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233 newworldmonkeys 233 newworldmonkeys Presentation Transcript

  • NEW WORLD MONKEYS
    • Flattened muzzles
    • Rounded laterally placed nostrils
    • Evolved in isolation in SA
    • Fill a variety of niches
    • Retain some primitive characteristics
    • Some spp converged on prosimian and ape characteristics
    • Small to medium size
    • Arboreal and diurnal except Aotus
    • Most have relatively short arms and no opposable thumb
    • 5 genera have prehensile tails
    PLATYRRHINES
  •  
  •  
  • CEBIDAE
    • Callitrichinae & Cebinae
  • CALLITRICHINES
    • More specialized and smallest
    • Bright colors & patterns
    • Some VCL capabilities
  •  
    • 2 nipples and single uterus
      • Characteristic of mammals with singletons
      • Twinning is norm (except Callimico)
      • Multiple placentae ↑5
  • Males & nonreproductive siblings carry infants
  • Mating pattern – tendency for 1 breeding female with one or two males 2 nd breeding female has been observed except Callimico where breeding mother and daughter
    • High female-female competition within groups: aggression, ovulatory suppression
      • pheromonal in Saguinus
      • behavioral? & pheromonal in
      • Leontopithecus
  • Callimico - Goeldi's monkey
    • Tufted, silky black monkey
    • Upper Amazonia
    • Secondary forest- low levels
    • Variable SO
      • 1- ♂ & multi-♂
      • >1 ♀ may breed, e.g. m other and daughter
    • Single births
    • VCL
    • Invertebrates & FR, no exudates
  • Saguinus - tamarins
    • Southern CA, Amazonia
    • Variety of habitats and elevations
    CA=Central America SA=South America
    • Many colors and facial elaborations
    • Lack dental specializations
    • Reproductive suppression
      • pheromonal
    • Work with S. fuscicollis found that in absence of 2nd male, one twin had poor survivorship
    • Many spp sympatric
    • Polyspecific/mixed-species associations
    HEY! Those aren’t tamarins
  • Leontopithecus Lion tamarins
    • More of the same
    • Reproductive suppression
      • Behavioral
      • Pheromonal – both by dominant ♀->♀ & dominant ♂->♂
  • Interspecific pelage variability
    • Long fingers reach into tree holes
  • MARMOSETS
    • Smallest NW monkeys
    • Specialized dentition: long, chisel-like incisors and peg-like canines for gnawing bark -> exudate flow
    • Exudates very important
      • Defend trees
  • Marmosets
    • 2 genera: Callithrix & Mico
    • Amazonia, Brazil, Bolivia
    • Dry forest especially edge and secondary
    • Forage for insects in understory tangles
    • SO more variable
    • Sometimes multiple breeding females
  • Cebuella pygmaea - pygmy marmoset
    • Smallest anthropoid
    • Amazonia
    • Low levels of forest and vine tangles
    • Also, dwarf marmoset: Callibella
    • Usually 1male-1female groups
      • Can be 2 males, 1 dominant
    • ↑ VCL
    • Highest gums, some insects, low FR
  • CEBINAE: Cebus and Saimiri
    • Grouped together based
      • Molecular evidence
      • Skull morphology
        • rounded like OW
        • large brains
      • Morphology
      • Locomotion
      • SO similarities - multi-male-female
      • Similar habitats
        • HR's contain patchily distributed fruit and insects
      • Resource-defense vs territoriality
      • Diet
      • ↑ o lfactory communication - urine-wash
  • Polyspecific/mixed-species associations
  • Differences:
    • Cebus :
    • Broader distribution
    • Groups don't congregate
    • Aggressive towards some Atelids
    • Less male-male competition for females but more apparent dominance hierarchy
    • Less variable SO
    • Whereas Saimiri may be male or female philopatric
    • Adults allogroom, share food, allomaternal nursing (not in Saimiri except 1sp – allomaternal nursing)
    Differences cont’d
  • Saimiri : Squirrel monkeys
    • Extensive distribution in southern CA and SA
    • Small - squirrel-sized
    • Males fatten
    • Prehensile tail in infancy
  • Arboreal quadrupeds, good leapers - sometimes come to ground
    • Fruit, insects, some leaves
    • Glean cryptic (usually immobile) insects
    • Large multi-male multi-female groups
    • Come together into large aggregations of ↑ 100's animals – possibly dillution
    • Communication
      • Intragroup
        • Contact calls
        • Alarm calls
      • Intergroup
