Colonial AmericaLife in Colonial America:New EnglandMiddle ColoniesChesapeake/Southern ColoniesWritten & Compiled by Brad Seeley & Paul AlecksonProperty of D.C. Everest Schools
New England’s Demographics TURN N Talk (TNT)What do you know about the demographics of the New England area?Also, how does this compare to today?
New England Colonies
Demographicsof New England• Emigrated in family units• Families were patriarchal (husband and wife shared child rearing)• Continued English traditions• 3 males to every 2 females• Family - very important• Early marriage, BIG families (single life was suspect)• Long life (60’s and 70’s)• Children loved but treated strictly “Better Whipped than Damned”• Very poor relations with the Natives -ex. King Phillips War
Areas of Settlement
Areas of Settlement(cont.)
Population (1620 – 1750)
CHECKINGPRIOR KNOWLEDGE What role did women play in Puritan New England?
Womenin New England• Men claimed power in the state and in the family; women were subordinate• Women in the colonies were raised to be “helpmates” to husbands• The labor of the Puritan women was crucial• Bearing and rearing children were equally crucial (most women married in their early twenties and by their early forties had given birth to six or seven children)• More women than men joined the churches so that their children could be baptized
Womenin New England (cont.)• Reduction in farm size prompted couples tohave fewer children•With fewer children, women enhanced theirfamilies’ standard of living•Most New England women’s lives were tightlybound by restrictions (excluded from an equalrole in the church)•Often only did women’s work
New England and Religion TURN N Talk (TNT)What do you know about the religion of the New England area? How important was religion?
New England and Religion(cont.)• Highly Religious - Puritans (Congregationalists) “community of likeminded Christians”• A moral society to serve as a model for all - “City on a Hill”• Tax Supported Religion• Puritan officials were gods “elect”• Puritan law criminalized such sins as drunkenness, swearing, theft, and idleness
New England and Religion(cont.) • God required men and women to work long and hard (known as the “Puritan Work Ethic”) • Accepted the concept that God predestined some people to salvation and damned others • Puritans lead life according to scripture • Congregationalism - each village was independent • To be a member one must provide a testimony or confession of faith
• In every town, the community church had "complete liberty to stand alone"• Each congregation chose its own minister and regulated its own affairs• Ministers worked closely with government• Ministers had no formal political power, but exerted great influence on church members• Only church members could hold government office• Government protected the ministers, taxed members and non-members alike to support the church, and enforced the law requiring attendance at services
CHECKINGPRIOR KNOWLEDGEWhat is the HalfwayConvent?
Puritan Religion and theHalfway Covenant• 1st generation’s Puritan zeal diluted over time• Problem of declining church membership• 1662: Half-Way Covenant – partial membership to those not yet converted (usually children/ grandchildren of members)• Eventually all welcomed to church, erased distinction of “elect”
CHECKINGPRIOR KNOWLEDGEWhat type of governmentdid they have in NewEngland?
New England’s Government• Franchise (right to vote) extended to “freemen” – adult Puritan men of Congregational church (about 40% of men in the colony)• All property-owning males could vote in town meetings• Direct democracy (self government)• Religious leaders (e.g. John Cotton) were very influential
•The Community constructed meetinghouse fortown meetings, passed laws regulating farmingpractices•House lots were clustered around commonfields•Free male church members elected a governor,elected men to the lower legislative house(Assembly) and an upper legislative house calledthe Council was appointed by the Governor•Consent of both houses needed to pass laws
TURN N Talk (TNT)What did people in New England do to make a living?Also, how do you think this compares to today?
New England’s Economy• The economy of New England grew at twice the rate of England.• New England farms produced several crops (wheat and corn) plus cattle and hogs• Cold winters( short growing season) and rocky soil limited New England to small farms
• Diverse commercial economy developed in New England - grinding wheat, harvesting fish, sawing timber, shipbuilding• Many thriving industries• Merchants and Artisans did well• Resulted in growth of port cities
CHECKINGPRIOR KNOWLEDGEHow important waseducation in New England?What did it consist of?
New England and Education
TURN N Talk (TNT)What colonies are considered Middle Colonies?Also, how do the Middle Colonies compare demographically to New England?
Middle Colonies Demographics•Way more diverse than N.E.•Lots of immigrants - Dutch, Swedes,Germans, and Scots-Irish.•The largest non English immigrantswere Germans and Scots-Irish
Middle Colonies Demographics(cont.)
•More tolerant than other regions•Indentured servants were commonin middle colonies•Farms tended to be 40-160 acres
Why are the Middle Coloniescalled the “Melting Pot”?
Middle Colonies and Religion TURN N Talk (TNT) Compare the Middle Colonies to New England. Which one is more tolerant? More diverse?
Middle Colonies and Religion(cont.)
•No established church dominated in the MiddleColonies•Diverse population and doctrines of religioustoleration allowed many denomination•1750, region had more congregations per capitathan any other colonial region, even New England•Maryland and Pennsylvania had largest Catholicpopulations in the English colonies
Middle Colonies Government•The Middle Colonies were run by Royal orProprietary Governors•Many Middle Colony constitutions guaranteedfreedom of religion and forbid taxation withoutrepresentation• Unrest in the Middle Colonies later leads to theContinental Congress and a center for revolution
CHECKINGPRIOR KNOWLEDGEHow is the economy of theMiddle Colonies similar toNew England?
