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233 prosimians

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  • 1. TO KNOW:
    • RECOGNIZE BETTER KNOWN GENERA
    • GENUS
    • COMMON NAME
    • DISTINGUISHING/INTERESTING CHARACTERISTICS
    • Books on reserve and ppt’s
  • 2.  
  • 3. LEMURIFORMES OF MADAGASCAR ALL ENDANGERED HUMANS ARRIVED 1.5 kya
  • 4. LEMURIDAE (low sexual dimorphism)
  • 5.
    • True lemurs
    • Multi-male/female
    • Some dichromatic
    • Cathemeral – important pollinators (black lemurs more nocturnal than diurnal - night blooms)
    • Semi-terrestrial quadruped with VCL capabilities
    • FFTK: Brown lemurs salivate on millipedes and roll between hands before eating
    Crowned Black ( ♀ orange) Brown Mongoose Eulemur
  • 6. Lemur
    • 1 species: L. catta - ring-tailed lemur
    • Cat-sized, ~6#
    • Herbivores
    • Suffer seasonal periods of food scarcity
  • 7.
    • Most terrestrial
  • 8.
    • Large multi-male/female groups
      • Even in face of food shortages
      • Additional protection from predators
    • Core of females which are dominant to males in food contests
  • 9.
    • Vulnerable to predators
    • Have distinct alarm calls – aerial vs. terrestrial
    • Males stink fight
  • 10.
    • Polyspecific association - brown lemurs
  • 11. Hapalemur Gentle or bamboo lemur
    • 3 sympatric species at 1 site
    • Diet
    • Cyanogenic compounds
    • Niche partitioning: plant part, (level, time?)
  • 12. SETH PALMER IN MADAGASCAR 11” WALKING STICK!!!
  • 13.
    • 1 species: V. variegata - ruffed lemur
    • Only large lemur to give birth to multiple offspring
    • Don’t survive well in logged areas – eat large fruit from large trees
    Varecia
  • 14. MEGALADAPIDAE
  • 15.
    • Sportive, weasel lemurs
    • Broad distribution
    • 1 sp cannot survive well in logged areas – cannot sustain themselves moving too far between trees
    • Small, drab-colored
    • Nocturnal VCL’s
    • Territorial – ↑ scars
    • ↑ Leaves, ↓ activity, copraphagic
    • Solitary or pairs
    • Single births, parking
    Lepilemur
  • 16. CHEIROGALEIDAE Smallest and most primitive lemuriformes
  • 17.
    • Nocturnal
    • Nest-building - sleep in nests or tree holes during day
    • Some hibernate for as long as 6-9 mos
    • Most store fat in tail
    • 3 pairs nipples
    • Usually multiple offspring (1-4 depending on species)
  • 18. Allocebus
    • Hairy-eared dwarf lemur
    • Thought extinct (critically endangered)
    • Rediscovered in 1989
    • 1 location in N Madagascar
  • 19. Cheirogaleus
    • Dwarf/fat-tailed lemurs
  • 20.
    • Most abundant and widespread of lemurs
    • M. myoxinus – pygmy mouse lemur
      • Smallest primate
      • Adults – 1 oz
    Microcebus
  • 21.
    • Infants 1/5 oz, adults 2 oz
    • Females > males
    • Fat (base of tail) - seasonally can increase wt 4x
    • Arboreal quadrupeds but may travel on ground
    • Most faunivorous but ↓% of diet
    M. murinus Mouse lemurs
  • 22.
    • Solitary foragers
    • Dispersed polygyny social system
    • Females may congregate in nests
    • Males tolerate one another and may sleep together until mating season
    • Dominant male suppresses subordinate males via urine pheromones
    • Highest predation rates of all primates
    • 2-3 offspring up to twice/yr
  • 23.
    • Coquerel's dwarf lemur
    • Don’t store fat in tail
    • In addition to usual scent marking, practice scent discharge – perceptible to humans
    M. coquereli
  • 24.
    • 1 species: fork-marked lemur
    • Gum specialists:
      • Reinforced fingernails for clinging
      • Upper and lower procumbent incisors, long canines
      • Long narrow tongue
      • Large cecum
    Phaner
  • 25. INDRIDAE
    • 3 genera which differ in size and activity patterns
    • Specialized leapers with long limbs especially hindlimbs
    • Usually single births with long birth intervals
    • 2 of 3 monogamous
    • Herbivorous
  • 26.
    • 1 species – A. laniger - Woolly lemur
    • Alarm call sounds like name in Malagasy “a ha hy”
    • Nocturnal
    Avahi
  • 27.
    • Territorial pairs
    • Male and female stay in close contact, resting or grooming ↑40% of night
  • 28.
    • Sifaka
    • Long limbs, tail
    • Diurnal
    Propithecus
  • 29.
    • One-male or multi-male
    • Infanticide reported
    • Verreaux’s sifaka
      • Females dominant to males
    • Have distinct alarm calls – aerial vs. terrestrial
    Critically endangered P. candidus
  • 30.
    • VCL
    • Bipedally hop on ground
  • 31. Indri
    • Indris or babakotos (“little man of the forest”)
    • Diurnal
  • 32.
    • Largest – 13-16#
    • Short stubby tail (vs sifaka)
  • 33. Duet - spacing mechanism
  • 34.
