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Griffin Chap19

Griffin Chap19






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    Griffin Chap19 Griffin Chap19 Presentation Transcript

    • CHAPTER 19 Managing Work Groups and Teams Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook
    • Learning Objectives
      • After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
        • Define and identify types of groups and teams in organizations, discuss reasons people join groups and teams, and the stages of group and team development.
        • Identify and discuss four essential characteristics of groups and teams.
        • Discuss interpersonal and intergroup conflict in organizations.
        • Describe how organizations manage conflict.
    • Chapter Outline
      • Groups and Teams in Organizations
        • Types of Groups and Teams
        • Why People Join Groups and Teams
        • Stages of Group and Team Development
      • Characteristics of Groups and Teams
        • Role Structures
        • Behavioral Norms
        • Cohesiveness
        • Formal and informal Leadership
      • Interpersonal and Intergroup conflicts
        • The Nature of the Conflict
        • Causes of Conflict
      • Managing Conflict in Organizations
        • Stimulating conflict
        • Controlling conflict
        • Resolving and Eliminating Conflict
    • Groups and Teams in Organizations
      • Group
        • Two or more people who interact regularly to accomplish a common purpose or goal.
      • Functional Group
        • A permanent group created to accomplish a number of organizational purposes with an indefinite time horizon.
      • Informal or Interest Group
        • A group created by its own members for purposes that may or may not be relevant to organizational goals.
      • Task Group
        • A group created by the organization to accomplish a relatively narrow range of purposes within a stated time horizon.
    • Groups and Teams in Organizations (cont’d) Types of Groups in Organizations Figure 19.1 Cross-functional team (form of task group) Functional group Informal group President Vice president Vice president Vice president Executive committee Legal advisor Project manager Project manager Project manager
    • Groups and Teams in Organizations (cont’d)
      • Team
        • A group of workers who function as a unit, often with little or no supervision, to carry out work-related tasks, functions, and activities.
        • Sometimes are called self-managed teams, cross-functional teams, or high performance teams .
    • Groups and Teams in Organizations (cont’d)
      • Team (cont’d)
        • Benefits of teams
          • Give more responsibility for task performance to the workers who do the tasks.
          • Empower workers by giving them greater authority and decision-making freedom.
          • Allow organizations to capitalize on the knowledge and motivation of their workers.
          • Enable the organization to shed its bureaucracy and to promote flexibility and responsiveness.
    • Groups and Teams in Organizations (cont’d)
      • Why People Join Groups and Teams
        • Interpersonal attraction —p eople are attracted to one another.
        • Group activities —a ctivities of the group appeal to them.
        • Group goals —the g roup’s goals motivate them to join.
        • Need satisfaction —fulfills an individual’s need for affiliation.
        • Instrumental benefits —m embership provides other benefits.
    • Groups and Teams in Organizations (cont’d)
      • Types of Teams
      Source: “Types of Teams” adapted from Brian Dumaine, “The Trouble with Teams,” Fortune, September 5, 1994. Copyright © 1994 Time, Inc. All rights reserved Table 19.1
    • Groups and Teams in Organizations (cont’d)
      • Stages of Group and Team Development
        • Forming
          • Attempting to define the task and how it will be accomplished through discussions of task-related concepts/issues.
        • Storming
          • Defensiveness, intragroup competition, and the formation of factions; arguing among members, even when they agree.
        • Norming
          • Establishing and maintaining team ground rules.
          • More friendliness and confiding in one another.
        • Performing
          • The ability of the group/team to prevent or work through problems.
          • Members developing a close attachment to the team.
    • Groups and Teams in Organizations (cont’d)
      • Stages of Group Development (cont’d)
      Figure 19.2 Slow evolution to next stage Slow evolution to next stage Burst of activity to next stage Forming Members get acquainted test interpersonal behaviors Storming Members develop group structure and patterns of interaction Performing Members enact roles, direct effort toward goal attainment and performance Norming Members share acceptance of roles, sense of unity
    • Characteristics of Groups and Teams
      • Role
        • The part an individual plays in helping the group reach its goals.
          • Task-specialist role —concentrating on getting the group’s tasks accomplished.
          • Socioemotional role —providing social and emotional support to others on the team .
      • Role Structures
        • The set of defined roles and interrelationships among those roles that the group or team members define and accept.
