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  1. 1. ARTICLE IN PRESS International Journal of Information Management 25 (2005) 229–239 Teleworking in the information sector in Spain Juan Carlos Roca PulidoÃ, Francisco Jose Martı´ nez Lopez ´ ´ Department of Financial Economics, Accounting and Operations Management, Faculty of Business Administration, University of Huelva (Spain), Plaza La Merced, no 11, 21002 Huelva, Spain Abstract In this paper we will analyze telework in the companies which belong to the information technology sector. To this purpose we have made an empirical research of 107 Spanish companies. First of all we have analyzed the tasks carried out through telework, the form is which they are carried out, both the individual tasks and the shared ones, the methods used for exchanging results, the changes brought about by telework in the realization of those tasks and the coordination and assignment problems involved in telework. On the other hand we analyzed the most extended resources used, that is to say hardware and software as well as the importance of this activity for the development of these companies in an economy with an ever more global character. r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Telework; Telecommuting; Information technology sector 1. Introduction When carrying out research on telework, we observed from the start that there is abundant literature on this theme, in spite of the fact that the phenomenon has appeared quite recently, as it is related to the evolution of the Information and Communication Technologies. However, it is easy to understand that in most cases we are approaching from a theoretical point of view, which is even more certain when we refer to research carried out in our country. ÃCorresponding author. Tel.: +34 959 01 78 93; fax: +34 959 01 78 49. ´ E-mail addresses: (J.C.R. Pulido), (F.J.M. Lopez). 0268-4012/$ - see front matter r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2005.02.002
  2. 2. ARTICLE IN PRESS ´pez / International Journal of Information Management 25 (2005) 229–239 J.C.R. Pulido, F.J.M. Lo 230 In our opinion, it is necessary to approach the question empirically, both from the point of view of the company and from that of the teleworker. For the company and on the one hand, the interesting points are the influence of telework on planning, control and realization of the tasks, both on the methods and on the means used. On the other hand, the changes caused on the market, the process of decision making or the influence on the organizational culture. As for the teleworkers, their concerns are their working conditions, collective rights, safety and hygiene at work, and for the most part, the advantages and drawbacks caused by telework, which are a basic reference if we want to know the real dimension of it. All these themes are of great importance for those who are interested in telework. In this paper we intend to advance in its study from an empirical point of view; we therefore thought it was of interest to find out about the different forms of telework present in computing and communications companies in Spain and to go deeply into the analysis of the tasks carried out through telework, as well as to find out about the changes caused in these tasks, with regard to its interdependency, planning, teamwork systems and the flow of information, analyzing the role the IT companies play in it. The reasons that justify why we choose this sector are, on the one hand, the greater probability of the presence of companies that fulfill the requirements necessary for the development of telework, the intensive use of new technologies and on the other hand, the experience of similar companies in other countries. At the same time we have gathered the most important opinions published recently by knowledgeable authors and institutions, turning to bibliography both in digital form and printed, on the concept of telework. 2. Literature review The term telework is often simply interpreted as work at home; however, there are other forms in which telework is applied. The common element to the concept telework is not home, but the use of computers and telecommunications by means of which the form and scope of work is changed. From our point of view, the definitions applied to telework can be grouped in two great blocks; on the one hand those that emphasize the location of the teleworker and on the other hand, those that stress the use of computing and communication technologies. In the first group, stress is put on the inevitable removal of the worker from the traditional office of the company. Some definitions of these group are to be found in Handy and Mokhtarian (1996), Ellis and Webster (1999), Ortiz Chaparro (1996), Fireman (1999), Dreher (1999) and Montreuil and Lippel (2003). These authors have made analysis from the point of view of relocation of the worker, stressing the fact that in order to be able to talk about telework it is essential that it is located away from the place where the rest of the employees work. In our opinion, this is a necessary but not sufficient factor for the identification of the teleworkers. We think that the worker must be permanently connected with the company using data transmission tools. Among the definitions of the second group, for which we would like to remember the use of computing and telecommunications as basic working tools for the teleworker, we find Thibault
