GLOSSARYActor-observer effect: The tendency to make            Aptitude: A combination of characteristics    different att...
Case study: An intensive study of an individual            to compete with many others for even basic    or a situation to...
Defence mechanisms: According to Freud, ways                an electric current through the brain, causing    in which the...
Fluid intelligence: Ability to perceive complex        Hardiness: It is a set of beliefs about oneself, the     relationsh...
shifted fr om industrial psychology to          Life skills: Abilities for adaptive and positive       organisational psyc...
Oedipus complex: The Freudian concept in which              overcrowding, lack of public amenities,    the young child dev...
that unacceptable unconscious impulses will      Roles: An important concept in social psychology       enter consciousnes...
Social facilitation: The tendency for people’s        Superego: According to Freud, the final personality    performance t...
Unconscious: In psychoanalytic theory,        Values: Enduring beliefs about ideal modes of   characterising    any    act...
SUGGESTED READINGSFor developing further understanding on the topics, you may liketo read the following books• Baron, R.A....
NOTES210      Psychology
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  1. 1. GLOSSARYActor-observer effect: The tendency to make Aptitude: A combination of characteristics different attributions for one’s own experience indicative of individual’s potential to acquire or behaviour (actor), and for the same some specific skills with training. experience or behaviour in the case of another person (observer). Aptitude tests: Tests meant to measure individual’s potential to predict futureAdaptation: Structural or functional change that performance. enhances the organism’s survival value. Archetypes: Jung’s term for the contents of theAggression: An overt behaviour intended to hurt collective unconscious; images or symbols someone, either physically or verbally. expressing the inherited patterns for theAir pollution: Degraded quality of air is air organisation of experience. pollution. Arousal: The tension experienced at the thoughtAlarm reaction: The first stage of the general of others being present, and/or performance adaptation syndrome characterised by an being evaluated. emergency reaction involving the mobilisation of energy through adrenal and sympathetic Attitudes: States of the mind, thoughts or ideas activity. regarding a topic, containing a cognitive, affective and behavioural component.Alienation: The feeling of not being part of society or a group. Attitude object: The target of an attitude.Anal stage: The second of Freud’s psychosexual Attribution: Explaining our own or others’ stages, which occurs during the child’s behaviour by pointing out the cause(s). second year. Pleasure is focused on the anus Authority: The rights inherent in a position (e.g., and on retention and expulsion of faeces. managerial) to give orders and to expect theAnorexia nervosa: Disorder involving severe loss orders to be obeyed, of body weight, accompanied by an intense Autism: Pervasive developmental disorder fear of gaining weight or becoming “fat”. beginning in infancy and involving a wideAntisocial personality: A behavioural disorder range of abnormalities, including deficits in characterised by truancy, delinquency, language, perceptual, and motor promiscuity, theft, vandalism, fighting, development, defective reality testing, and violation of common social rules, poor work social withdrawal. record, impulsiveness, irrationality, aggressiveness, reckless behaviour, and Balance: The state of an attitude system in which inability to plan ahead. The particular pattern the attitudes between a person (P) and of behaviour varies from individual to another individual (O), the person (P) and the individual. attitude object (X), and between the other individual (O) and the attitude object (X) areAnxiety: A state of psychic distress characterised in the same direction, or logically consistent by fear, apprehension, and physiological with each other. arousal. Behaviour therapy: Therapy based on theAnxiety disorders: Disorders in which anxiety is principles of behaviouristic learning theories a central symptom. The disorder is in order to change the maladaptive behaviour. characterised by feelings of vulnerability, apprehension, or fear. Beliefs: The cognitive component of the thoughtsApplied psychology : The practical application of or ideas regarding a topic. what is known about the mind, brain, and Cardinal trait: According to Allport, a single trait behaviour as a result of theoretical and that dominates an individual’s entire experimental psychology. personality. 200 Psychology
