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Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
Primate evolution
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Primate evolution

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  • 10my of tectonic, climatic, floral/faunal change Temperatures drop Primates disappear from NA and Europe
  • By late Eocene, earliest anthropoids are though to have diverged
  • Fayum Beds – no intermediates Asia earlier and more primitive but anthropoids? Now more primitive specimens from NW Africa
  • ~4oz size of pygmy marmoset, diurnal, insectivore/frugivore
  • Orangs former range
  • Transcript

    • 1. PRIMATE EVOLUTION
    • 2. The Paleocene Epoch ~65-55 mya <ul><li>65mya dinosaurs disappear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New forest floor niches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primates diverge from some ancestral insectivore </li></ul><ul><li>Tree shrew model </li></ul><ul><li>Arboreal vs. visual predation theory </li></ul>
    • 3. ARCHONTA Scadentia, Dermoptera (colugos), Plesiadapiformes Bats are out
    • 4. Eocene Epoch (~55-35 mya) <ul><li>Earliest fossils </li></ul><ul><li>Majority in North America & Europe but also Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Prosimian radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm adaptive radiation / P-E thermal maximum </li></ul>
    • 5. Adapoidea <ul><li>More primitive </li></ul><ul><li>Diurnal </li></ul><ul><li>Medium-sized arboreal leapers </li></ul><ul><li>Frugivory with s ome folivory </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestral to strepsirhines </li></ul>
    • 6. Omomyoidea <ul><li>Nocturnal </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Arboreal leapers </li></ul><ul><li>Insectivore/frugivores and gumnivory </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestor to tarsiers, possibly anthropoids </li></ul>
    • 7. <ul><li>Prosimians spread into Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Motor to Madagascar </li></ul><ul><li>Shangiladida!...until humans migrate </li></ul>
    • 8. <ul><li>Fill variety of niches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Woodpeckers </li></ul></ul>
    • 9. Late Eocene / Early Oligocene <ul><li>10my of tectonic, climatic, floral/faunal change </li></ul><ul><li>Temperatures drop </li></ul><ul><li>Primates disappear from NA and Europe </li></ul><ul><li>High extinctions elsewhere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-O evolutionary bottleneck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few fossils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily Fayum </li></ul></ul>
    • 10. <ul><li>Adapoid </li></ul><ul><li>Omomyoid </li></ul><ul><li>Tarsier </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient/other </li></ul>
    • 11. ASIA OR NORTH AFRICA? Siamopithecus Eosimias
    • 12. Eosimias : The Dawn Monkey
    • 13. Prosimians outside Madagascar go extinct, except… WHY?
    • 14. Oligocene Epoch (~35-24 mya) <ul><li>Anthropoid radiation </li></ul>
    • 15.  
    • 16. <ul><li>Three families: </li></ul><ul><li>I. Parapithecidae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most primitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought ancestral to NW monkeys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>II. Oligopithecidae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>III. Propliopithecidae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most derived </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalized anthropoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ancestral to OW anthropoids </li></ul></ul>
    • 17.  
    • 18. <ul><li>Sea level low </li></ul><ul><li>More exposed land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental shelves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ridges… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Currents </li></ul><ul><li>Computer modeling - weeks </li></ul>NEW WORLD MONKEYS
    • 19. <ul><li>Small, squirrel-sized, leaping arboreal quadruped </li></ul>Apidium 2-1-3-3 dental formula
    • 20. <ul><li>Precede appearance in New World by 10mya </li></ul><ul><li>Rodents in NW appear around same time and resemble African porcupine </li></ul>
    • 21. <ul><li>Few fossils </li></ul>
    • 22. <ul><li>Many have not changed much </li></ul>
    • 23. OW Anthropoid Phylogeny
    • 24. Aegyptopithecus / Propliopithecus Note: no tail
    • 25.  
    • 26. <ul><li>OW monkeys likely diverged late Oligocene </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive radiation continues </li></ul>
    • 27.  
    • 28. <ul><li>During early period, apes successful and radiation of OW monkeys was slow </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to flourish after apes begin to decline </li></ul><ul><li>More generalized/successful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Derived terrestriality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter life stages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not as tied to forest so survive when apes die out in late Miocene </li></ul><ul><li>May have contributed to ape decline </li></ul>
    • 29. Miocene Epoch (~24-5 mya) <ul><li>Hominoid Radiation </li></ul>
    • 30. <ul><li>Evolve in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Spread into Eurasia via land bridge ~16mya </li></ul>
    • 31. Large geographic range relative to modern
    • 32.  
    • 33. <ul><li>Warmer than Oligocene </li></ul><ul><li>But seasons more pronounced </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing aridification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain shadow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forests change </li></ul><ul><li>Hominoids fill niches </li></ul>
    • 34. Early Miocene (24-16mya) African Hominoids <ul><li>Fossils primarily from Kenya and Uganda </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple genera </li></ul>
    • 35. <ul><li>Different habitats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical to more open woodland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different sizes (3-50kg) </li></ul><ul><li>Some arboreal some derived terrestrial adaptations for exploiting forest floor (like Pan & Gorilla ) </li></ul><ul><li>Different locomotor patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different morphology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some SHA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different diets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thick enamel – hard foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin enamel – softer foods </li></ul></ul>
    • 36. <ul><li>Best known </li></ul><ul><li>Our ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>Arboreal climbers </li></ul><ul><li>No SHA </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily frugivores </li></ul><ul><li>Sexually dimorphic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~chimps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polygynous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kenyapithecus or Afropithecus ? </li></ul>Proconsul
    • 37. HAND/FOREARM OF P. HESELONI LOWER LEG P.HESELONI, PAN , and P. NYANZAE Links to modern hominoids (long bones, no tail) but so primitive, difficult to trace ancestry through any of these early apes. Proconsul
    • 38. <ul><li>70-150# </li></ul><ul><li>Arboreal quadruped </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacking SHA </li></ul></ul>
    • 39. Gigantopithecus (Size of ♀ gorilla?)
    • 40. Ancestry of Hylobatidae uncertain possibly diverged 16-18mya
    • 41. Mid-Miocene (16-11) Rapid radiation in Eurasia Dryopithecus
    • 42. Dental (Oak) apes <ul><li>Few fossils </li></ul><ul><li>Jaws and teeth </li></ul><ul><li>France, Spain, Italy, Greece, Austria </li></ul>
    • 43. LATE MIOCENE (11-5mya) <ul><li>Greatest diversity of hominoids </li></ul><ul><li>Europe: Dryopithecus , Oreopithecus , Oaranopithecus </li></ul><ul><li>Asia: Ankarapithecus (Turkey), Sivapithecus (Pakistan), Lufengpithecus (China) </li></ul><ul><li>Africa: Otavipithecus (Namibia) </li></ul>
    • 44. NEWSFLASH!!! <ul><li>Nakalipithecus nakayamai </li></ul><ul><li>Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>~10mya </li></ul><ul><li>Possible missing link </li></ul>

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