  3. 3. ARTICLE IN PRESS ´pez / International Journal of Information Management 25 (2005) 229–239 J.C.R. Pulido, F.J.M. Lo 231 Aranda (2000), Thompson, Vivien, & Sook (1998), Escobar (1998), Thompson (1996) and Atkyns, Blazek, Roitz, and AT&T (2002). These authors think that we can only speak of telework, when there is a data transmission connection between the remote unit and the unit of the company. In our opinion, both dimensions must be present simultaneously if we want to identify the concept of telework. On the one hand, the physical distance is necessary and on the other hand, the use of computers and other hardware as well as the data transmission connection that enables the communication of the teleworker with his/her supervisor and colleagues. With the presence of these two characteristics we now have a new form of work, which—as we will see throughout this research paper—causes multiple changes in the companies. As for the authors who have made research on the possibilities of applying telework, we do not agree with those like Limburg (1998) who state that it will only be present in the situations in which the tasks are independent in time and space from others, at least during a part of the process. However, in cases where the tasks are very closely related and face to face meetings are frequent, the difficulties this creates may recommend not to apply telework, as in our opinion the communication problems concentrate on two directions, first the supposed loss of control of the teleworker and second, the danger that would cause a feeling of loneliness in the employee. Feldman and Gainey (1997) expresses himself in the same sense, stating that when an employee carries out his work away from the traditional office, he has a greater autonomy of how and when to carry out his functions, whereas the majority of the research done indicates that the interdepence between employees tends to disappear. We consider the conclusions of some studies, that analyze the impact caused by telework on the communications of the company more adequate; outstanding is for instance the study carried out by Duxbury, Higgins, and Neufeld (1998). Among his conclusions we find in the first place the fact that programs of part-time telework have very little effect on the communications, both in form and frequency as in the potential problems that derive from the new labour environment. This is, most employees are able to adapt themselves to the new communication systems without many difficulties. In the second place, the managers in charge of the supervision of their teleworkers have not observed relevant conflicts, due to the fact that communications by telephone or fax were increased to the detriment of face to face meetings, that is to say, a greater use of telecommunications permits to maintain an affective communication system. Moreover, this system had been greatly improved thanks to better planning, structure and organization of the meetings. This needs a balance between the different means of communication, both formal and informal, through the organization of meetings with physical presence, and also using some of the tools Internet makes available. Thus, Belanger (1999) states that the methods through which communications among the team of workers are some of the processes that change most when adopting telework. As for the research on the activities carried out by the teleworkers, in the analysis made by Nilles (1998), we find that the activities that appear most are planning and word processing. ´ Barrero Fernandez (1999) proposals indicate that the activities which can be easily fragmented, divided and sub-divided make the organization and the establishment of deadlines more easy; this ´ ´ ´ is confirmed in the corporate world by Roman Onsalo and Sanchez-Apellaniz Garcı´ a (2000), who
  4. 4. ARTICLE IN PRESS ´pez / International Journal of Information Management 25 (2005) 229–239 J.C.R. Pulido, F.J.M. Lo 232 detect that the tasks more frequently carried out through telework in travel agencies are those of information, advice, reservation, sale, post-sale and management-administration. In their verification of the hypothesis, they state that these tasks can be easily carried out through telework because their principal product is information, that is to say, the tasks imply an important content of management and information transmission. One of our other priorities is to know in practice which are the technological resources used by the teleworkers; according to Turban and Tung (1996) these will depend on the type of tasks carried out, the method of delivery of the work done, to the supervisor or to other colleagues, the requirement of easy access to remote information, the necessities of communication and team work, and the fact that decisions must be made. As Craig (1999), Mundorf and Bryant (2002) suggest, in order to satisfy the necessities of a virtual team of workers, it is necessary to bear in mind both the confidential character of the information and the quantity and type of information to be transmitted. To sum up, the academic doctrine states that there is a growing amount of effects caused by telework, both in the companies and for the teleworkers themselves, especially in the technological environment. We therefore wanted to verify these aspects empirically; and next, we will analyze the methodological characteristics. 3. Methodology In order to satisfy the objects of this empirical study, on the one hand we will make a descriptive analysis of the variables contained in the questionnaire. Therefore we will make a univariable statistical analysis by means of frequency tables, this is the option used in statistics programs. This will enable us to sum up the observations of the total amount of variables and to compare its values by expressing some depending on others or by measuring the existing difference between them. On the other hand, the comparison of the results obtained according to the type of telework applied by each company, as well as how the discovery of possible relations of association and independence between the values of the variable obtained and the type in question, will be carried out through the contingency tables. Finally, we will try to complete the frequency study, centering now on the simultaneous analysis of the variables and the kinds of telework detected. These contingency tables, either with r lines and c columns or of the 2 Â 2 type , will enable us to achieve the independence contrast between the included variables. The most practical and easiest form of achieving this contrast and regardless of the sampling process of the variables the independence of which we try to analyze, depends on whether these are nominal or ordinal: If the variables to be related are ordinal, the linear/lineal association test (b) or the Jonckheere–Terpstra test. If they are nominal, the chi-squared contrast. In case they are nominal in lines and ordinal in columns, the Kruskal–Wallis test.