  • High predators: cats, raptors, snakes
  • S. Sciurius vs S. oerstedii Common (SA) vs Red-backed (CA)
    • Endangered - pest status - crop raiders
    • Males stay females leave
    • No strict dominance hierarchy
    • Females stay males leave
    • Males and females have dominance hierarchy
    • In Peru - females dominant to males
    • Males get fat and compete aggressively - females choose mates
  •  
  • Cebus capuchins or organ-grinder monkeys
    • Tufts resemble Capuchin monks’ cowls
    • CA and SA
    • Tufted and nontufted spp
    • All forest types
    • All levels of canopy and ground
    • Arboreal quads but descend to ground
    • Furry prehensile tail - different
    • Fruit, fauna
    • Dental specializations for cracking nuts
    • Clever, most dexterous, especially tufted capuchin - if it’s there, they'll find it and get at it
      • Invertebrates under bark & in leaf litter, hard nuts
    • "noisy destructive foragers"
    • Alpha female higher than all but alpha male
  • MONKIDS
    • Tool use - use rocks to crack nuts or bang on branch
    • Large brains but no complex problem-solving capabilities, i.e. more trial and error learning (Visalberghi)
    • Opposable thumb
  • ATELIDAE
    • Atelinae
    • Pitheciinae
    • Aotinae
  • ATELINAE
    • Largest and pronounced SD
    • Long prehensile tail w/ friction ridges
    • To varying degrees have converged on suspensory hanging adaptation & brachiation
  • Alouatta howler/howling monkeys
    • Also subfamily Alouattinae
    • Species are allopatric
    • Broadest distribution
    • Variety of habitats and altitudes
    • Large
    • Inter- and intra-specific pelage variability and some sexual dichromatism
    • Male howling as spacing mechanism - dawn and evening chorus
    • Expanded hyoid bone forms large resonant chamber
    • If high stimulation, females howl
    • Poorly differentiated thumb
    • Therefore Schizodactyly - II and III to hold things
    • Slow arboreal quadrupeds with ↑tail use
    • 1-male or multi-male
    • High male-male competition for group access
    • Infanticide seen
    • Aunting
    • Reverse age/tenure dominance hierarchy
    • Mean=15 individuals, range=2-45
    • Leaves, FR, FL
    • Can exploit unripe fruit and mature leaves
    • Combo: enlarged salivary glands and hindgut, slow throughput time
    • Folivorous dental characteristics
    • Low travel, high rest, especially when food low quality
  • Startling new research shows that howler monkeys are capable of using toilets. Amazing!!!
  • Ateles - spider monkeys
    • Yucatan to Amazonia
    • Species are allopatric
    • Upper canopy
      • Often high primary rainforest
      • Problem with exclusive habitat needs
    • Large and graceful
    • Variable pelage within and between species
    • Very similar looking sexes, even genitalia
      • Lower SD
  • Variety of locomotor habits
    • arboreal quadruped
    • suspensory behaviors
    • brachiating
    • climbing
    • sometimes bipedal in trees
    • leap
    • "hook grip" - most spp lack external thumb - gets in way when swinging
    • High ripe FR but some YL's, insects…
    • Fission-fusion SO
    • Large groups
    • Male philopatric
    • Small foraging units, usually adult female w/ young or young males
    • ↑ c alls
      • barks, whinnies…
  • Woolly monkeys
    • Least known NW monkey
    • 2 genera: Lagothrix & Oreonax
    • Primary forests of Amazon Basin and montane cloud forests of Andes ( Oreonax)
    • Similar diet (i.e. high fruit) and SO as Ateles
    • Similar locomotion to howlers
    • Interesting submissive display: sob and cover eyes with hand
    • Most hunted (food, pelts, pet trade) also habitat destruction pressures
  • Brachyteles - woolly spider monkey or muriqui
    • Largest NW primate - up to 30#
    • High forest canopy
    • Similar morphology, locomotion, and SO to Ateles
    • Similar diet/dentition/low BMR to Alouatta
    • Round head and dense fur like woolly monkeys
    • Pendulous clitoris
  •  
    • No dominance hierarchy or male-male competition for females - take turns
      • Large testes suggest sperm competition
  •  
    • High leaves + FR & FL
    • Faster throughput time than Alouatta
    • Highly endangered - few patches of highly seasonal rainforest in SE Brazil
    • Hunted for food and hides, also habitat destruction
    • 3 genera
    • Not well-studied
    • Amazon Basin
    • Seed predators
