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Referencing is used to acknowledge that
an idea (or the exact) words used within
your assignment, is that of another
SACE Board of SA Guidelines for Referencing, 2010
• To demonstrate your academic integrity.
•Support your argument or illustrate important points you
•Make it easy for readers to find the sources you have used.
•Fulfil your moral and legal obligations to recognise and
acknowledge the authors of the original ideas.
•Avoid plagiarism so that you are not falsely claiming
someone else’s work or ideas as your own.
Why should Sources be referenced?
There are a variety of different referencing styles
In-text OR footnotes OR endnotes
While the styles and format of each differ they all aim to
acknowledge the source that you are using either directly or
indirectly within your assignment and at the end of your
The examples used in the Guidelines for Referencing are
available on the SACE website and are based on the Harvard
Check with your teacher to determine which referencing style
they want you to use.
Harvard Author-Date system
Is composed of a brief reference in the text of your assignment, to identify
the author’s ideas or words (usually author or title if there is no author),
date and page number with a corresponding entry in the reference list.
The reference list includes all sources of information that have been cited
in your assignment. It is located at the end of the assignment and is listed
in alphabetical order of the author and or titles of the different sources
A bibliography is included at the end of the assignment and includes all
sources used in the research for your assignment – not just those cited in
the body of the assignment and included in the reference list.
Check with your teacher to determine if they want you to include both a
reference list and a bibliography.
When should sources be referenced in your
Used less commonly and only to support or
illustrate important points that you are making.
Summary or paraphrase
Put the author’s words into
Ask yourself “What is the author actually
saying” and then use your own words.
Acknowledge the source in the text and at the end of your research
assignment in a reference list.
An example of in-text referencing
The following is an extract from ‘Eau what a feeling’ 2013 Good Health pp. 94-
96, Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre, EBSCOhost.
Sports drinks are made up of carbohydrate and fluid to allow an athlete to
rehydrate, refuel and meet their electrolyte needs before, during and after
To use this extract as a direct quote in your essay it must be written within quotation
marks. The quote is not usually included in the total word count.
Example (where author/article title is part of the main sentence) :
According to the article ‘Eau what a Feeling’ (2013, p 94) “sports drinks are made up of
carbohydrates and fluid to allow an athlete to rehydrate, refuel and meet their
electrolyte needs before, during and after exercise.”
Example (where author/article title is not part of the main sentence):
“Sports drinks are made up of carbohydrates and fluid to allow an athlete to rehydrate,
refuel and meet their electrolyte needs before, during and after exercise”(‘Eau what a
feeling’ 2013, p. 94).
The following is an extract from ‘Eau what a feeling’ 2013 Good Health pp. 94-96,
Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre, EBSCOhost.
They provide a replacement of electrolytes, particularly sodium, which helps
increase fluid absorption and encourages fluid intake by driving the thirst
mechanism, as well as potassium, which can assist in muscle contraction during
exercise, but only if you are exercising for more than two hours.
To use this extract as an indirect quote, quotation marks are not used, since the words
are not exact quotes.
Example : where author/title of article is part of the main sentence :
The article ‘Eau what a feeling’ (2013, p. 95) confirms that sports drinks containing electrolytes are
beneficial but only for exercise over two hours.
Example : where author/title of author is not part of the main sentence :
Sports drinks containing electrolytes are beneficial, but only
for exercise over two hours (‘Eau what a feeling’ 2013, p. 95)
An example of in-text referencing
For further examples download the document
Excerpts from an essay highlighting in—text referencing
from the RHS library page
The following types of source materials should be
Advertisements Other students
Others’ ideas Blogs
CDROMS & DVDs Letters
Pictures Magazines Maps TV programs
Pamphlets Journals Newspapers Movies
Artworks Teachers Lecturers Books
Websites Emails Discussion
•Your own experiences
•Your own experimental results
Common knowledge includes
•Facts that are commonly known (eg there are twelve months in a
•Facts that are so well known that they are available in a number of
different kinds of sources (eg WW2 began in 1939)
•Commonsense observations (eg interest rates going up will affect
The following types of sources do not need to be
Construction of a Reference List
Using the Online Referencing Generator
Use the Online Referencing Generator (ORG) to construct both your Reference List
Access is via the quick links box on the RHS library webpage and the password is
available from the library.
If you use resources found from using the library catalogue, you can create a
reference for them from within the catalogue. Tick the square above the amazon
logo and click on List and View citation. Copy and paste this.
For more information on how to use ORG, check out the slideshare located in the
Research Guide – Referencing tab – Creating a reference list or bibliography library
guide on the RHS library webpage.
For each Source of Information there is a
corresponding example of an in-text
reference to help you. For example
Website without author :
What strategies can you use to prepare for the
referencing of sources in your assignments?
Organise notes and record details of where information was actually
found as you go.
Record details of the resource being used on the pages of your notes,
printouts or photocopies of information so that it will be easy to
compile your in-text references.
Set up a chart to keep track of the basic bibliographic information using
ORG of the sources used.
Know the difference between a direct and indirect quote.
Practice putting an author’s ideas into your own words.
Try to pass up drafts with in-text referencing so that your teacher can
check whether you need extra help.
Ask the library staff for assistance!
Check which referencing style your teacher wants you to use.
Use consistent format and punctuation.
Use the ORG and if you are using resources from the library
catalogue you can create a reference within this by ticking the box
above the amazon logo for the resource/s you want, clicking on List
and view citation. Copy and paste the reference.
Keep a logical record of potential references as you research
particularly for information you want to use as in-text references.
Remember if the source has a page number you will need to include
this as well.