  5. 5. ARTICLE IN PRESS ´pez / International Journal of Information Management 25 (2005) 229–239 J.C.R. Pulido, F.J.M. Lo 233 The Jonckheere–Terpstra test is to be applied when there is a natural a priori order, either upward or downward, of the k populations. As for the chi-squared independence test, the process to be followed is to establish the hypothesis Ho and to set a significance level a, which generally will equal 5%. The Kruskal–Wallis test is the non-parametric analogue of the variance of a factor and it detects the differences in the localization of the distributions. This analysis is used in order to contrast the null hypothesis that the samples come from the k subpopulations in which the distribution of the ordinal variable is the same. 4. Empirical analysis Next we will start to analyze the variables that define the general aspects that telework offers among the companies of the IT sector. The data on which this analysis is based were obtained through a process of inquiry specifically carried out for the present research. In the case of the IT companies, we have made inquiries of 107 organizations that answered the questionnaire completely due to their use of telework1. As to the kind of telework existing in the organization, 67.29% of the companies use work at home as the principal kind of telework, 38.32% indicate mobile telework as the most used variety, 19.63 of the companies say that they do telework in a telecentre and only 4.67% use a different form of telework, which consists basically in the use of the client’s office. On the one hand, it is important to state that the companies tend to use two or more varieties of telework at the same time, in this way, 16.8% of the companies that use telework at home use at the same time mobile telework and 6.5% combine it with telework in the telecentre. In 2.8% of the cases, a combination of telecentre and mobile telework is used. On the other hand, telework at home is used exclusively in 42.06% of the companies, this proportion decreases to 10.28% and 15.89% for telecentres and mobile telework respectively. This means that telework at home, solely or mixed, is the most used variety in companies of the IT sector. In short, more than one third of the companies in the IT sector regularly use this tool; the predominant variety being telework at home, followed by mobile telework. 4.1. Comparative analysis of the tasks, resources and varieties of telework At this point we have a general perspective of the basic characteristics with regard to the IT sector companies that use telework programs. In this epigraph we will make a deeper study of the tasks the companies carry out and of the necessary resources, which we will compare with the varieties of telework. This will help us to understand the most important differences between telework at home, in telecentres and mobile, with regard to the tasks they carry out, methods of coordination used and the most frequently occurring problems, as well as of the computer science tools used, both hardware and software. Our aim is to know if it is necessary to plan different tools depending on the variety of telework. 1 Readers can download completed tables from
  6. 6. ARTICLE IN PRESS ´pez / International Journal of Information Management 25 (2005) 229–239 J.C.R. Pulido, F.J.M. Lo 234 4.2. Different kind of tasks The investigated companies carry out a wide range of tasks related with the use of information. The most frequent task is that of programming or software development, data input and checking of documents, followed at a short distance by analysis of reports, customer service and sales. On the one hand, we think that in this companies telework is not only used to carry out tasks that do not require a high qualification, as is e.g. data input, but in other tasks of vital importance such as customer service and sales. It also seems important to verify if it is possible to carry out multitude of tasks that in many cases are still done in the traditional office and that could be done by means of telework, such as report reading, document revision or data analysis. On the other hand, the fact that software development is the principal activity seems to be due to the characteristics of the sector investigated, as is the proportion of companies that carry out graphics and text editing. Those companies that use telework at home at well as in the telecentres do not present important differences, as their most usual tasks are software development, document revision, data analysis and input in almost half the cases. Mobile telework is more frequently applied in sales, research and customer service. The chi-squared test confirms that there is a relation between telework at home and some of the tasks, so we obtain the values w2 4689, 12,157 and 14,858 for analysis, document revision and data input respectively, which makes us reject the null hypothesis of independence. In the case of telework in the telecentre we have not been able to statistically check the existence or non- existence of dependency. As for the chi-squared test of the mobile telework, we can confirm the existence of an association between this kind of work and tasks of sales, customer service and research, while the w2 values obtained are 11,592, 4412 and 6505, respectively, all of them higher than 3.84 (the critical value in a chi-squared distribution with a degree of freedom). In short, in the telework at home variety the most common tasks are software development, document revision, and data input and analysis. The mobile telework variety is more frequently applied to sales, research and customer service. In the next subsection we will connect the telework varieties with the fact that the tasks are individual or shared with other employees and the way in which the result of the work done is transmitted between them. 4.3. Collaboration with other employees When analyzing if the tasks are individual of are to be shared with other employees, teleworkers or not, we found differences according to the kind of telework. For both the work done at home and the mobile variety, the teleworkers of these companies have to share their tasks at 45% with other colleagues who are not teleworkers, approximately 35% are individual tasks and 15% of these are transferred to other teleworkers. However, the chi-squared test gives w2 values ¼ 0.368 and 0.774 for home and mobile telework, which—being lower than the critical value of a chi-squared distribution with a degree of freedom (3.84)—shows absence of relation between the variables.
