Primate evolution

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  • 10my of tectonic, climatic, floral/faunal change Temperatures drop Primates disappear from NA and Europe
  • By late Eocene, earliest anthropoids are though to have diverged
  • Fayum Beds – no intermediates Asia earlier and more primitive but anthropoids? Now more primitive specimens from NW Africa
  • ~4oz size of pygmy marmoset, diurnal, insectivore/frugivore
  • Orangs former range
  • Primate evolution

    1. 1. PRIMATE EVOLUTION
    2. 2. The Paleocene Epoch ~65-55 mya <ul><li>65mya dinosaurs disappear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New forest floor niches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primates diverge from some ancestral insectivore </li></ul><ul><li>Tree shrew model </li></ul><ul><li>Arboreal vs. visual predation theory </li></ul>
    3. 3. ARCHONTA Scadentia, Dermoptera (colugos), Plesiadapiformes Bats are out
    4. 4. Eocene Epoch (~55-35 mya) <ul><li>Earliest fossils </li></ul><ul><li>Majority in North America & Europe but also Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Prosimian radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm adaptive radiation / P-E thermal maximum </li></ul>
    5. 5. Adapoidea <ul><li>More primitive </li></ul><ul><li>Diurnal </li></ul><ul><li>Medium-sized arboreal leapers </li></ul><ul><li>Frugivory with s ome folivory </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestral to strepsirhines </li></ul>
    6. 6. Omomyoidea <ul><li>Nocturnal </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Arboreal leapers </li></ul><ul><li>Insectivore/frugivores and gumnivory </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestor to tarsiers, possibly anthropoids </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Prosimians spread into Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Motor to Madagascar </li></ul><ul><li>Shangiladida!...until humans migrate </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Fill variety of niches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Woodpeckers </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Late Eocene / Early Oligocene <ul><li>10my of tectonic, climatic, floral/faunal change </li></ul><ul><li>Temperatures drop </li></ul><ul><li>Primates disappear from NA and Europe </li></ul><ul><li>High extinctions elsewhere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-O evolutionary bottleneck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few fossils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily Fayum </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Adapoid </li></ul><ul><li>Omomyoid </li></ul><ul><li>Tarsier </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient/other </li></ul>
    11. 11. ASIA OR NORTH AFRICA? Siamopithecus Eosimias
    12. 12. Eosimias : The Dawn Monkey
    13. 13. Prosimians outside Madagascar go extinct, except… WHY?
    14. 14. Oligocene Epoch (~35-24 mya) <ul><li>Anthropoid radiation </li></ul>
    15. 16. <ul><li>Three families: </li></ul><ul><li>I. Parapithecidae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most primitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought ancestral to NW monkeys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>II. Oligopithecidae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>III. Propliopithecidae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most derived </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalized anthropoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ancestral to OW anthropoids </li></ul></ul>
    16. 18. <ul><li>Sea level low </li></ul><ul><li>More exposed land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental shelves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ridges… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Currents </li></ul><ul><li>Computer modeling - weeks </li></ul>NEW WORLD MONKEYS
    17. 19. <ul><li>Small, squirrel-sized, leaping arboreal quadruped </li></ul>Apidium 2-1-3-3 dental formula
    18. 20. <ul><li>Precede appearance in New World by 10mya </li></ul><ul><li>Rodents in NW appear around same time and resemble African porcupine </li></ul>
    19. 21. <ul><li>Few fossils </li></ul>
    20. 22. <ul><li>Many have not changed much </li></ul>
    21. 23. OW Anthropoid Phylogeny
    22. 24. Aegyptopithecus / Propliopithecus Note: no tail
    23. 26. <ul><li>OW monkeys likely diverged late Oligocene </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive radiation continues </li></ul>
    24. 28. <ul><li>During early period, apes successful and radiation of OW monkeys was slow </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to flourish after apes begin to decline </li></ul><ul><li>More generalized/successful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Derived terrestriality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter life stages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not as tied to forest so survive when apes die out in late Miocene </li></ul><ul><li>May have contributed to ape decline </li></ul>
    25. 29. Miocene Epoch (~24-5 mya) <ul><li>Hominoid Radiation </li></ul>
    26. 30. <ul><li>Evolve in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Spread into Eurasia via land bridge ~16mya </li></ul>
    27. 31. Large geographic range relative to modern
    28. 33. <ul><li>Warmer than Oligocene </li></ul><ul><li>But seasons more pronounced </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing aridification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain shadow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forests change </li></ul><ul><li>Hominoids fill niches </li></ul>
    29. 34. Early Miocene (24-16mya) African Hominoids <ul><li>Fossils primarily from Kenya and Uganda </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple genera </li></ul>
    30. 35. <ul><li>Different habitats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical to more open woodland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different sizes (3-50kg) </li></ul><ul><li>Some arboreal some derived terrestrial adaptations for exploiting forest floor (like Pan & Gorilla ) </li></ul><ul><li>Different locomotor patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different morphology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some SHA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different diets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thick enamel – hard foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin enamel – softer foods </li></ul></ul>
    31. 36. <ul><li>Best known </li></ul><ul><li>Our ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>Arboreal climbers </li></ul><ul><li>No SHA </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily frugivores </li></ul><ul><li>Sexually dimorphic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~chimps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polygynous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kenyapithecus or Afropithecus ? </li></ul>Proconsul
    32. 37. HAND/FOREARM OF P. HESELONI LOWER LEG P.HESELONI, PAN , and P. NYANZAE Links to modern hominoids (long bones, no tail) but so primitive, difficult to trace ancestry through any of these early apes. Proconsul
    33. 38. <ul><li>70-150# </li></ul><ul><li>Arboreal quadruped </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacking SHA </li></ul></ul>
    34. 39. Gigantopithecus (Size of ♀ gorilla?)
    35. 40. Ancestry of Hylobatidae uncertain possibly diverged 16-18mya
    36. 41. Mid-Miocene (16-11) Rapid radiation in Eurasia Dryopithecus
    37. 42. Dental (Oak) apes <ul><li>Few fossils </li></ul><ul><li>Jaws and teeth </li></ul><ul><li>France, Spain, Italy, Greece, Austria </li></ul>
    38. 43. LATE MIOCENE (11-5mya) <ul><li>Greatest diversity of hominoids </li></ul><ul><li>Europe: Dryopithecus , Oreopithecus , Oaranopithecus </li></ul><ul><li>Asia: Ankarapithecus (Turkey), Sivapithecus (Pakistan), Lufengpithecus (China) </li></ul><ul><li>Africa: Otavipithecus (Namibia) </li></ul>
    39. 44. NEWSFLASH!!! <ul><li>Nakalipithecus nakayamai </li></ul><ul><li>Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>~10mya </li></ul><ul><li>Possible missing link </li></ul>

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