Questionnaires and surveys

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methods of research, questionnaires, surveys, collection of data, rules for constructing questionnaire

methods of research, questionnaires, surveys, collection of data, rules for constructing questionnaire

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  • As probably you have observed, many researchers choose this method of data collection, In fact surveys have become a vital part of our social fabric that we cannot assess much of what we read in the newspaper or see in tv without having some understanding of survey research.
  • The context created by the questionnaire has a major impact on how individual questions are interpreted and answered. As a result, survey researchers must carefully design the questionnaire NO PRECISE FORMULA FOR WELL DESIGNED QUESTIONNAIRE- GUIDES
  • Because there are many ways to ask questions, the questionnaire is very flexible. Questionnaire should be developed and tested carefully before being used on a large scale.
  • Unless question is “check all that apply” format
  • DOES NOT CONTAIN BOXES TO TICK BUTINSTEAD LEAVES A BLANK SECTION FOR RESPONDENTS TO WRITE IN AN ANSWER
  • When a series of semantic differential scale are used, it may be a good idea to mix positive negative for Example, interesting to dull, with negative to positive
  • Questionnaire should be viewed as an integrated whole, in which every section and
  • Questions used previously may not concern quite the right concept or may not be appropriate in some ways to your population.Even though your using a previously designed and well regarded instrument may reassure other researchers, it may not be appropriate for your own specific survey.
  • You may be thinking you ask people questions all the time and have no trouble understanding the answers you receive, but you may also remember misunderstanding or being confused by some questionsFew diff bet everyday conversations and standardized surveys
  • Because that would resut in a different question for that personQUES that are clear and meaningful to one population may not be so to another. Adherance to a few basic principles will go a long way toward developing clear and meaningful questions.
  • A lengthy question often forces the resp. to WORK HARD that is they have to read and reread the entire question leading to unanswered or can be given only a cursory reading without much thought
  • Does not provide sufficient focus: rather it is general. There are many reasonable question to this answer
  • Lacks frame of reference, the researcher doesnot know the basis of comparison of the respondent is using. Principals to other / personal absolute scale about principals performance
  • With double negatives. Such errrors can be easily avoided by worcding changes
  • To be safe avoid using negative words such as DON’T and NOT
  • Make it easy for respondents to admit social lapses by wording questions carefully
  • Many people don’t complete questionnaire. This will ensure you will get the most significant data from non- finishers Respondents may just give upEncourages the respondents to carry on with the question
  • Use a variety of question format – to maintain the respondents’ interestFILTER – for ex. Respondents who answer no to one question are directed to skip ahead to another questionBut respondents who answer yes – can go on to CONTINGENT QUESTIONS
  • Matrix questions are a series of questions that concerns a commmon theme and that have the same response choices “check one response on each line “ some may think they have answered all the questions after they have responded to few specific questions
  • The appearance of the questionnaire will go a long way towards encouraging or discouraging responsesSo the questionaire doesn’t look too busyIts tempting to use smaller fonts in order to squeeze your questionaire into smaller pagesDon’t make it so small that it becomes illegible
  • Before you rely on a question, you need an evidence ..so try it out to few people
  • This method can identify many problems in the proposed questions