  7. 7. ARTICLE IN PRESS ´pez / International Journal of Information Management 25 (2005) 229–239 J.C.R. Pulido, F.J.M. Lo 235 In the case of companies that use telework in telecentres, there is a balance between the three different ways of carrying out the tasks, the proportion being almost a third for each of them. The statistical value w2 ¼ 662943:84 shows the relation between the way in which the tasks are transmitted and the telework in telecentres. The way in which the results of the tasks are transmitted to the person who is to finish them is similar for the three kinds of telework. So, in almost two thirds it is done by e-mail. Both with home telework and with the mobile variety, delivery through some kind of data transmission or by personal delivery is more important than in the case of telecentres. The results of the chi-squared test, in the case of home telework, show values for the statistic w2 that, being lower than 3.84, make us accept the null hypothesis of independence in relation to the form in which the result of the tasks is transmitted. In case of telework in telecentres, the values w2 confirm the absence of association between these variables. However, with the companies that apply mobile telework, the ratio of those that use personal meetings is greater and the chi-squared test shows with a value w2 ¼ 397743:84 the relation between these variables, but not with the use of e-mail, data transmission and paper. In short, with home and mobile telework the tasks must be completed by a colleague who is not teleworker in almost half the companies. Although we have not found significant differences as for the method of transmission of the result of the tasks, the use of e-mail is getting more important. 4.4. Difficulties derived from telework The answers show that of the before mentioned difficulties the most frequently occurring problem, in a significant proportion, is the lack of knowledge of the state of a task at a given moment (12.15%). In our opinion the other numbers are not sufficiently important to be considered as a real problem, as they are less than 10%. As for the problems that occur occasionally, it is to be emphasized on the one hand that in almost two thirds of the polled companies (62.62%) doubts arise that cannot be solved remotely and on the other that misunderstanding arise in 57.57%. Moreover, we found that the answers that show that all these problems never occur total more than 29.91%. It is to be emphasized that the lack of knowledge of the assigned tasks does not arise in 61.68% of the cases and that other questions as important as inadequate resources or imbalance in the distribution of the tasks do not arise in 58.88% and 53.27%, respectively. The mean of the answers to all stated problems is 2.40 (on a scale of 3), so we can conclude that they arise occasionally in the companies we investigated. At this point we can distinguish between some problems that arise irrespective of the kind of telework. These are, on the one hand, lack of knowledge of the state of the tasks and the misunderstandings that arise in approximately two thirds of the companies. On the other hand, lack of planning and the imbalance in the distributions of the tasks are the problems that come up in 45–50% of the companies. However, there are other difficulties that have different impact according to the kind of telework, the doubts that cannot be solved remotely, for instance, are more important in the case of telecentres, 81.8%. On the contrary, in this kind of work lack of specific instructions on how to
  8. 8. ARTICLE IN PRESS ´pez / International Journal of Information Management 25 (2005) 229–239 J.C.R. Pulido, F.J.M. Lo 236 carry out the tasks, or inadequacy of the assigned resources is of little importance. The ratio of companies in which there is a lack of knowledge of the assigned responsibilities is also lower when the telework is mobile. By means of the Kruskall–Wallis test we have tried to contrast statistically the before mentioned tendencies, however, the p-values associated with the contrast statistic are higher than the statistical significance 0.05 in all except one cases. The exception is related to those companies that apply telework in telecentres and the lack of specific criterion to carry out the tasks, whose p-value is 0.03. In short, some difficulties normally imputed to telework arise uniformly irrespective of the type of telework, for instance, lack of knowledge of the state in which the tasks are at a given moment, misunderstandings and lack of planning. Although other problems, like doubts which cannot be solved remotely, have more impact in telecentres. In order to carry out the tasks the teleworker must use different resources and tools, next, we will study if there are divergence’s between the varieties of telework. 