      • Powerful jaws and muscles
      • Large procumbent incisors and other dental specializations for gnawing and cracking hard nuts/tough fruits/seeds
      • Advantage - foods not available to other primates
    • Endangered - hunted for food, bait, and tails - used as dusters and ornaments
    PITHECIINAE
    • Relatively furry
    • Leaping, climbing, dropping abilities, bipedally hop/walk when on ground
    • FR, seeds/nuts, when resources scarce: insects and some leaves, some spp – dirt
    • Multi- ♂ f luid SO except Pithecia - monogamous
  • Pithecia sakis
    • Upper canopy of undisturbed (primary) forest
    • Long shaggy bushy fur, long fluffy tails
    • Smallest - ~7#
  • Chiropotes Bearded saki
    • Upper canopy of undisturbed (primary) forest
    • Extra robust skull and jaws
    • Beards, rounded tufts of fur over temples and forehead
  • Larger than sakis
  • Cacajao uakari
    • Upper canopy of undisturbed (primary) seasonally flooded forests
    • Difficult study conditions therefore one of least studied primates in wild
    • <9#, short tail, long shaggy coat, bald head, red faces due to no pigment and high numbers capillaries - darken when upset
    • High leaping/swinging abilities
    • Urine wash, anogenital scentmarking, rub aromatics into fur, e.g. fruit juice
    • Have pungent smell
    • Wag tails when upset
    • High allogrooming & play
  • Callicebus - Titi monkey
    • Small
    • Short faces, fluffy bodies and tails
    • Good leapers
  • Geographic Distribution C. moloch group range (in red) C. cupreus group range (in yellow) C. donacophilus group range (in green)
    • 13 Species recognized
      • C. modestus
      • C. donacophilus
      • C. olallae
      • C. oenanthe
      • C. cinerascens
      • C. hoffmannsi
      • C. moloch
      • C. brunneus
      • C. cupreus
      • C. caligatus
      • C. dubius
      • C. personatus
      • C. torquatus
    Many species Some dispute over taxonomy. Previously only 3 species recognized. Debate over species subdivision based on ecology and habitat.
    • Lower canopy
    • Usually near water
    • Raptors and arboreal snakes
    • Rare accounts of tufted capuchin attacks.
    • Coat long & colorful
    • Upper body ranges between red, grey-brown, yellow, and/or black
    • Monogamous
      • Entwine tails & hold hands
      • Stressed if separated
      • More attached to each other than infant
      • When around outsider males, male behaves ‘jealously’ with increased display of affection towards mate
    • Duets to maintain spacing
    • Territorial defense
    • Male carries young
  • AOTINAE
  • Aotus owl or night monkey
    • Only nocturnal anthropoid
  • Primitive Gray Neck Group A. lemurinus A. trivirgatus
  • Derived Red Neck Group A. miconax A. infulatus
    • Panama to N Argentina except Guianas and SE Brazil
      • Low BMR allows them to live in colder climates
    • All forest types and levels
    • Small ~2#, monomorphic
    • Distinctive masks
    • Long tail (entwine tails)
    • Nails except 4th toe – clawlike nail
    • Nocturnality avoids competition with other monkeys
      • Can exploit different levels, all resources
      • Small HR's, short path length
    • Largest relative eyes of anthropoids
    • Eye features suggest diurnal ancestry
      • No tapetum lucidum
      • Small olfactory bulbs
    • Travel further on well-lit nights, thought they don't see well in dark
    • Plastic/races
      • Southern areas more diurnal – thought related to less competition with larger monkeys and/or low night temperatures
    • Arboreal quadrupeds but good leapers
    • FR, insects, leaves, FL, nectar
    • Monogamous with ↑ 3 offspring <3yr
      • ↓ allogrooming, no duets
    • New evidence suggests may change partners
    • In captivity mate for life, more flexible in wild.
    • Share offspring care
      • Males carry, feed, play
      • Females lactate with less interaction with kid
    • No birth season but birth peaks appear to correspond to FR availability
    • Repeatedly use communal sleeping sites: tree holes or brush/tangles
    • Peaceful within group interactions but aggressive between groups at FR trees on well-lit nights
    • Whoop yells - inflate throat pouches
    • Threaten with stiff pounces, chase, whoop, wrestle, urine wash, and scent mark - then return to territory
    • Few predators except humans
  • THE END … .FOR GOODNESS SAKE