Afghanistan Afghanistan, a mountainous country of approximately652,000 square kilometers, shares borders with China, Iran,Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and a sectorof the disputed territory of Jammu and Kashmir that iscontrolled by Pakistan. About half of its territory is morethan 2,000 metres above sea level.In 2000, the United Nations Population Fund estimated thepopulation of Afghanistan at some 22.7 million (the mostrecent census was in 1979, when the population wasreported to be about 15.5 million) It is said that thepopulation of Afghanistan is more then 30 million now . Themajor languages are Pashto and Dari/Farsi.
Un involvement in Afghanistan Afghanistan has long suffered from great powerrivalry and foreign military intervention, includingthe bitter Anglo-Afghan wars of the nineteenthcentury. Beginning in 1979, the country againdescended into a prolonged period of devastatingconflict. A Soviet military intervention (1979-1988)took a heavy toll, as US-backed Islamic militantsfought a bitter conflict against the Soviet occupiers.There followed a period of civil war and warlordismfrom 1988 to the mid-1990s, then rule by a governmentorganized by the Islamic Taliban, and finally in 2001 amilitary intervention by the United States followed byfurther violence, instability and civil war.
Modern historyModern historyThe Afghan nation began to emerge in the late eighteenthcentury. It was ruled, with brief interruptions, by asuccession of monarchs whose consolidation of power wasconstantly undermined by civil wars and foreign invasions.The current borders of Afghanistan were delineated in thenineteenth century, as a result of the "great game" rivalrybetween Russia and Britain. Britain exerted some influenceover Afghan foreign policy from the late nineteenthcentury until the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919.Afghanistan joined the UN in 1946.
The un contributions through outthe history from 1980’s The 1980sEarly in 1980, the Security Council met to consider aresponse to the Soviet intervention, but a draft resolutioncondemning it was not passed, due to the negative vote ofthe USSR. The matter was then taken up in the GeneralAssembly, which held an Emergency Special Session onAfghanistan over five days, from 10 to 14 January 1980. TheAssembly adopted the first of a series of Situation inAfghanistan resolutions (resolution ES-6/2), in which itdeplored the armed intervention in Afghanistan, called forthe withdrawal of all foreign forces, asked States tocontribute humanitarian assistance, and asked theSecretary-General to keep it informed of developments
USSR withdrawal in result of anagreementFollowing the exercise of the UN Secretary-Generals good offices,Afghanistan, Pakistan, the USSR and the United States signedAgreements on the Settlement of the Situation Relating to Afghanistanunder United Nations auspices on 14 April 1988. These provided for anend to foreign intervention in Afghanistan, and the USSR beganwithdrawing its forces. With the Security Councils agreement on 25April 1988 (and subsequently authorized in resolution 622 of 31October 1988), Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar set up amission to monitor the withdrawal of foreign forces - the UnitedNations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan(UNGOMAP) - and made plans to support the anticipated repatriationof refugees. The Soviet withdrawal was completed in February 1989.Therebels, however, who had not signed the agreements, maintained theirfight against Najibullahs government and the civil war continued."
1990’s Following the May 1987 agreement, the UN had begun strenuousefforts to coordinate humanitarian assistance. Afghanistan hadlong been designated by the UN as one of the worlds leastdeveloped countries and war only made it more difficult torespond to the challenge of reconstruction and development.The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)estimated that the area under agricultural cultivation inAfghanistan fell by 40 per cent between 1979 and 1991.In 1991, responsibility for Operation Salam - the UNs emergencyrelief programme for Afghanistan - was taken over by theSecretary-Generals Personal Representative at the time, BenonSevan. In that year, WFP provided 60,000 metric tons of food toneedy Afghans, while FAO provided 6,800 tons of seed and morethan half a million fruit and poplar saplings
1990’s peace effort fails On 22 October, the Security Council adopted resolution 1076(1996), calling on all Afghan parties to end hostilities and engagein a political dialogue aimed at achieving national reconciliation.It repeated its deep concern that the conflict provided fertileground for terrorism and drug trafficking and called on theparties to halt such activities. The General Assembly, along withthe Council, condemned the abduction from United Nationspremises in Kabul of former President Najibullah and his brotheron 26 September, and their subsequent brutal execution by theTaliban (Assembly resolution 51/108, Council statementS/PRST/1996/40). Najibullah had taken refuge there four yearsearlier, but repeated calls by the Secretary-Generalto allow his safe departure from the country had been ignored.