4.5. Resources and technologies used In relation to the information science tools the teleworkers use we have found some disparities between the different varieties of telework. So, the PC is more frequently present in those companies that use home and telecentres for their telework, while the laptop is more frequently used by mobile teleworkers. The use of the fax machine is more usual in companies that have telework programs in telecentres, while an additional telephone line and the use of courier services are more frequent in cases of telework at home. The chi-squared test confirms the existence of an association between telework done at home and the use of a PC and courier service, as the values for w2 are 9495 and 5101, respectively. Fisher’s test confirms that association as the associated p-values are 0.002 and 0.037. With regard to the companies that also use mobile telework, the association with the use of laptops has been statistically contrasted , being the value of w2 ¼ 12; 65443:84: These data show that the PC, the cell phone and the laptop are the most frequently used elements, followed by the printer, an additional telephone line, scanner and fax. Courier service is also frequently used. Among the combinations we should emphasize that the companies that give their teleworkers a PC and an additional phone line are 44.86% and those that besides a laptop give them a cell phone increases to 55.14%. The results of the applications used depend on the type of telework. For instance, with mobile telework, greater use is made of applications like word processing, spreadsheets and datamining. While the companies that use telecentres do so more frequently with tools like SAP R3, datamining or electronic data transmission. From these tendencies the relation existing between use of spreadsheets, word processors and mobile telework has been statistically contrasted by means of the chi-squared test, as the values are w2 ¼ 4563 and w2 ¼ 7616; respectively. There is also a dependency, in our opinion negative, between the use of datamining and telework at home, as w2 ¼ 4736:
  9. 9. ARTICLE IN PRESS ´pez / International Journal of Information Management 25 (2005) 229–239 J.C.R. Pulido, F.J.M. Lo 237 As for the rest of the tools, the statistic value is always lower than the critical value of a chi- squared distribution with a degree of freedom, this is to say, we cannot confirm that there is a dependency in relation to the kind of telework. Faced with the question of the possibility that the teleworkers have remote access to the applications of the company, it should be emphasized that in the case of companies that do have mobile teleworkers the ratio of those who do have this access is higher that in the other two varieties of telework. The fact that the values of w2 obtained are lower that 3.84 (critical value of a chi-squared distribution with a degree of freedom), confirm the absence of dependency between the variety of telework and the possibility of having remote access to any application of the company, in spite of the tendencies observed a priori. 5. Conclusions It can be stated that more than a third of the companies in the IT sector usually work with this type of tool for their organization, being the telework done at home the most important variety, followed by mobile telework. We can emphasize that as for the telework done at home the most frequently used tasks are software development, document revision, data analysis and input. Mobile telework is more frequently used for sales, research and customer service. In both varieties, the tasks have to be completed by a colleague who is not a teleworker in almost half of the companies. Although we have found no significant differences as for the method by which the results of the tasks are transmitted, e-mail is mostly used. Some of the difficulties normally imputed to telework arise uniformly with independence from the variety of telework, for instance, lack of knowledge of the state of the tasks at a given moment, misunderstandings and lack of planning. Other problems, like doubts that cannot be solved remotely, have more impact in telecentres. With regard to the resources used, in companies that have telework programs carried out at home, the PC, as well as dataming are most frequently used. As for companies with teleworkers in telecentres, it was found that they use more applications like SAP R3 and electronic data exchange. The most outstanding feature of the mobile telework type is a greater remote access to the company’s applications. The exchange or transmission of the results do not present significant differences according to the variety of telework, and it is done by e-mail and in personal meetings. Finally, some of the difficulties usually imputed to telework, arise uniformly irrespective of the analyzed variety, although the impact on the performance of the IT sector companies is not relevant. In any case, we have detected that the only problem that arises frequently, in a significant proportion, is the lack of knowledge on the state of being of the tasks at any given moment. Among those problems that arise occasionally, the doubts that cannot be solved remotely as well as misunderstandings are outstanding. We also noted that a third of the answers implied that these problems never occur. Telework is thus a new way of conceiving the organization, that can revolutionize the structure of the companies; although, even in the companies that are more used to new technologies, as are
