The set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways.
The goal of managers is to maximize desired behaviors and minimize undesirable behaviors.
The Importance of Motivation in the Workplace
Determinants of Individual Performance
Motivation —t he desire to do the job.
Ability —the capability to do the job.
Work environment —the resources to do the job.
The Motivation Framework Figure 16.1 The motivation processes through a series of discreet steps. Content, process, and reinforcement perspectives on motivation address different parts of this process. Search for ways to satisfy need Choice of behavior to satisfy need Determination of future needs and search/choice for satisfaction Evaluation of need satisfaction Need or deficiency
People must, in a hierarchical order, satisfy five groups of needs:
Physiological needs for basic survival and biological function.
Security needs for a safe physical and emotional environment.
Belongingness needs for love and affection.
Esteem needs for positive self-image/self-respect and recognition and respect from others.
Self-actualization needs for realizing one’s potential for personal growth and development.
Weakness of Maslow’s theory
Five levels of need are not always present.
Ordering or importance of needs is not always the same.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Figure 16.2 Self- actualization Esteem Belongingness Security Physiology Food Achievement Status Friendship Stability Job Friends Pension Base NEEDS General Examples Organizational Examples job Challenging title at work plan salary
People’s satisfaction and dissatisfaction are influenced by two independent sets of factors —motivation factors and hygiene factors.
Theory assumes that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are on two distinct continuums:
Motivational factors (work content) are on a continuum that ranges from satisfaction to no satisfaction.
Hygiene factors (work environment) are on a separate continuum that ranges from dissatisfaction to no dissatisfaction.
Motivation is a two-step process:
Ensuring that the hygiene factors are not deficient and not blocking motivation.
Giving employees the opportunity to experience motivational factors through job enrichment.
The Two-Factor Theory of Motivation Figure 16.3 Satisfaction No satisfaction Motivation Factors • Achievement • Recognition • The work itself • Responsibility • Advancement and growth Dissatisfaction No dissatisfaction Hygiene Factors • Supervisors • Working conditions • Interpersonal relations • Pay and security • Company policies and administration