  2. 2. Case study: An intensive study of an individual to compete with many others for even basic or a situation to develop general principles resources, including physical space. about behaviour. Compliance: A form of social influence in whichCentral traits: The major trait considered in one or more persons, not holding authority, forming an impression of others. accepts direct requests from one or more others.Centrality of attitude: The extent to which a specific attitude affects the entire attitude Componential intelligence: In Sternberg’s system. triarchic theory, it refers to ability to think critically and analytically.Client-centred (Rogerian) therapy: The therapeutic approach developed by Carl Conflict: A state of disturbance or tension Rogers in which therapist helps clients to resulting from opposing motives, drives, clarify their true feelings and come to value needs or goals. who they are. Conformity: A type of social influence in whichCoaction: A situation in which many people are individuals change their attitudes or performing the same task individually in the behaviour in order to adhere to existing social presence of others. norms.Cognition: The process of knowing. The mental Congruent attitude change: Attitude change in activities associated with thought, decision- the same direction as that of the existing making, language, and other higher mental attitude. processes. Contextual intelligence: In Sternberg’s triarchicCognitive assessment system: A battery of tests theory, it is the practical intelligence used in designed to measure the four basic PASS solving everyday problems. (Planning-Attention-Simultaneous- Successive) processes. Coping: The process of trying to manage demands that are appraised as taxing or exceedingCognitive consistency: A state in which thoughts one’s resources. or ideas are logically in line with each other. Counselling: A broad name for a wide variety ofCognitive dissonance: The state of an attitude procedures for helping individuals achieve system in which two cognitive elements are adjustment, such as the giving of advice, logically contradictory, or inconsistent. therapeutic discussion, the administrationCognitive therapies: Forms of therapy focused and interpretation of tests, and vocational on changing distorted and maladaptive assistance. patterns of thought. Counselling interview: An interview whoseCohesiveness: All forces (factors) that cause group purpose is counselling or providing guidance members to remain in the group. in the area of personality, vocational choice, etc.Collective unconscious: Inherited portion of the unconscious, as postulated by Carl Jung. The Creativity: The ability to produce ideas, objects, unconscious shared by all human beings. and problem solutions that are novel and appropriate.Communicable disease: An illness due to specific infectious agent capable of being directly or Crowding: A psychological feeling of too little space; indirectly transmitted from man to man, perception of crampedness. animal to animal, or from the environment Crowding tolerance: The ability to mentally deal to man or animal. with a high density or crowded environment,Competition: Mutual striving between two such as a crowded residence. individuals or groups for the same objective. Culture-fair test: A test that does not discriminateCompetition tolerance: The ability to put up with examinees on the basis of their cultural a situation in which individuals would have experiences. 201 Glossary
  3. 3. Defence mechanisms: According to Freud, ways an electric current through the brain, causing in which the ego unconsciously tries to cope a convulsion. It is effective in the treatment with unacceptable id impulses, as in of cases of several depression that fail to repression, projection, reaction formation, respond to drug therapy. sublimation, rationalisation, etc. Emotional intelligence: A cluster of traits orDeinstitutionalisation: The transfer of former abilities relating to the emotional side of life — mental patients from institutions into the abilities such as recognising and managing community. one’s own emotions, being able to motivate oneself and restrain one’s impulses,Delusions: Irrational beliefs that are held despite recognising and managing others’ emotions, overwhelming evidence to the contrary. and handling interpersonal relationships inDepersonalisation disorder: Dissociative disorder an effective manner. It is expressed in the in which there is a loss of the sense of self. form of an emotional quotient (EQ) score.Diathesis-stress model: A view that the interaction Empathy: Reacting to another’s feelings with an of factors such as biological predisposition emotional response that is similar to the combined with life stress may cause a specific other’s feelings. disorder. Environment: Totality, or any aspect of physicalDiffusion of responsibility: The thought that and social set-up that surround and affect when others are present, one person alone an individual organism. will not be held responsible for doing, or not Environmental psychology: The branch of doing, something; other members are also psychology that concentrates on the responsible and will therefore do the task. interaction between the physical world andDisaster: A disaster is an unforeseen and often human behaviour. sudden event that disrupts the normal Evaluation apprehension: The fear of being conditions within a society and causes evaluated negatively by others who are widespread damage, destruction, and human present (an audience). suffering. Exhaustion: State in which energy resources haveDiscrimination: Behaviour that shows a been used up and responsiveness is reduced distinction being made between two or more to a minimum. persons, often on the basis of the person’s (or persons’) membership of a particular Exorcism: Religiously inspired treatment group. procedure designed to drive out evil spirits or forces from a “possessed” person.Displacement: Redirecting an impulse towards a less threatening or safer target; a key concept Experiential intelligence: In