  10. 10. ARTICLE IN PRESS ´pez / International Journal of Information Management 25 (2005) 229–239 J.C.R. Pulido, F.J.M. Lo 238 those analyzed in our study, there is still a long way to go in order to transform telework as a tool into an ‘‘organizational philosophy’’. References Atkyns, R., Blazek, M., Roitz, J. ATT. (2002). Measurement of environmental impacts of telework adoption amidst change in complex organizations. ATT Survey Methodology and Results, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 36(3), 267–285. ´ ´ Barrero Fernandez, A. (1999). El teletrabajo. Madrid: Editorial Agata. Belanger, F. (1999). Communication patterns in distributed work groups: a network analysis. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 42(4), 261–275. Craig, R. S. (1999). Communication technology use and multiple workplace identifications among organiza- tional teleworkers with varied degrees of virtuality. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 42(4), 240–260. Dreher, M. G. (1999). Telecommuting and its impact on business and personal relationships. UMI Dissertation Services. Duxbury, L., Higgins, C., Neufeld, D. (1998). Telework and the balance between work and family. In M. Igbaria (Ed.), The virtual workplace. London: Idea Group Publishing. Ellis, T.S., Webster, R.L. (1999). Innovativeness of information systems managers toward telecommuting: a structural equation model. Journal of Computer Information Systems, (39), 92. ´mica. Teletrabajo en Espan Madrid: Escuela de Organizacion ´ Escobar, M. (1998). Teletrabajo: incidencia social y econo ˜a. Industrial. Feldman, D., Gainey, T. (1997). Patterns of telecommuting and their consequences: framing the research agenda. Human Resource Management Review, 7(4), 374. Fireman, S. M. (1999). A model of telecommuting withdrawal: employee perceptions predicting the reduction on stopping of telework. UMI Dissertation Services. Handy, S. L., Mokhtarian, P. L. (1996). The future of telecommuting. Futures, 3(28), 227–240. Limburg, D. (1998). Teleworking in a managerial context. In Teleworking Environments. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Telework. Turku: Tucs General Publication. Montreuil, S., Lippel, K. (2003). Telework and occupational health: a Quebec empirical study and regulatory implications. Safety Science, 41(4), 339–358. Mundorf, N., Bryant, J. (2002). Realizing the social and commercial potential of interactive technologies. Journal of Business Research, 55(8), 665–670. Nilles, J. M. (1998). Managing telework: strategies for managing the virtual workforce. Nueva York: Wiley, Inc. ´ Ortiz Chaparro, F. (1996). El Teletrabajo: una nueva sociedad laboral en la era de la tecnologıa. Madrid: McGraw-Hill. ´ ´ ´ ´ Roman Onsalo, M., Sanchez-Apellaniz Garcı´ a, G. M. (2000). La transformacion de las agencias de viajes en agencias ´ ´n, ´ ´ virtuales a traves del teletrabajo. In M. Lopez, Francisco., et al. (Eds.), Nuevas Tecnologıas de la InfoComunicacio turismo y teletrabajo. Actas del II Congreso de Turismo y Teletrabajo. ´lisis jurıdico-laboral. Madrid: Consejo Economico y Social, ´ ´ Thibault Aranda, J. (2000). El Teletrabajo: ana Departamento de Publicaciones. Thompson, B. (1996). Telecommuting pluses and pitfalls (pp. 3). Brentwood: Lee Smith Publishers. Thompson, T., Vivien, L., Sook, W. (1998). An empirical study of attitudes towards teleworking among information technology (IT) personnel. International Journal of Information Management, 18(5), 329–343. Turban, E., Tung, L. L. (1996). Information technology as an enabler of telecommuting. International Journal of Information Management, 16, 103–117. Juan Carlos Roca Pulido is senior lecturer on managment at Huelva University, he is part of the investigation group (GITICE) integrated by professors of the Universities of Seville and Huelva. He has investigated on telecommuting, new technologies and their applications in the organizations and published as much in books as in magazines Spanish
  11. 11. ARTICLE IN PRESS ´pez / International Journal of Information Management 25 (2005) 229–239 J.C.R. Pulido, F.J.M. Lo 239 scientists, highlighting of among them, Telework in Spain; E-business and Electronic Trade and E-conomy and Electronic Trade. Francisco Jose Martı´ nez Lopez is professor of University, Chair of Information Systems at Seville University and ´ ´ Huelva University since 1992. He has a great numbers of publications it has more than enough Technologies of the Information, Systems of Information and telework, having imparted doctorate courses in diverse European and American Universities.