United nations continued theefforts Fighting continued between the Taliban and Northern Alliancegroups between 1997 and 2000, but military positions changedlittle. In July of 1997, the Secretary-General appointed LakhdarBrahimi, the former Foreign Minister of Algeria, as his SpecialEnvoy for Afghanistan, to consult with interested and relevantcountries and parties and make recommendations on UNpeacemaking activities there. He visited Afghanistan as part of a13-nation tour and in October, with the Under-Secretary-Generalfor Political Affairs, convened a series of informal meetings withwhat became known as the "Six plus Two" group - composed ofthe six States bordering Afghanistan (China, Iran, Pakistan,Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) plus the United Statesand Russia.
Attacks on us embassies in Kenyaand Tanzania Following the 7 August terrorist bomb attacks on United Statesembassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania,which claimed hundreds of lives, the Council adopted resolution1193 (1998) on 28 August, which repeated its concern at thecontinuing presence of terrorists in the territory of Afghanistan.It condemned attacks on UN personnel in Taliban-held areas,including the killing of two Afghan staff members of the WorldFood Programme and the UN High Commissioner for Refugeesin Jalalabad, and of the Military Adviser to UNSMA in Kabul. Italso condemned the capture of the Consulate-General of Iran inMazar-e-Sharif. On 8 December, by resolution 1214 (1998), theCouncil demanded that the Taliban stop providing sanctuaryand training for international terrorists and their organizationsand that all Afghan factions cooperate in bringing indictedterrorists to justice.
2000 and beyond united nations focused on humanitarian efforts morethan the conflict because of the Taliban governmentpolicies were not much in cooperating , and there weremany other reasons involved , like Taliban were notable to bring their soft image in front of the world andwhole world became against them their sanctuary for the al Qaida can also be counted asa very major reasons for the worst situation
Refugee problems and returningprocess Between 1988 and 2000, more than 4.6 million Afghanrefugees returned to their homes with UNHCRassistance, but as the fighting continued they weresoon replaced by new refugees; themselves in need ofclothing and housing from UNHCR and their hostcountries. All told, by the end of 2001 UNHCR hadspent at least $1.2 billion for refugee operations inPakistan, $352 million in Iran, and $72 million insideAfghanistan. As the year ended, some 2 millionrefugees remained in Pakistan and 1.5 million in Iran.
Post 11 September In the escalation of the conflict in Afghanistanfollowing the 11 September terrorist attack on theUnited States by the Afghan-based Al Qaeda group,the Security Council expressed support for the effortsof the Afghan people to replace the Taliban regime,once again condemned for allowing Afghanistan to beused as a base for the export of terrorism and forproviding safe haven to Osama bin Laden.."
United nations contribution infinancial sector for the afghangovernment and people On 1 October 2011, in his address to a special week-longsession of the General Assembly on terrorism, Secretary-General Kofi Annan said, "As we summon the will and theresources needed to succeed in the struggle againstterrorism, we must also care for all the victims of terrorism,whether they are the direct targets or other populationswho will be affected by our common effort. That is why Ihave launched an alert to donors about the potential needfor much more generous humanitarian assistance to thepeople of Afghanistan
Financial support That new alert called on the international community toprovide $584 million to meet the humanitarian needs ofsome 7.5 million Afghan civilians over the following sixmonths, with particular concern to ensure adequate foodsupplies ahead of winter setting in. Unfortunately,increasing conflict in Afghanistan, including the militaryresponse to the terrorist attacks on the US, compelled UNagencies to withdraw international staff from the country,and the flow of food and other essentials into the countrywas slowed or halted.
peace efforts starts again As the situation unfolded, the UN continued its role inpromoting dialogue among Afghan parties, aimed atestablishing a broad-based, inclusive government. On3 October, the Secretary-General reappointed LakhdarBrahimi, who had resigned two years earlier, as hisSpecial Envoy for Afghanistan.