Sternberg’s triarchic in psychoanalytic theory; a defence theory, it is the ability to use past experiences mechanism. creatively to solve novel problems.Dissociation: A split in consciousness whereby Extraversion: One of the dimensions of personality certain thoughts, feelings, and behaviour in which interests are directed outwards to operate independently from others. nature and other people rather than inwards to the thoughts and feelings of self (introvert).Ecology: That branch of biology which deals with the relations of organisms to their Extremeness of attitude: Refers to how far an environment. attitude is from the neutral point.Ego: The part of the personality that provides a Factor analysis: Mathematical procedure, buffer between the id and the outside world. involving correlations, for sorting trait terms or test responses into clusters or factors; usedElectroconvulsive therapy (ECT): Commonly in the development of tests designed to called “shock treatment”. A biological discover basic personality traits. It identifies treatment for unipolar depression in which items that are homogeneous or internally electrodes attached to a patient’s head send consistent and independent of others. 202 Psychology
  4. 4. Fluid intelligence: Ability to perceive complex Hardiness: It is a set of beliefs about oneself, the relationships, reason abstractly, and solve world, and how they interact. It has three problems. characteristics, i.e. commitment, control, and challenge.Free association: A psychodynamic technique in which the patient describes verbally any Homeostasis: A state of physiological balance thought, feeling, or image that comes to mind, within the body. even if it seems unimportant. Humanistic approach: The theory that people areFundamental attribution error: The tendency to basically good and tend to grow to higher attribute internal causes more than external levels of functioning. causes for behaviour. Humanistic therapy: A therapy in which theGeneral adaptation syndrome (GAS): It consists underlying assumption is that people have of three phases : an alarm phase which control over their behaviour, can make promotes sympathetic nervous system choices about their lives, and are essentially activity, a resistance phase during which the responsible for solving their own problems. organism makes efforts to cope with the Hypochondriasis: A psychological disorder in threat, and an exhaustion phase which which the individual is dominated by occurs if the organism fails to overcome the preoccupation with bodily processes and fear threat and depletes its physiological of presumed diseases despite reassurance resources. from doctors that no physical illness exists.Genetics: The study of how the qualities of living Id: According to Freud, the impulsive and things are passed on in their genes. unconscious part of the psyche that operates through the pleasure principle toward theGestalt therapy: An approach to therapy that gratification of instinctual drives. The id is attempts to integrate a client’s thoughts, conceived as the true unconscious, or the feelings, and behaviour into a unified whole. deepest part of the psyche.g-factor: General intelligence factor referring to a Ideal self: The kind of person we would like to be. basic intellectual capacity underlying all Also called ego-ideal/idealised self-image. manifestations of intelligence. Identification: The process of feeling one withGroup: Two or more persons who interact with one another person, usually resulting from liking another, have shared goals, are or extreme regard for the other person. interdependent, and consider themselves as members of group. Identity: The distinguishing character of the individual: who each of us is, what our rolesGroup test: A test designed to be administered to are, and what we are capable of. more than one individual at the same time, in contrast to individual test. Incongruent attitude change: Attitude change in a direction opposite to that of the existingGroupthink: A mode of thinking in which the attitude. desire to reach unanimous agreement over- Individual differences: Distinctiveness and rides the wish to adopt proper, rational, unique variations among people’s decision-making procedures; an example of characteristics and behaviour patterns. group polarisation. Individual test: A test that must be given to aHallucination: A false perception which has a single individual at a time, typically by a compulsive sense of the reality of objects specially trained person. The Binet and although relevant and adequate stimuli for Wechsler intelligence tests are examples of such perception is lacking. It is an abnormal individual tests. phenomenon. Industrial/organisational psychology: A sub-Halo effect: The tendency to link positive qualities field of psychology that focuses on with other positive qualities about which relationship between people and work. In the information is not available. contemporary context, the emphasis has 203 Glossary
