King Abdul-Aziz UniversityKing Abdul-Aziz University
Maritime StudiesMaritime Studies
Ports And Maritime TransportPorts And Maritime Transport
Multimodal TransportMultimodal Transport
• Economic Overview
• Types of transportation
• Ports developments and impacts.
• Labor force.
• Important projects currently and future projects
• Impact of the Hajj on transportation
• Transportation Risks and problems
• Most imported goods and exported
• Saudi Arabia has an oil-based economy with strong government
controls over major economic activities. It possesses about one-
fifth of the world's proven petroleum reserves, ranks as the
largest exporter of petroleum, and plays a leading role in OPEC.
The petroleum sector accounts for roughly 80% of budget
revenues, 45% of GDP, and 90% of export earnings. Saudi Arabia
is encouraging the growth of the private sector in order to
diversify its economy and to employ more Saudi nationals. The
government has begun establishing six "economic cities" in
different regions of the country to promote foreign investment
and plans to spend SAR1,399 ($373) billion between 2010 and
2014 on social development and infrastructure projects to
advance Saudi Arabia''s economic development.
Types of transportation
• Railways (train)
The construction of a railway line linking the capital Riyadh with Dammam,
the seaport on the Arabian Gulf coast, dates to 1951 (1370.H), during the
era of the Founding King, Abdul Aziz. As part of the Kingdom's all-
encompassing development .
• Air Transport (planes)
Saudi Arabian Airlines (SAUDIA) is responsible for the transportation of
passengers and baggage on its domestic and international flights.
• Seaports (ships)
The Port Authority overseeing the management and operation of nine ports
head on both coasts of the eastern and western Saudi
• Roads (cars , Vans , trucks , Motorbikes )
The total length of highways and single and double (59000)
kilometers And over (22) thousand km under construction And
over (139,000) kilometers of paved farm roads.
Today, the Saudi Ports are fully managed and operated by the
private sector on a commercial basis. The Ports Authority still
retains its supervisory role.
The Saudi ports provide excellent services:
•Handling of all types of cargo.
•Three major container terminals, Two on the Red Sea (Jeddah
Port), the third in the arabian Gulf (Dammam).
•Two ship repair yards (in Jeddah and Dammam) with 4 floating
docks for each.
Numerous investment opportunities within Transportation &
Logistics Sector between the Base Economy & Economic Cities. An
overall of USSAR375 ($100) Billion investment is anticipated over
the next 10 years. These include:
The value for Labor force, total in Saudi Arabia was 7,630,000 as of 2012. As the graph below shows,
over the past 10 years this indicator reached a maximum value of 7,630,000 in 2012 and a minimum
value of 6,430,000 in 2004.
Key indicators on Saudi labor movement
•60 % of Saudi population are below 50 years old
•24 % of the Saudis labor force work in the industry sector
•31 % of the Saudi labor force work in the commerce sector
•350,000 Saudis enter the labor market every year
•The unemployment rate is considerably high among Saudis.
•Approximately one million Saudis work in government agencies,
out of which 400,000 are women.
•About 1.8 million Saudis work in private sector, out of which 20
% are women
Important projects currently and future projects.
Projects available :
A.Completion of the expansion and improvement of Mecca /
B.The implementation and improvement of some intersections on
the ring road in Riyadh.
•Lighting projects under implementation:
A.Lighting by Jeddah / Medina intersection Rehaily and even King
Abdullah University Bthol length (66.5) km.
B.Complete lighting entrances Medina length (17) km
C.Complete lighting and ventilation tunnels southwestern region
number (10) tunnels
• New projects:
A.The highway linking the city of Jeddah, Mecca directly (the first
phase) with a length of 20 km.
B.Linking Railway Line East to West
C.Linking Line north to south
D.complete the double by city Hail length of 35 kilometers
The impact of the hajj season on transportation:
In the pilgrimage season comes pilgrims from all countries of the
world and all kinds of transportation, leading to
The most important projects carried out for ease of movement in
the pilgrimage season and Jump is a train-Haramain, which started
in 2009 and which fork in Mecca, a place pilgrimage and extends to
Medina through Jeddah length 408 m, has been running segment
III. Strict regulation
IV. Unauthorized driving
According to the latest WHO data published
in April 2011 Road Traffic Accidents
Deaths in Saudi Arabia reached 5,233 or
6.01% of total deaths. The age adjusted
Death Rate is 23.25 per 100,000 of
population ranks Saudi Arabia #53 in
Most imported goods and exported
Total value of imports amounted 4.95.6 billion riyals for 2011, up 24% from the
year 2010 The total value of exports reached 5,157 billion Riayls, up 34% from
•Most important export commodities:
oil and plastic products and petrochemicals and re-exported goods, food,
metals, and paper and textile articles.
Machinery and mechanical appliances, food and transport equipment, textiles,
wood and wood products.