        • Are the result of role episodes in which the expected role is translated and defined into the enacted role.
        • Role ambiguity —occurs w hen the sent role is unclear.
    • Characteristics of Groups and Teams (cont’d)
      • The Development of a Role
        • The first two stages of role development are group processes as the group members let the individuals know what is expected of them.
        • The other two parts are individual processes as the new group members perceive and enact their roles.
      Figure 19.3 Expected role Sent role Perceived role Enacted role
    • Characteristics of Groups and Teams (cont’d)
      • Role Structures
        • Role conflict —occurs when the messages and cues comprising the sent role are clear but contradictory or mutually exclusive.
          • Interrole conflict is the result of a conflict between roles.
          • Intrarole conflict is caused by conflicting demands from different sources.
          • Intrasender conflict arises when a single source sends contradictory messages.
          • Person-role conflict is the discrepancy between role requirements and an individual’s values, attitudes, and needs.
        • Role overload —occurs w hen role expectations exceed an individual’s capacities.
    • Characteristics of Groups and Teams (cont’d)
      • Behavioral Norms
        • Norms are standards of behavior that a group accepts and expects of its members.
        • Norms define the boundaries between acceptable and unacceptable behavior.
          • Norm generalization —t he norms of one group cannot always be generalized to another group.
          • Norm variation —norms and their application vary within a group or team.
    • Characteristics of Groups and Teams (cont’d)
      • Behavioral Norms (cont’d)
        • Norm conformity —individuals conform as response to:
          • Group or team pressure to conform to group behavior.
          • An initial (ambiguous) stimulus prompting group behavior.
          • Individual traits that reflect their propensity to conform.
          • The influence of situational factors (e.g., group size and unanimity).
        • Individual responses to norm conformity:
          • Adopt the norms of the group.
          • Try to obey the “spirit” of the norms while retaining individuality.
        • Socialization
          • Norm conformity that occurs when a person makes the transition from being an outsider to being and insider in the organization.
    • Characteristics of Groups and Teams (cont’d)
      • Cohesiveness
        • The extent to which members are loyal and committed to the group; the degree of mutual attractiveness within the group.
      • Factors That Influence Group Cohesiveness
      Table 19.2
    • Characteristics of Groups and Teams (cont’d)
      • Consequences of Cohesiveness
        • The interaction between cohesiveness and performance norms
          • The best situation is high cohesiveness combined with high performance
      Figure 19.4 Cohesiveness Low performance Lowest performance High Low Low High High performance Moderate performance Performance norms
    • Characteristics of Groups and Teams (cont’d)
      • Formal and Informal Leadership
        • Informal leader
          • A person who engages in leadership activities but whose right to do so has not been formally recognized by the organization or group.
          • An informal leader, ideally, may also be the formal leader for the group or he may supplement the formal leader in fulfilling leadership roles.
          • Informal leaders draw on referent or expert power to establish themselves as leaders.
        • Formal leader
          • A person who has been elected or designated to engage in leadership activities by the group members or who has been formally appointed or recognized by the organization as the leader for the group.
      Figure 19.4
    • Interpersonal and Intergroup Conflict
      • The Nature of Conflict
        • Conflict
          • A disagreement between two or more individuals, groups, or organizations.
        • There is an optimal level of conflict in an organization:
          • Too little conflict and the organization becomes complacent and apathetic, and lacking in innovation and underperforms.
          • Too much conflict creates a dysfunctional organization where hostility and non-cooperation predominate, and suffers from low performance.
          • A moderate level of conflict in an organization fosters motivation, creativity, innovation, and initiative and can raise performance.
    • Interpersonal and Intergroup Conflict (cont’d)
      • The Nature of Organizational Conflict
      Figure 19.5 Conflict High Low Low High Optimal level of conflict Performance
    • Interpersonal and Intergroup Conflict (cont’d)
      • Interpersonal Conflict
        • Personality clash
        • Differing beliefs or perceptions
        • Competitiveness
      • Intergroup Conflict
        • Interdependence
        • Different goals
        • Competition for scarce resources
      • Conflict Between Organization and the Environment
        • Conflict with competition
        • Conflict with consumer groups
        • Conflict with employees
      Causes of Conflict
    • Managing Conflict in Organizations
      • Ways for Managing Conflict
      Table 19.3