  5. 5. shifted fr om industrial psychology to Life skills: Abilities for adaptive and positive organisational psychology, which includes behaviour that enable individuals to deal industrial and all other organisations. effectively with the environment.Inferiority complex: According to Adler, a complex Lifestyle: In the context of health psychology, the developed by adults who have not been able overall pattern of decisions and behaviours to overcome the feelings of inferiority they that determine health and quality of life. developed as children, when they were small Meditation: A technique of tur ning one’s and limited in their knowledge about the concentration inward and achieving an world. altered state of consciousness.Ingroup: The social group to which an individual Mental age (MA): A measure of intellectual perceives herself or himself as belonging functioning expressed in terms of age. (“us”). The group with which one identifies. The other groups are outgroups. Mental retardation: Sub-average intellectual functioning combined with varying degreesInstrumental perspective: The approach that of deficits in adaptive behaviour. suggests that the physical environment exists mainly for use by human beings for their Metaneeds: In the hierarchy of needs, those at comfort and well-being. the top, such as self-actualisation, self- esteem, aesthetic needs, and the like, whichIntellectual giftedness: Exceptional general can only be satisfied when lower order needs intellectual efficiency shown in superior are satisfied. performance in a wide range of tasks. Modelling: A process of learning in which anIntelligence: The capacity to understand the individual acquires responses by observing world, to think rationally, and to use and imitating others. resources ef fectively when faced with challenges. Mood disorder: Disorder affecting one’s emotional state, including depression and bipolarIntelligence quotient (IQ): An index derived from disorder. standardised intelligence tests indicating a ratio of mental age to chronological age. Neurotransmitter: Chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to the dendrite (andIntelligence tests: Tests designed to measure sometimes the cell body) of a receiver neuron. person’s level of intelligence. Noise: An unwanted sound, one that brings aboutInterest: An individual’s preference for one or more a negative affective response. specific activities. Normal probability curve: A symmetrical, bell-Interview: Verbal interaction between a shaped frequency distribution. Most scores respondent and a researcher to gather are found near the middle, and fewer and information about the respondent. fewer occur towards the extremes. ManyIntroversion: One of the dimensions of personality psychological characteristics are distributed in which interests are directed inwards rather in this manner. than outwards (extravert). Norms: Standards of test performance that permitKernel of truth: The small element of truth that the comparison of one person’s score on the may be perceived in overgeneralised clusters test to the scores of others who have taken of beliefs about groups (stereotypes). the same test.Latency period: In Freud’s theory of psychosexual Obedience: Confirming behaviour in reaction to stages, the period between the phallic stage the commands of others. and the mature genital stage (period from age Observational method: A method in which 4 or 5 to about 12) during which interest in researcher observes a phenomenon that sex is sublimated. occurs naturally without being able toLibido: Freud introduced this term. In Freud’s manipulate any of the factors. treatment, libido was quite simply a direct or Obsessive-compulsive disorder: A disorder indirect sexual expression. characterised by obsessions or compulsions. 204 Psychology
  6. 6. Oedipus complex: The Freudian concept in which overcrowding, lack of public amenities, the young child develops an intense desire to mal- and under-nutrition, and increased replace the parent of the same sex and enjoy susceptibility to diseases. that affection of the opposite sex parent. Poverty alleviation: Measures/programmes takenOptimism: The tendency to seek out, remember, up to reduce poverty. and expect pleasurable experiences. Prejudice: A prejudgment, usually a negativeOutgroup: Any group of which an individual is attitude that is unverified, and is often not a member. towards a group.Peace: It is the absence of hostility and an Primacy effect: The stronger role of information expression of harmony with fellow human that comes first. beings and the environment. Primary group: Group in which each member isPerformance test: A test in which the role of personally known to each of the other language is minimised, the task requiring member, and in which the members, at least overt motor responses other than verbal. on occasion, meet face-to-face.Personal identity: Awareness of oneself as a Problem solving behaviour: The activity and separate, distinct being. mental processes involved in overcoming thePersonal space: The small area around an obstacles, physical or conceptual, which lie individual considered belonging to her/him between an animal and its goal. whose invasion is experienced as threatening Pro-environmental behaviour: Willingness and or unpleasant. activities of human beings to protect thePersuasibility: The degree to which people can be environment are pro-envir onmental made to change their attitudes. behaviour.Phallic stage: Third of Freud’s psychosexual stages Projection: A defence mechanism; the process of (at about age five) when pleasure is focused unwittingly attributing one’s own traits, on the genitals and both males and females attitudes, or subjective processes to others. experience the “Oedipus complex”. Projective techniques: The utilisation of vague,Phobia: A strong, persistent, and