    • Territorial pairs – mate face-to-face hanging under branch!
  • 35.
    • Geophagic
    • High feed, low social
  • 36. DAUBENTONIIDAE
  • 37. Daubentonia aye-aye
    • Largest nocturnal primate
    • Possibly most widely distributed but low density
    • Medium size - ~5 ½#
    • Good hearing, smell, and manual dexterity -> large brain
    • Mate hanging upside down (1hr)!
  • 38.
    • Large continuously growing rodent-like incisors
    • 1.0.(1).3/1.0.0.3
  • 39.
    • Skeletal 3rd digit
    • Metacarpo-phalangeal joint is ball and socket vs. condylar
  • 40.
    • Nocturnal arboreal quadrupededs
    • Some fear – kill chickens and don’t fear humans
    • Some believe good luck
  • 41.
    • Specialize on grub/larvae
    • Also eat fruit, coconuts
  • 42.
    • Hunt by audition, gnaw bark w/ incisors, probe w/ 3rd digit
    • Niche of woodpecker
  • 43. Crop raiders for coconuts and sugar cane
  • 44.
    • Build leaf nests
    • Solitary foragers but observed in multi-adult groups BUT Rowe says male overlaps females but females seldom overlap
    A creature only a mother could love!!! Future chicken killer…YIKES!!!
  • 45. AFRICA
  • 46. GALAGONIDAE
  • 47. Galago
    • Bushbabies – some sound like babies crying
    • All species are sympatric with congeners
  • 48.
    • Small nocturnal VCL’s
    • Solitary foragers
    • Dispersed polygyny
    • Female philopatric
    • Females sleep together in nests
  • 49. TOO CUTE!!!!
    • In unpredictable areas have 2 litters per year
  • 50.
    • High insects and gums
    • Male dominance hierarchy based on age and weight
  • 51.  
  • 52. Other species
    • Otolemur – Greater bushbaby – largest
    • Galagoides – Demidoff’s or Zanzibar bushbaby –endangered – when interacting with adults, if kids hold tail in corkscrew pose, not attacked
    • Euoticus – Needle-clawed bushbaby – clawlike nails used to cling/climb - gumnivory
  • 53. LORIDAE
    • Slow for most part
    • IMI~100
    • Scapular shield:
      • Elongated cervical spines (hump)
    • Butt, bite, drop
    • Singletons
    • Some parking
    • Opposable thumbs
  • 54. Perodicticus
    • Potto (“softly” - soft, slow, silent)
    • Forests, savanna, plantations
    • Central and west Africa
    • 1.8-3.5#
    • Short bottle-brush tail
    • Solitary foragers but can be social – groom, play, fight
    • Hunt by olfaction
  • 55. Slow climber with nose to branch Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
  • 56.
    • Low insects ~10%, high FR 65% gums 21%
  • 57.
    • Dispersed polygyny
    • ~Monomorphic
    • Infanticide
  • 58.
    • Angwantibos
    • Smaller, slender
    • Slow climber
    • High insects w/ some fruit
    • Similar social organization as pottos
    Arctocebus
  • 59.
    • Pseudopotto
    • I know nothing!
    Pseudopotto
  • 60. ASIA
  • 61. Loris
    • Slender loris - "banana on stilts"
    • Arboreal quadruped
    • High insects
    • Solitary foragers – males may sleep together or 1 or more with female (Nekaris)
  • 62.
    • Slow lorises
    • Wide geographic range
    • Tropical rainforest
    • Stockier
    • Slow climbers – can move on top or under branch
    • Powerful grasp – reduced 2nd digit with 1st and 3rd coming together
    • Fruit, insects (especially slow ones), eggs, cocoa
    • Solitary foragers
    • No parking - precocious young cling
    Nyctocebus
  • 63.  
  • 64. Can sneak up on prey and strike with great speed by perching on its feet and throwing the body forward
  • 65. Slow loris
    • Toxin in glands in elbows
      • Lick - Mixes with saliva –
        • Fur
        • Parked offspring
      • Nauseates predators
      • Can kill mice
    • When threatened
      • Hold hands above to lick toxins in preparation for the fight
  • 66. TARSIIDAE
  • 67. Tarsius Tarsiers
    • Multiple species on various islands
    • Small (adults: 4-5 oz)
    • Anatomical intermediates:
      • Grooming claws, multiple nipples
      • Postorbital closure (but Beard), foveal retina, nasal anatomy, efficient placenta
  • 68. Claws on 2 nd and 3 rd toes
  • 69. T. Syrichta (Philippine Tarsier) T. Bancanus (Horsfield’s tarsier) T. Spectrum (spectral tarsier) T. Pumilus (pygymy tarsier) T. Dianae (Dian’s tarsier)
  • 70.  
  • 71.
    • Brain is smooth like carnivores
    • Huge eyes - >brain or stomach
    • Nocturnal but foveal retina
  • 72.
    • Totally faunivorous –
    • large insects and small animals
  • 73.
    • Large hands and feet - adaptation for clinging and grasping prey
    • Long legs with many adaptations for VCL >3m
  • 74.
    • Solitary, pairs, or multi-male, depending on species
  • 75.
    • Relatively large offspring
  • 76. Conservation Philippine tarsiers, spectral tarsiers, Dian’s tarsiers and Horsfield’s tarsiers are all on conservation lists (lower risk)

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