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Griffin Chap06



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  • 1. CHAPTER 6 The Cultural and Multicultural Environment Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook
  • 2. Learning Objectives
    • After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
      • Describe the nature of organization and culture.
      • Discuss the importance and determinants of an organization’s culture and how the culture can be managed.
      • Identify and describe the major trends and dimensions of diversity and multiculturalism in organizations.
      • Discuss the primary effects of diversity and multiculturalism.
      • Describe individual and organizational strategies and approaches to managing diversity and multiculturalism.
      • Discuss the six characteristics of the fully multicultural organization.
  • 3. Chapter Outline
    • The Nature of Organization and Social Culture
      • The Organization’s Culture
      • The Importance of Organization Culture
      • Determinants of Organization Culture
      • Managing Organization Culture
    • Diversity and Multiculturalism in Organizations
      • Trends in Diversity and Multiculturalism
      • Dimensions of Diversity and Multiculturalism
    • Effects of Diversity and Multiculturalism in Organizations
      • Multiculturalism and Competitive Advantage
      • Multiculturalism and Conflict
    • Managing Diversity and Multiculturalism in Organizations
      • Individual Strategies
      • Organizational Approaches
    • Toward the Multicultural Organization
  • 4. The Organization and Culture
    • Organizational Culture
      • Values, beliefs, behaviors, customs, and attitudes that help the members of the organization understand what it stands for, how it does things, and what it considers important.
    • Multiculturalism
      • The broad issues associated with differences in values, beliefs, behaviors, customs, and attitudes held by people in different cultures.
    • Diversity
      • When members of a group differ from one another along dimensions such as age, gender, or ethnicity.
  • 5. The Organization’s Culture
    • The Importance of Organization Culture
      • Culture determines the overall “feel” of the organization, although it may vary across different segments of the organization.
      • Culture is a powerful force that can shape the firm’s overall effectiveness and long-term success.
    • Determinants of Organizational Culture
      • Organization’s founder (personal values and beliefs).
      • Symbols, stories, heroes, slogans, and ceremonies that embody and personify the spirit of the organization.
      • Corporate success that strengthens the culture.
      • Shared experiences that bond organizational members together.
  • 6. Organizational Culture
    • Managing Organizational Culture
      • Understand the current culture to understand whether to maintain or change it.
      • Articulate the culture through slogans, ceremonies, and shared experiences.
      • Reward and promote people whose behaviors are consistent with desired cultural values.
    • Changing Organizational Culture
      • Develop a clear idea of what kind of culture you want to create.
      • Bring in outsiders to important managerial positions.
      • Adopt new slogans, stories, ceremonies, and purposely break with tradition.
  • 7. Trends in Diversity and Multiculturalism
    • Reasons for Increasing Diversity and Multiculturalism
    Figure 6.1 Increasing diversity and multiculturalism in organizations Increased aware- ness that diversity improves the quality of the workforce The globalization movement Legislation and legal action Changing demographics in the labor force
  • 8. Dimensions of Diversity and Multiculturalism
    • Age Distributions
      • Average age of the U.S. workforce is gradually increasing and will continue to do so for the next several years.
    • Gender
      • Females were 46% of the workforce in 1994. The gender gap in the number of women in upper-management positions can be partially attributed to the discriminatory effect of the “glass ceiling” on female managers.
    • Ethnicity
      • The ethnic composition of the U.S. workforce will change most with the increasing number of Hispanic workers and the decline in white workers.
  • 9. Age Distributions Figure 6.2 1999 2025 Under 15 15 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 49 50 to 64 65 or older 21.4% 20.1% 13.9% 13.1% 14% 12.9% 23.5% 18.2% 14.6% 17.2% 12.7% 18.5% By 2025, more than one-third of the population will be over age 50: 1999 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 40 The median age will climb to 38: 39 38 37 36 35 0 38 35.5
  • 10. Dimensions of Diversity and Multiculturalism (cont’d)
    • Other Dimensions of Diversity
      • More handicapped individuals are entering the workforce.
      • Workforce diversity is expected to increase due to diversity in religious and political beliefs and viewpoints, lifestyles, and various other individual characteristics.
    • Multicultural Differences
      • The increasing globalization of business and immigration patterns will affect workforce diversity and present challenges to managers to successfully manage diversity.
  • 11. Ethnicity Distribution Trends in the U.S. Figure 6.3 2 0 2 5 1 9 9 9 W h i t e O t h e r r a c i a l o r e t h n i c g r o u p 37.6% 62.4% 28% 72% Racial or ethnic breakdown Hispanics 17.6% Blacks 13% Asians 6.2% Native Americans 0.8% Racial or ethnic breakdown Hispanics 11.5% Blacks 12.1% Asians 3.7% Native Americans 0.7% By 2025, Hispanics will be the largest minority group in the United States. The share of the population of each group now and projected in 2025
  • 12. How Diversity and Multiculturalism Promote Competitive Advantage Figure 6.4 Resource acquisition argument Systems flexibility argument Creativity argument Competitive Advantage Cost argument Problem- solving argument Marketing argument
  • 13. Diversity and Competitive Advantage
    • Diversity promotes competitive advantage by:
      • increasing organizational systems’ flexibility.
      • bringing added creativity.
      • increasing the market scope of products.
      • broadening the resources acquisition basis.
      • adding a diversity of viewpoints to problem-solving decision-making processes.
      • decreasing the cost of doing business.
  • 14. Multiculturalism and Conflict
    • Sources of Conflict
      • Personnel actions being attributed to diversity status.
      • Misunderstood, misinterpreted, or inappropriate actions between people or groups.
      • Cultural differences in work hours, personal styles, interpersonal relations, and conflict.
      • Fear, distrust, or individual prejudices.
  • 15. America’s Best Companies for Minorities Table 6.1
  • 16. Managing Diversity and Multiculturalism in Organizations
    • Individual Strategies
      • Understanding the nature and meaning of diversity and multiculturalism.
      • Developing empathy in understanding the perspective of others.
      • Developing tolerance of fundamental cultural differences.
      • Having a willingness to communicate and discuss diversity and multiculturalism issues.
  • 17. Managing Diversity and Multiculturalism in Organizations (cont’d)
    • Organizational Approaches
      • Organizational Policies
        • Actively seek a diverse and varied workforce.
        • Positive responses to diversity problems.
        • Mission statement of commitment to diversity.
      • Organizational Practices
        • Support networks, structured benefits packages, flexible working hours, and diversity in work groups and teams.
      • Diversity and Multicultural Training
        • Training that enables organization members to function in a diverse and multicultural environment.
      • Organizational Culture
        • Incorporating into a culture the valuation of diversity.
  • 18. Toward The Multicultural Organization
    • Basic Characteristics
      • Pluralism in which every organizational group works to understand every other group.
      • Full structural integration such that the makeup of the organization reflects the external labor market.
      • Full integration of the informal network that removes barriers to entry and participation in the organization.
      • Absence of prejudice and discrimination .
      • No gap in organizational identification based on cultural identity group.
      • Low levels of intergroup conflict .
  • 19. Toward The Multicultural Organization (cont’d)
    • The Multicultural Organization
    Source: Based on Taylor H. Cox, “ The Multicultural Organization ,” Academy of Management Executive, May 1991, pp. 34 –47. Reprinted with permission. Figure 6.5 Pluralism Full structural integration Full integration of the informal network Absence of prejudice and discrimination No gap in organizational identification based on cultural identity group Low levels of intergroup conflict