irrational fear of ambiguous, unstructured stimulus objects or some specific object or situation that presents situations in order to elicit the individual’s little or no actual danger to a person. characteristic modes of perceiving her/his world or of behaving in it.Physical environment: It is the nature that includes climate, air, water, temperature, flora Pro-social behaviour: Behaviour that does good and fauna. to another person, is done without any pressure from outside, and without anyPlanning: In Das’s PASS model of intelligence, it expectation of a reward or return. involves goal setting, strategy selection, and monitoring of goal-orientation. Prototype: A schema in the form of a category representing all the possible qualities of anPositive health: It includes a healthy body, good object or a person. interpersonal relationships, a sense of purpose in life, and resilience to stress, Proximity: The principle of Gestalt psychology that trauma and change. stimuli close together tend to be perceived as a group.Post-traumatic stress disorder: Patterns of symptoms involving anxiety reactions, Psychodynamic approach: Approach that strives tensions, nightmares, and depression for explanation of behaviour in terms of following a disaster such as an earthquake motives, or drives. or a flood. Psychodynamic therapy: First suggested byPoverty: Poverty is the economic deprivation. It is Freud; therapy based on the premise that the associated with low income, hunger, low caste primary sources of abnormal behaviour are and class status, illiteracy, poor housing, unresolved past conflicts and the possibility 205 Glossary
  7. 7. that unacceptable unconscious impulses will Roles: An important concept in social psychology enter consciousness. which refers to the behaviour expected of an individual in accordance with the positionPsychological test: An objective and standardised s/he holds in a particular society. instrument for measuring an individual’s mental and behavioural traits; used by Scapegoating: Placing the blame on a group for psychologists to help people make decisions something that has gone wrong, because the about their lives and understand more about blamed group cannot defend itself. themselves. Schema: A mental structure that guides socialPsychoneuroimmunology: Interactions among (and other) cognition. behavioural, neuroendocrine, and immuno- Schizophrenia: A group of psychotic reactions logical processes of adaptation. characterised by the breakdown of integratedPsychotherapy: The use of any psychological personality functioning, withdrawal from technique in the treatment of mental/ reality, emotional blunting and distortion, psychological disorder or maladjustment. and disturbances in thought and behaviour.Rational emotive therapy (RET): A therapeutic Self-actualisation: A state of self-fulfilment in system developed by Albert Ellis. It seeks to which people realise their highest potential replace irrational, problem-provoking in their own unique way. outlooks with more realistic ones. Self-awareness: Insight into one’s own motives,Rationalisation: A defence mechanism that occurs potential and limitations. when one attempts to explain failure or short- Self-efficacy: Bandura’s term for the individual’s comings by attributing them to more beliefs about her or his own effectiveness; the acceptable causes. expectation that one can master a situationReaction formation: A defence mechanism in and produce positive outcomes. which a person denies a disapproved motive Self-esteem: The individual’s personal judgment through giving strong expression to its of her or his own worth; one’s attitude toward opposite. oneself along a positive-negative dimension.Recency effect: The stronger role of information Self-fulfilling prophecy: Behaving in a way that that comes last. confirms the prediction others make.Regression: A defence mechanism that involves a Self-regulation: Refers to our ability to organise return to behaviours characteristic of an and monitor our own behaviour. earlier stage in life. The term is also used in statistics, in which with the help of correlation Sensitivity: Tendency to respond to very low levels prediction is made. of physical stimulation.Rehabilitation: Restoring an individual to normal, Simplicity or complexity (multiplexity) of or as satisfactory a state as possible, following attitude: Whether the whole attitude consists an illness, criminal episode, etc. of a single or very few sub-attitudes (simple), or contains many sub-attitudes (multiplex).Relaxation training: A procedure in which clients are taught to release all the tension in their Simultaneous processing: Cognitive processing bodies. in the PASS model that involves integrating elements of the stimulus situation intoRepression: A defence mechanism by which people composite and meaningful patterns. push unacceptable, anxiety-provoking thoughts and impulses into the unconscious Situationism: A principle which states that to avoid confronting them directly. situations and circumstances outside oneself have the power to influence behaviour.Resilience: The maintenance of positive adjustment under challenging life conditions. Social cognition: The processes through which we notice, interpret, remember, and later useResistance: In psychoanalysis, attempts by the social information. It helps in making sense patient to block treatment. of other people and ourselves. 206 Psychology
