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A student created tutorial of a reading passage

A student created tutorial of a reading passage


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Transcript

  • 1. Slideshow by:
    • Antonella Lozano
    • Anthony Temeliescu
    • Taylor Malone
    • Michael Gonzalez
  • 2.  
  • 3.  
  • 4. Weather influences Behavior
  • 5.  
  • 6.
    • Ever-
    • Changing
  • 7.  
  • 8.
    • Air has
    • Many
    • properties
  • 9.  
  • 10. Heat causes movement
  • 11.  
  • 12. Water Vapor’s Importance
  • 13.  
  • 14. Movement of Moisture
  • 15.  
  • 16. World’s Most Extreme Weather Locations
  • 17.  
  • 18. West Coast
  • 19.  
  • 20. East Coast
  • 21.  
  • 22. Ocean’s Absorption
  • 23.  
  • 24. Gulf Stream on England
  • 25. Ocean Currents
  • 26.
            • Around the world, there are some similarities in the currents. For example, along the west coasts of the continents, the currents flow toward the equator in both hemispheres. These are called “cold currents” as they bring cool water from the polar regions into the topical regions. The cold current off the west coast of the United States is called the California Current.
            • Likewise, the opposite is true as well. Along the east coasts of the continents, the currents flow from the equator toward the poles. There are called “warm currents” as they bring the warm tropical water north. The Gulf Stream, off the southeast United States coast, is one of the strongest currents known anywhere in the world, with water speeds up to 3 mph (5 kph).
            • These currents have a huge impact on the long-term weather a location experiences. The overall climate of Norway and the British Isle is about 18°F (10°C) warmer in the winter than other cites located at the same latitude due to the Gulf Stream.
  • 27. Currents’ Affect Worldwide
  • 28.
          • The sun, that enormous nuclear furnace 93 million miles away, constantly bathes the earth with energy equivalent to 126 trillion horsepower a second. The energy, however, is not distributed evenly. The equator gets the most direct rays, and consequently it is warmer. Away from the equator, the curvature of the earth causes the rays to slant, forcing them to cover a larger area, thereby scattering the heat energy.
  • 29. The Sun: Heating our world
  • 30.
    • The atmosphere is thickest close to the surface. This is the troposphere, and it is where the weather occurs. Air is made up of gases. The most prevalent are nitrogen (which accounts for 78 percent of our air) and oxygen (21 percent). Other gases occur in small amounts, but they are vital. Ozone, for instance, prevents ultraviolet rays from zapping us with potentially harmful radiation, and water vapor produces clouds and rain. Heat from the sun moves the air around, stirring it like soup.
  • 31. Gases in the atmosphere
  • 32.
    • Jet streams are rivers of rapidly moving air, 30,000 to 40,000 feet high, that blow around the globe from west to east. There are two main streams, one in each hemisphere. Over the United States the main stream path usually wanders between the Canadian border and the southern part of the country. The stream travels at 100 to 300 miles per hour. Although scientists do not know what causes the jet stream, it occurs where cold Arctic air butts up against warm, tropical air
  • 33. Western Hemi- sphere Jet Streams
  • 34.
          • Clouds are created when warm, moist air rises. It cools, and the invisible water vapor in it condenses into tiny visible droplets or ice crystals. Fog is a cloud in air near the ground. Dew is confined to the surfaces of objects, occurring when the ground cools rapidly at night, causing moisture in the air to condense on the surfaces. Clouds often form when a cold front clashes with a warm front, pushing the warm, moist air up high enough to condense the water vapor.
  • 35. Effects of Clouds
          • Clouds are created when warm, moist air rises. It cools, and the invisible water vapor in it condenses into tiny visible droplets or ice crystals. Fog is a cloud in air near the ground . Dew is confined to the surfaces of objects, occurring when the ground cools rapidly at night, causing moisture in the air to condense on the surfaces . Clouds often form when a cold front clashes with a warm front, pushing the warm, moist air up high enough to condense the water vapor.
  • 36.
    • Precipitation occurs in several forms. A typical raindrop contains a million times more water than a cloud droplet. For cloud droplets to form a raindrop, they must bump and attach to a nucleus like a dust particle or ice crystal. When they get heavy enough, they fall. Snow is not frozen rain. Snow forms when the air is supersaturated with water vapor and it is below freezing. Snowflakes crystallize on tiny nuclei such as dust or pollutants. Hail occurs when strong updrafts in super cooled clouds keep raindrops aloft, allowing them to freeze and build up successive layers of ice until they are heavy enough to fall.
  • 37. Vapor to Precipitation
  • 38.
