that obtain energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds such as ammonia, nitrites and sulfides.
  • 8. 8 Heterotrophs  need a source of pre-formed nutrients  consume tissues of other organisms.  consumers are classified according to the type of food they eat.
  • 9. 9 Types of Consumers  Herbivores  feed directly on green plants.  Carnivores  eat other animals.  Omnivores  feed on both plants and animals.
  • 10. 10 Types of Consumers  Decomposers  fungi and bacteria  extract energy from dead matter, including waste  return nutrients back to the soil.  Scavengers  feed on dead matter.
  • 11. 11 Food Chain  illustrates how energy and nutrients move from one organism to another  shows transfer of energy from one trophic level to another
  • 12. 12 Food Chain
  • 13. 13 Trophic levels  A trophic level includes a group of organisms that obtain food in a similar manner.  Producers  Primary consumers  Secondary consumers  Tertiary consumers  Quaternary consumers
  • 14. 15 Food Webs: Who Eats Whom?
  • 15. 16 Food Web  A complex network of interconnected food chains  The feeding relationship that actually exists in nature  May be:  Grazing food web  Detrital food web
  • 16. 18 Energy Flow  Ecosystems are dependent upon solar energy flow and finite pools of nutrients.  The primary source of energy for ecosystems is sunlight.  All energy content of organic matter is eventually lost to the environment as heat.
  • 17. 19 Laws of Thermodynamics  Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but can be transformed into different forms.  When energy is transformed from one form to another, there is always some loss of energy from the system, usually as low grade heat.
  • 18. 20 10% Law of Energy Transfer  only 10% of energy at a particular trophic level is incorporated into the next trophic level.  rapid loss of energy explains why a food chain rarely has five links.
  • 19. 22 Energy Flow
  • 20. 23 Ecological Pyramids  Graphic representations of the relative energy amounts at each trophic level.  3 Types of Pyramids 1. Pyramid of Energy 2. Pyramid of Biomass 3. Pyramid of Numbers
  • 21. 24 Pyramid of Energy  Energy content of each trophic level  Unit of energy = Kilocalories/meter2 /year  Pyramid has large base and gets significantly smaller at each level.  Organisms use energy for work and respiration, so less energy is available to each successive trophic level.
  • 22. 25 Pyramid of Energy  energy at each trophic level expressed in kcal/m2/yr.
  • 23. 26 Pyramid of Biomass  Biomass is a quantitative estimate of the total mass (amount) of living material…or …the amount of fixed energy at a given time.  Measuring biomass: total volume, dry weight, or live weight  A 90% reduction occurs between each trophic level
  • 24. 27 Pyramid of Biomass  Biomass also diminishes with the distance along the food chain from the autotrophs which make the organic molecules in the first place.
  • 25. 28 Pyramid of Numbers  Illustrates number of organisms at each trophic level  more individuals at the lower trophic levels.  BUT some number pyramids can be inverted.
  • 26. 29 Pyramid of Numbers  Small animals are more numerous than larger ones.  If the size of the individuals at a given trophic level is small, their numbers can be large and vice versa.
  • 27. 30 Identify the food chains and write the trophic level for each organism in this food web.
  • 28. Food Web Activity:

×