233 what are primates

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  • 1. What’s important
    • Primate evolutionary trends
    • Taxonomic classifications down to family
      • Subfamily in case of Old World anthropoids
    • Characteristics of various groups:
      • Prosimians
      • New World monkeys
      • Old World monkeys
      • Apes
  • 2. PRIMATE TAXONOMY AND CHARACTERISTICS
  • 3. Suborder Infraorder Superfamily Family Infraorder:-formes; Superfamily:-oidea; Family:-idae; Subfamily:-inae, and Parvorder & tribe:–ini (Strepsirhini) Prosimians
  • 4. Catarrhini
    • Suborder: Anthropoidea (Haplorrhini – dry/simple-nosed primates – includes tarsiers)
    • Infraorder: Simiiformes
    • Parvorder: Catarrhini
  • 5. EVOLUTIONARY TRENDS NAPIER AND NAPIER LE GROS CLARK
  • 6. Generalized/unspecialized skeleton allows varied locomotion
  • 7. Pentadactyly, prehensility, opposability, nails, tactile pads
  • 8. Reduction of snout/muzzle and olfaction
  • 9. Increased visual acuity, color perception, binocular and stereoscopic vision
  • 10. Generalized dentition/diet Dental formula
  • 11.
    • Increased complexity of brain, especially cerebral cortex
    • Increase in efficiency of prenatal fetal nourishment
    • Tendency toward upright posture
      • Capable of bipedalism at least for short periods
    • Long pre- and postnatal life periods with greater reliance on learned behavior
    • Tendency toward diurnality
  • 12. PROSIMIANS
  • 13. Suborder Infraorder Superfamily Family
  • 14.  
  • 15.  
  • 16. PROCUMBENT INCISORS / DENTAL COMB
  • 17. Tendency toward VCL
  • 18.
    • More pronounced muzzle
      • Higher reliance on olfaction
      • Scent marking
        • Mulitple scent glands
    • Moist rhinarium
    • Immobile upper lip
    • Inexpressive face
    • Large laterally oriented eyes
      • Most species nocturnal
      • Tapetum lucidum
    • Higher reliance on audition
      • Mobile ears
  • 19.
    • Digits act together in power grip
    • Multiple pairs of teats
      • Frequent multiple births
  • 20. TARSIERS
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23. NEW WORLD MONKEYS
  • 24.  
  • 25. PARVORDERS: Platyrrhini: rounded widely-spaced nostrils Catarrhini: narrow downward-facing nostrils
  • 26.  
  • 27. ARBOREAL
  • 28.
    • Long tails norm
    • Some prehensile
  • 29.
    • 2-1-3-3 dental formula
    • Twinning in Callitrichines
  • 30.  
  • 31. Catarrhini
  • 32. Catarrhini (relative to Platyrrhini)
    • 2-1-2-3
    • Expanded ischial tuberosities
    • Larger-bodied (in general)
    • More folivorous and terrestrial species
    • More complex derived brain
    • Nose
  • 33.  
  • 34. OLD WORLD MONKEYS CERCOPITHECINES
  • 35. OLD WORLD MONKEYS COLOBINES
  • 36.  
  • 37.
    • Evolutionarily successful / Taxonomically diverse
    • More closely resemble earliest anthropoids than do apes
    • Many have long tails and sexual swellings
    • Ischial callosities
    • Opposable thumbs except African colobines – thumbless (see left)
  • 38.  
  • 39.  
  • 40. APES
  • 41.  
  • 42.  
  • 43.  
  • 44. Suspensory hanging adaptation
  • 45.  
  • 46. LESSER APES
  • 47. Relative to great apes
    • Smaller
    • Gracile skeleton
    • More primitive but most specialized
    • Monomorphic
    • Shorter snouts
    • Long canines
    • ↑ IMI
      • Longer upper limbs/hands
    • Long curved fingers, no thumb
    • Strictly arboreal
    • Ischial callosities
    • Most lack sexual swellings
  • 48. GREAT APES
  • 49. Relative to lesser apes
    • Less suspensory
    • Varying degrees of terrestriality
    • Build nests
    • Larger-bodied
    • Longer-lived
    • Long developmental/dependency period
    • Sexually dimorphic
    • In captivity, symbolic behavior seen