Middle Colonies Economy (cont.)• Abundant forests attracted both the lumbering andshipbuilding industries• Several ports developed (ex. Philadelphia)• Middle Colonies had far more industry than theSouthern Colonies, but did not rival the industry of NewEngland.• Sawmills, gristmills, textile mills all developed• Produced of pig iron and its products, including thePennsylvania long rifle and the Conestoga Wagon.•Other important industries included printing,publishing, the related industry of papermaking.
Middle Colonies Economy (cont.)•Other Commerce/Trade includes shipbuilding, tradingof furs, rum, beer, livestock, copper, glass iron•Of course farming was big (wheat, rye, barley)America’s Breadbasket
CHECKINGPRIOR KNOWLEDGEWhat was education like inthe Middle Colonies?
Middle Colonies Education(cont.)• 50% of adults could sign their names• Decision to educate children was left to individual families until 1683• A Pennsylvania law in 1683 required all children be taught to read and write and be trained in a useful trade• Pennsylvanias first school was established that same year.
Middle Colonies Education(cont.)• Religious groups ran most schools• Boys learned a skill or trade (may also study classical languages, history and literature, mathematics, and natural science)• Girls were tutored at home in a variety of household and social skills
What do you knowabout the Peter ZengerTrial?Why is this importanttoday?
Freedom of the Press!
The Southern/Chesapeake Colonies TURN N Talk (TNT) Compare the North and the South. How much different were the demographics in the South than the North? Also, how does that compare to today?
Southern Colonies Demographics• Came as single males (not families)•Four out of Five were indentured servants•High mortality rate (life expectancy was 59)•50% of the children died•Slavery increased from 7% to 35% by 1750 (neededas labor on rice and tobacco plantations)•Immigrants from Germany and the Scots - Irishsettled in the Chesapeake and the Carolinas
Southern Colonies Demographics(cont.)• Upper Gentry class ruled - Plantation owners werein control•Women were second class (could not vote, preachor own property)•High mortality because of heat and moisture•Six men to every one women - women alwaysfound men to remarry•Families were very isolated and scattered
Southern Colonies Demographics(cont.) • Almost all were English or African •90% were unfree laborers •Settled in coastal areas
• Scots -Irish and German immigrants•By 1700 - 200,000 settlers•Back country life was appalling• Major poverty, no schools, no churches , no towns
CHECKINGPRIOR KNOWLEDGEWhat was religion like inthe Southern Colonies?Was it like New England orthe Middle Colonies?
Southern Colonies and Religion• Anglicanism was established religion• Public funds paid the clergy• Members not of the Anglican Church were called“dissenters”•Problems for the Anglican church in the South included: Shortage of trained clergy Lack of leadership No Anglican bishop in N. America Parishes that were vast and sparsely settled Frontier regions lacked Anglican churches A breeding ground for “dissenting” sects
Southern Colonies and Religion(cont.)
The Southern/Chesapeake Colonies TURN N Talk (TNT) Compare the North and the South. How are the governments similar and different?
Southern Colonies Government•Representative Government•House of Burgesses in Virginia•County Governments•Each colony had Governor, Council andAssembly similar to other regions
What was Bacon’s Rebellion?
Bacon’s Rebellion• an unsuccessful uprising by frontiersmen in Virginia in 1676, led by Nathaniel Bacon against the colonial government in Jamestown.• High taxes, low prices for tobacco, and resentment against special privileges given those close to the governor, Sir William Berkeley Berkeley, Sir William, 1606–77, colonial governor of Virginia.• The uprising was precipitated by Berkeleys failure to defend the frontier against attacks by Native Americans.
CHECKINGPRIOR KNOWLEDGEWhat was the Southern/Chesapeake economy like?
Southern Colonies Economy•Specialized in a single cash crop Tobacco in Chesapeake Rice and indigo in the lower south•Plantations developed rather than towns(located along rivers for transportation)•Everything existed on the Plantation•Only one thriving port at Charleston, S.C.•Most of South was rural and self-sufficient•As indentured Servants population fell, coloniststurned to Slaves from Africa and the Caribbean
Southern Colonies Economy(cont.)• Had the Headright System• Government gave 50 acres to people that came (received one headright each time someone paid for the passage of another individual)• Indentured servants had little or no chance to own land (poor stayed poor)
The Southern/Chesapeake Colonies TURN N Talk (TNT) Compare the North and the South. Was Southern education superior to the North? For whom? Also, how does that compare to today?
Southern Colonies and Education• No formal education (except for the gentry planters)• Plantation owners hired tutors for their sons whotaught math, classical languages, science, geography,history, etiquette, and plantation management (mostcompleted their education in England)•A governess usually taught the girls enough reading,writing, and arithmetic to run a household and the socialskills to attract a husband• Class differences were clear in the South because onlyupper-class men were widely educated.