  8. 8. Social facilitation: The tendency for people’s Superego: According to Freud, the final personality performance to improve in the presence of structure to develop; it represents society’s others, or an audience. standards of right and wrong as handed down by person’s parents, teachers, and otherSocial identity: A person’s definition of who she important figures. or he is; includes personal attributes (self- concept) along with membership in various Surface traits: R.B. Cattell’s term for clusters of groups. observable trait elements (responses) that seem to go together. Factor analysis of theSocial influence: The process by which the actions correlations reveals source traits. of an individual or group affect the behaviour of others. Syndrome: Group or pattern of symptoms that occur together in a disorder and representSocial inhibition: Social restraint on conduct. the typical picture of the disorder.Social loafing: In a group, each additional individual puts in less effort, thinking that Systematic desensitisation: A for m of others will be putting in their effort. behavioural therapy in which phobic client learns to induce a relaxed state and thenSocial support: Information from other people that exposed to stimuli that elicit fear or phobia. one is loved and cared for, esteemed and valued, and part of a network of Therapeutic alliance: The special relationship communication and mutual obligation. between the client and the therapist; contractual nature of the relationship andSomatoform disorders: Conditions involving limited duration of the therapy are its two physical complaints or disabilities occurring major components. in the absence of any identifiable organic cause. Token economy: Forms of behaviour therapy based on operant conditioning in whichSpiritual perspective: The perspective that hospitalised patients earn tokens they can specifies to do activities what are desirable exchange for valued rewards, when they in accordance with the scriptures. It pleads behave in ways the hospital staff consider to for a harmony between man and nature. be desirable.Status: Social rank within a group. Trait: A relatively persistent and consistentStereotype: An overgeneralised and unverified behaviour pattern manifested in a wide range prototype about a particular group. of circumstances.Stress: Our response to events that disrupt or Trait approach: An approach to personality that threaten to disrupt our physical and seeks to identify the basic traits necessary to psychological functioning. describe personality.Stressors: Events or situations in our environment Transactional approach: It includes interactions that cause stress. between people and environment. Human beings affect the environment and in turn areStructure: The enduring form and composition of affected by the environment. a complex system or phenomenon. Contrast with function, which is a process of a Transference: Strong positive or negative feelings relatively brief duration, arising out of toward the therapist on the part of individual structure. undergoing psychoanalysis.Substance abuse: The use of any drug or chemical Typology: Ways of categorising individuals into to modify mood or behaviour that results in discrete categories or types, e.g. Type-A impairment. personality.Successive processing: Cognitive processing in Unconditional positive regard: An attitude of the PASS model where elements of the acceptance and respect on the part of an stimulus situation are responded to observer, no matter what the other person sequentially. says or does. 207 Glossary
  9. 9. Unconscious: In psychoanalytic theory, Values: Enduring beliefs about ideal modes of characterising any activity or behaviour or end-state of existence; attitudes that have a strong evaluative and ‘ought’ mental structure which a person is not aspect. aware of. Verbal test: Test in which a subject’s ability toValence of attitude: Whether an attitude is understand and use words and concepts is positive or negative. important in making the required responses.208 Psychology
  10. 10. SUGGESTED READINGSFor developing further understanding on the topics, you may liketo read the following books• Baron, R.A. 2001/Indian reprint 2002. Psychology (5th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.• Bellack, A.S., & Hersen, M. 1998. Comprehensive Clinical Psychology. Elsevier. London.• Carson, R.C., Butcher, J.N., & Mineka, S. 2004. Abnormal Psychology and Modern Life. Pearson Education. Delhi.• Davis, S.F., & Palladino, J.H. 1997. Psychology. Prentice-Hall, Inc.• Davison, G.C. 1998. Abnormal Psychology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.• Gerow, J.R. 1997. Psychology : An Introduction. Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.• Gleitman, H. 1996. Basic Psychology. W.W. Norton & Company.• Sadock, B.J., & Sadock, V.A. (Eds.) 2004. Kaplan & Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry (8th ed., Vol. II). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.• Lahey, B.B. 1998. Psychology : An Introduction. Tata McGraw-Hill.• Malim, T., & Birch, A. 1998. Introductory Psychology. Macmillan Press Ltd.• McMahon, J.W., McMahon, F.B., & Romano, T. 1995. Psychology and You. West Publishing Company.• Weiten, W. 2001. Psychology : Themes and Variations. Thomson Learning, Inc. Wadsworth.• Zimbardo, P.G., & Weber, A.L. 1997. Psychology. Longman. New York.
  11. 11. NOTES210 Psychology