• After considering the student’s learning strengths, specific curricular demands, classroom environment, materials and resources, the teacher may prioritize his teaching method. Teaching commences with the most promising option.
• Remedial instruction may be done in small groups or individually. Often, small group instruction represents the most efficient use of teaching resources and provides the added benefit of peer modeling.
• Grouping procedures must be based on analysis of data. This means that groups should be flexible and formed according to student need.
• Word Identification Strategy Training (WIST) consisted of training RD children in the acquisition, use, and monitoring of effective word identification strategies.• Four strategies were taught:
Four strategies1)Word identification by analogy-- which taught children to compare an unfamiliar word with one already known (from a list of keywords)
Four strategies2) Vowel variation--which taught children to attempt alternate pronunciations for vowels until they came up with a real word that was part of their vocabulary.
Four strategies3) Seek the part you know-- which taught children to identify segments of unfamiliar words that were smaller words that they already knew.
Four strategies4) Peeling off--which taught children to separate affixes at the beginning and end of a word, reducing the unfamiliar word to a smaller root word.
• More effective reading instruction for struggling learners should emphasize individualized, highly engaging teaching approaches
Reading Methods For Use With Struggling Learners.• Sight WordsA major objective in teaching reading is sight word automaticity, that is, the ability to decode (pronounce) sight words within 2-3 seconds of sight.
Reading Methods For Use With Struggling Learners.One of the best ways to teach sight words is through multisensory or VAKT (visual- auditory-kinesthetic-tactile) instruction.
Reading Methods For Use With Struggling Learners.• Oral ReadingThe Neurological Impress Method or NIM is a rapid, oral reading technique that is "based on the theory that a student can learn by hearing his own voice and someone elses voice jointly reading the same material."
Reading Methods For Use With Struggling Learners.• ComprehensionFirst introduced by Taylor in 1953, the Cloze technique has been used primarily as an informal assessment tool with students who have reading comprehension difficulties.
Reading Methods For Use With Struggling Learners.This technique involves selecting passages of approximately 260- 275 words of varying degrees of difficulty. Words are then deleted from the passages and the child is asked to write in the missing words
“Balanced Reading Instruction”• used to describe literacy programs that balanced reading to children, reading with children, and reading by children (Holdaway, 1980)
• Balanced reading program is one that includes reading, writing, spelling, phonics, and other skills-based instruction.• Basal readers, direct instruction, workbooks, quality children’s literature, independent reading and writing can all be part of a balanced reading program
• Balanced reading instruction is not a onesize-fits-all reading model.• In planning balanced reading instruction, teachers must take into account the needs and diversity of their students.
Reading Methods For Use With Struggling Learners.• Allington and Walmsley (1995) point out that there is “no quick fix” and no one program to meet the needs of all children.
Reading Methods For Use With Struggling Learners.Instead, teachers must be able to recognize different student learning styles and be able to select appropriate strategies to the individual needs of the child and to strive to find balance for every child
Characteristics of Balanced Reading Instruction• In balanced reading instruction, students are taught—explicitly, systematically and consistently— how to understand and use the structure of language and how to construct meaning from various texts. Students read alone, are read to, and read with others daily.
Three Principles Of A Balanced Literacy Approach.• First, teachers develop students’ skills knowledge, including decoding skills, their strategy knowledge for comprehension and responding to literature, and their affective knowledge, including nurturing students’ love for
Characteristics of Balanced Reading Instruction• Second, instructional approaches that are inherently opposite such as, phonics instruction and reading workshop.
Characteristics of Balanced Reading Instruction• Third, students read a variety of reading materials from trade books to leveled books with controlled vocabulary and basal reading textbooks.
Characteristics of Balanced Reading Instruction• A critical component of balanced reading instruction is direct explicit instruction in:
• phonemic and phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge in kindergarten and first grade;
• alphabetic knowledge, and blending in first grade and sound/symbol correspondence, structural analysis, contextual clues, and high frequency words;• spelling;
• comprehension strategies in order to evaluate, synthesize, analyze, connect, infer, and inquire; and• vocabulary instruction.