Transcript

  • 1. QUESTIONNAIRES AND SURVEYS
  • 2. SURVEY RESEARCH  Collection of information from a sample of individuals through their responses to questions  It is an efficient method of data collection for systematically collecting data from a broad spectrum of individuals and educational settings
  • 3. SURVEY RESEARCH  Often the only means available for developing representative picture of attitudes and characteristics of population (Weiss et al., 2001) AVPageView 2262014 70633 PM.bmp.jpg AVPageView 2262014 70625 PM.bmp.jpg
  • 4. QUESTIONNAIRE -Survey instrument containing the questions in a self administered survey appropriate questionnaire design is essential to ensure that we obtain valid response to our questions
  • 5. AVPageView 2262014 70237 PM.bmp.jpg AVPageView 2262014 70237 PM.bmp.jpg
  • 6. QUESTIONNAIRE - Consist of a set of questions presented to respondent for answers. The respondents read the questions, interpret what is expected and then write down the answers themselves
  • 7. TYPES OF QUESTIONNAIRES -CLOSED ENDED QUESTIONS -OPEN ENDED QUESTIONS
  • 8. CLOSED ENDED QUESTIONS  Include all possible answers/ prewritten response categories and respondents are asked to choose between them  Types of questions used to generate statistics in quantitative research
  • 9. CLOSE – ENDED QUESTIONS  As these follow a set of format  Most responses can be entered easily into computer for ease of analysis  EX. MULTIPLE CHOICE, SCALE QUESTIONS
  • 10.  Close ended questions should be mutually exhaustive and exclusive so that every respondent can find one and only one choice that applies to him/her MOST IMPORTANT!
  • 11. OPEN – ENDED QUESTIONS  Allow respondents to answer in their own words  Leaves a blank section for respondents to write in an answer  As it is opinions which are sought rather than numbers
  • 12. OPEN QUESTIONS CLOSED QUESTIONS ELICIT RICH QUALITATIVE DATA ELICIT QUANTITATIVE DATA ENCOURAGE THOUGHT AND FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION CAN ENCOURAGE “MINDLESS‟ REPLIES MAY DISCOURAGE RESPONSE FROM LESS LITERATE RESPONDENTS ARE EASY FOR ALL LITERACY LEVELS TO RESPOND TO
  • 13. OPEN QUESTIONS CLOSED QUESTIONS TAKE LONGER TO ANSWER AND MAY PUT SOME PEOPLE OFF ARE QUICK TO ANSWER AND MAY IMPROVE YOUR RESPONSE RATE ARE MORE DIFFICULT TO ANALYSE – RESPONSES CAN BE MISINTERPRETED ARE EAST TO „CODE‟ AND ANALYSE
  • 14. RULES FOR CONSTRUCTING QUESTIONNAIRE
  • 15. MAINTAIN CONSISTENT FOCUS  The research objective should be the primary basis for making decisions about what to include and exclude  every question serve a clear purpose related to the study‟s objective and each section compliments other sections
  • 16. BUILD ON EXISTING INSTRUMENTS  If another researcher has already designed a set of questions to measure a key concept, and evidence from previous surveys indicates that this measure is reliable and valid, then, by all means, use that instrument
  • 17.  A good rule of thumb Use a previously designed instrument if it measures the concept of concern to you and if you have no clear reason for thinking it is inappropriate with your survey population
  • 18. WRITE CLEAR QUESTIONS
  • 19.  Survey questions must be asked of many people, not just one person  the same survey question must be used with each person, not tailored to specifics of a given conversation  Survey question must be understood in the same way by people who differ in many ways
  • 20.  You will not be able to rephrase a survey questions if someone doesn‟t understand  Survey respondents don‟t know you and so can‟t be expected to share the nuances of expression that help you and your friends and family communicate
  • 21. AVOID CONFUSING PHRASING  Short and simple sentences are generally less confusing and ambiguous than long, complex ones.  Use shorter than longer words: brave rather that courageous; job concerns rather than work-related employment issues (Dillman,2000)
  • 22. AVOID VAGUENESS  Questions should not be abbreviated in a way that it results to confusion  Residential location ________________  “In what neighborhood of Makati do you live?”
  • 23. ASK PRECISE QUESTIONS  Questions may be ambiguous because a word or term may have a different meaning  Avoid words like “regularly” , “often” and “locally”  “how often did you borrow your books from library?”
  • 24. ASK PRECISE QUESTIONS  The time reference is missing  “how many books have you borrowed from the library within the past six moths altogether?”
  • 25. PROVIDE A FRAME OF REFERENCE  Overall the performance of the principal is  __________excellent  __________good  __________average  __________poor
  • 26. PROVIDE A FRAME OF REFERENCE  Compared with other principals you are familiar with, the performance of the principal is  __________excellent  __________good  __________average  __________poor
  • 27. ASK FOR ONLY ONE PIECE OF INFORMATION AT A TIME  Avoid DOUBLE BARRELED : two questions in one  “Please rate the lecture in terms of its content and presentation” asks for two pieces of information at the same time.  “Please rate the lecture in terms of its (a) content ,(b) presentation”
  • 28. AVOID NEGATIVES  “do you disagree that mathematics teachers should not be required to be observed by their supervisor if they have a master‟s degree”?
  • 29. “should mathematics teachers with a masters degree still be observed by their supervisor?”
  • 30. MINIMIZE BIAS  People sometimes answer questions in a way they perceive to be socially acceptable.  “how many times have you broken the speed limit because you were late?”  “have you ever felt under pressure to drive over the speed limit in order to keep an appointment?”
  • 31. LENGTH OF QUESTIONNAIRE  There are no universal agreement in the optimal length of questionnaire  However, short simple questionnaires usually attract higher response rates than long complex ones.
  • 32. ARRANGING THE QUESTION  Put the most important items in the first half of questionnaire  Don‟t start with awkward or embarrassing question  Start with easy and non threatening question
  • 33. ORDER OF QUESTIONS  Go from closed to open questions  Leave demographics and personal questions until last  Use a variety of question format  Filter questions create skip patterns AVPageView 2262014 82345 PM.bmp.jpg
  • 34.  Matrix questions shortens the questionnaire by reducing the number of words that must be used for each question  Emphasizes the common theme among questions  It is important to provide an explicit instruction
  • 35. LAYOUT  Allow enough room for respondents to answer questions  Provide plenty of white spaces between questions  Use clear headings and numbering if appropriate  A minimum of 10pt should be used
  • 36. PRETESTING THE INSTRUMENT  “ the only good question is a pretested question”  Discuss the questionnaires with colleagues  Professional survey researchers – uses cognitive interview
  • 37. The basic approach is to ask people “to think aloud” as they answer the question. The researcher asks a test questions, then probes with follow up question about how the respondent understood the question, how confusing it was and so forth
  • 38.  For the actual pretest , draw a small sample of individuals from the population you are studying.