New York meeting On 12 November, the "Six plus Two" group met in New York under thechairmanship of the Secretary-General, agreeing on the need for abroad-based and freely chosen Afghan government and pledgingcontinued support for UN humanitarian efforts in Afghanistan, as wellas in refugee camps in neighbouring States. On 27 November, aconference on Afghanistans reconstruction sponsored by UNDP, theWorld Bank and the Asian Development Bank, opened in Islamabad.Over 300 participants attended, including many from Afghanistan.Issues discussed included the role of women, the importance ofeducation and the creation of a comprehensive health system.A further donor conference -- focusing on the immediate and longer-term needs of the country -- was held in Berlin in early December.
As a first step security for the upcoming government As a first step, the Afghan Interim Authority wasestablished. On 20 December, the Security Council, byresolution 1386 (2001), authorized the establishmentof an International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) tohelp the Authority maintain security in Kabul and itssurrounding areas.
A historical moment on Bonnconference by the efforts of unitednations On 22 December, in Kabul, the internationallyrecognized administration of President Rabbanihanded power to the new Interim AfghanAdministration, established in Bonn and headed byChairman Hamid Karzai. Special RepresentativeIbrahimi moved to Kabul to commence his activities insupport of the new Afghan Administration. At thesame time, the first of the ISAF troops were deployed,under British control
Humanitarian efforts starts againby ease in situation With the easing of hostilities, WFP was able to delivera record 114,000 metric tones of food aid in December- enough to feed 6 million people for two months. Still,by 20 December, only some $358 million of the nearly$662 million being sought for UN relief work inAfghanistan had been received, and the needs of onlyone agency - the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) - hadbeen fully covered. And while the WFP had achieved81 per cent of its funding requirements, UNHCR hadsecured only 59 per cent. As in the past, funds weremostly being donated for emergency relief, with verylittle for reconstruction and rehabilitation
Tokyo conference of the donors To maintain the momentum for international assistance toAfghanistan generated by the political process anInternational Conference on Reconstruction Assistance onAfghanistan was held in Tokyo on 21 and 22 January 2002.Addressing the Conference, Secretary-General Kofi Annansaid such assistance would require $10 billion over a 10-yearperiod, including $1.3 billion to cover immediate needs for2002. That latter covers recurrent costs of the InterimAuthority, as yet unfunded humanitarian assistance, and$376 million for quick impact and recovery projects "thatare ready to go.“
Kofi Annan visit to Kabul Secretary-General Kofi Annan visited Kabul on 25January to offer moral support to the new InterimAdministration and to thank members of the UnitedNations staff in Afghanistan for their sustained effortto provide humanitarian assistance to the Afghanpeople.
The first milestone of the Bonn Agreement was achieved with the announcement that same dayof the composition of the Special Independent Commission forthe Convening of the Emergency Loya Jirga (Pashto for grandcouncil -- a traditional forum in which tribal elders can cometogether and settle affairs).The Commission is composed of 21 members. It has the finalauthority for determining the procedures for and the number ofpeople who will participate in the Emergency Loya Jirga, whichwill elect a Head of State for the Transitional Administration andwill approve proposals for the structure and key personnel of theTransitional Administration. The Bonn Agreement sets out thatfree and fair elections must be held within two years of theestablishment of the Loya Jirga.
What happened after Bonn After Hamid karzai become the president after , hecompleted the temporary term , He went for elections , and wins the elections The elections held by the help and assistance of theUnited Nations UNAMA(united Nations assistance mission in Afghanistan)) The providing assistance financially and technicallyunited nations paid their part which can be countedthe most important effort in the history of Afghanistan
What is the united nations focustoday They are working on rehabilitation and providing the afghanswith their basic needs , and development projects , paying ahuge amount of money to the ministry of development And UN habitat , and many huge projects like mille paiwastoon helping the people with cash to start their businesses and also togrow up economically Health projects , helping addicts , awareness about the diseasesand many All these got one goal behind this , preventing the youth and allfrom destructive activities and motivating them towards theconstructive
What brings Bonn conference forAfghanistan The Bonn conference resulted the Afghanistan to havea government recognized by world and base thatafghans are now able to build upon though there are many problems with it , but this thefact of bitterness on development of relations ,infrastructure , and from many other aspects