    • There are two basic types of winds, local and prevailing. Local winds are caused by storms or the mixture of cold and warm air. Prevailing winds, such as the trade winds in the tropics and the westerlies over this country, are much more complex, and meteorologists do not completely understand how they work. If the earth did not spin, warmer and lighter air at the equator would rise into the upper atmosphere and flow to either pole. There the air would be cooled. It would then sink and make its way back along the surface to the equator
  • 39. Local and Prevailing winds
  • 40.  
  • 41.  
  • 42.  
  • 43. Distracters/Incorrect Answers
    • A. This is a true statement, but not only water vapor creates weather on Earth, making this just a detail.
    • B. The fact that scientists have no knowledge of currents isn’t helpful to find the main idea.
    • D. It only tells the reader this information in the introduction, and not in other parts, so it isn’t the main idea.
  • 44. 2. From reading the article, the reader can infer that “westerlies”
    • A. will continue to be studied by meteorologists.
    • B. keep the East Coast climate uniform year-round.
    • C. are caused by a mixture of cold and warm air.
    • D. do not influence weather as much as local winds.
  • 45.
    • There are two basic types of winds, local and prevailing. Local winds are caused by storms or the mixture of cold and warm air. Prevailing winds, such as the trade winds in the tropics and the westerlies over this country, are much more complex, and meteorologists do not completely understand how they work. If the earth did not spin, warmer and lighter air at the equator would rise into the upper atmosphere and flow to either pole. There the air would be cooled. It would then sink and make its way back along the surface to the equator.
  • 46. 2. From reading the article, the reader can infer that “westerlies”
    • A. will continue to be studied by meteorologists.
    • B. keep the East Coast climate uniform year-round.
    • C. are caused by a mixture of cold and warm air.
    • D. do not influence weather as much as local winds.
  • 47. Distracters/Incorrect Answers
    • B and D - The passage describes how weather isn’t uniform, but it changes an areas climate from time to time.Also, it really doesn’t describe the effects of local winds on weather, it just says how they are created.
    • C. It says in the passage that it’s unknown how they are caused.
  • 48. 3. Which area of the United States has the least fluctuation in climate throughout the year?
      • A. the Great Plains
      • B. the East Coast
      • C. the West Coast
      • D. the Rocky Mountains
      • FYI: Fluctuation means ability to change.
  • 49.
    • On the West Coast, prevailing winds from the Pacific Ocean keep the climate relatively uniform year-round. The ocean is a giant air conditioner keeping the coast cool in the summer and warm in the winter. The Rocky Mountains bar the frigid cold from the Great Plains from reaching the coast in the winter and bottle up Plains’ heat in the summer.
  • 50. 3. Which area of the United States has the least fluctuation in climate throughout the year?
    • A. the Great Plains
    • B. the East Coast
    • C. the West Coast
    • D. the Rocky Mountains
  • 51. Distracters/Incorrect Answers
    • A and D - Both are parts of the West Coast, so they are too narrow of answers.
    • B. In the passage, it describes how prevailing winds and the heat-up of the continental areas of the East Coast effect its climate.
  • 52. 4. According to the article, which element of weather is NOT a mystery to scientists?
    • A. how the trade winds work
    • B. how ocean currents impact climate
    • C. what causes the jet stream
    • D. how prevailing winds work
  • 53.
    • Around the world, there are some similarities in the currents. For example, along the west coasts of the continents, the currents flow toward the equator in both hemispheres. These are called “cold currents” as they bring cool water from the polar regions into the topical regions. The cold current off the west coast of the United States is called the California Current.
    • Likewise, the opposite is true as well. Along the east coasts of the continents, the currents flow from the equator toward the poles. There are called “warm currents” as they bring the warm tropical water north. The Gulf Stream, off the southeast United States coast, is one of the strongest currents known anywhere in the world, with water speeds up to 3 mph (5 kph).
    • These currents have a huge impact on the long-term weather a location experiences. The overall climate of Norway and the British Isle is about 18°F (10°C) warmer in the winter than other cites located at the same latitude due to the Gulf Stream.
  • 54. 4. According to the article, which element of weather is NOT a mystery to scientists?
    • A. how the trade winds work
    • B. how ocean currents impact climate
    • C. what causes the jet stream
    • D. how prevailing winds work
  • 55. Distracters/Incorrect Answers
    • A,C,and D - In the passage it specifically says that scientists don’t fully understand trade winds, prevailing winds, and jet streams.
  • 56. THE END
    • :D