Semantic Web Technologies - 01 - From Internet to the Web of Data
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First lecture of this years lecture series on 'Semantic Web Technologies', at Hasso Plattner Institute for IT Systems Engineering, University Potsdam, Germany, winter 2012/13

First lecture of this years lecture series on 'Semantic Web Technologies', at Hasso Plattner Institute for IT Systems Engineering, University Potsdam, Germany, winter 2012/13

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Semantic Web Technologies - 01 - From Internet to the Web of Data Semantic Web Technologies - 01 - From Internet to the Web of Data Presentation Transcript

  • Semantic Web Technologies Lecture Dr. Harald Sack Hasso-Plattner-Institut für IT Systems Engineering University of Potsdam Winter Semester 2012/13 Lecture Blog: http://semweb2013.blogspot.com/ This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)Donnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web Technologies Content2 1. Introduction 2. Semantic Web - Basic Architecture Languages of the Semantic Web - Part 1 3. Knowledge Representation and Logics Languages of the Semantic Web - Part 2 4. Applications in the ,Web of Data‘ Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web Technologies Content3 1. Introduction • From Internet to Web 2.0 ...from a historical point of view • Quo Vadis WWW? ...the limits of the WWW • Semantic Web ...towards an ,intelligent‘ WWW • Semantic Web Applications ...the semantic WWW begins Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 4 Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web Technologies Content5 J.C.R. Licklider Robert Taylor Larry Roberts ARPA IPTO Director ARPA IPTO Director ARPA IPTO Chief Scientist (1962-1964) (1966-1969) (1966-1973) "[...] we are entering a technological age in which we will be able to interact with the richness of living information - not merely in the passive way that we have been accustomed to using books and libraries, but as active participants in an ARPANET ongoing process, bringing something to 29. October 1969 it through our interaction with it, and not simply receiving something from it by our connection to it." J.C.R. Licklider, Robert Taylor: "The Computer as a Communication Device". Science and Technology 76, pp. 21-31, April 1968. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web Technologies From Internet to Web 2.06 Es war einmal....das Internet Larry Roberts ARPA IPTO Chief Scientist (1966-1973) Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • First Generation: The Internet Computer Centered Processing7 • How did the user get the information? 1. open terminal 2. connect to remote computer 3. retrieve file system data from remote computer 4. download file from remote to local computer 5. read file on local computer Problem: • Information access requires expert knowledge • Information access is expensive... • Information Retrieval is very expensive... Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 8 Tim Berners-Lee Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web was born at the European Nuclear Research Center CERN in 1990... Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Second Generation: The Web Document Centered Processing9 • How did the user get the information? Dokument Dokument Dokument nk Hyperli Hyp erlin k k rlin pe Hy Hy pe k Dokument rlin rli n k pe Hy Dokument Hyp erlin k 1. open browse r 2. load docume nt 3. click on next hyperlink 4. ... Advantages: • No expert knowledge required • Simple information access • Information retrieval via search engines Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • • But the original idea behind the WWW is much older.....10 Denis Diderot (1713-1784) Jean-Baptiste le Rond dAlembert (1717-1783) Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 11 Agostino Ramelli (1588), Le diverse et artificiose machine; composte in lingua Italiana et Francese Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 11 y. ..? il it Usab Agostino Ramelli (1588), Le diverse et artificiose machine; composte in lingua Italiana et Francese Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Vannevar Bush proposed the first Hypertext-System „MEMEX“ in 194512 Vannevar Bush (1890-1974) vgl. Vannevar Bush, As we may think , Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam The Atlantic Monthly, 1945, JulyDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Why was the Web such a big success ? Lynx 199313 Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Why was the Web such a big success ? NCSA Mosaic 199414 Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Why was the Web such a big success ? IPad15 Safari 2010 Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • There seem to be no Limits of Growth...16 http://www.isc.org/ (Stand: 10/2012) Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • From Web 1.0 to Web 2.0 Web Content and Applications are Changing17 Information Consumption 908,585,739 Information Production Interactive Participation Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Web 2.0 is theWeb Content and Roles are Changing... business revolu tion in the computer in dustry caused by the move to18 the Internet as platform, and a n attempt to und erstand the rules for su ccess on that new pla tform " -- Tim OReilly, 2003 Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web Technologies Content19 1. Introduction • From Internet to Web 2.0 ...from a historical point of view • Quo Vadis WWW? ...the limits of the WWW • Semantic Web ...towards an ,intelligent‘ WWW • Semantic Web Applications ...the semantic WWW begins Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • How can we find something in the Web?20 Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • current solution:21 Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 22 The Web is big. Really big. You just wont believe how vastly, hugely, mind-bogglingly big it is. (...according to Douglas Adams) Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 23 The Web is really big... •ca. 25 x 109 indexed documents in search engines (TNL Blog: Google has 24 billion items index, considers MSN search nearest competitor, September 2005) •Web Crawler: > 1012 (1 trillion) documents (The Official Google Blog: We knew the Web was Big....., Juli 25, 2008) •Google Search Index Caffeine comprises ca.100 Million Gigabytes i.e. 1017 Byte (SMX Video: Google’s Matt Cutts On Caffeine Launch, June 9, 2010, http://searchengineland.com/smx-video-googles-matt-cutts-on-caffeine-launch-43933) •DeepWeb (Darkweb) estimated to be about 550 times bigger than Surface Web (Bergman, 2001) Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • ...and it‘s getting bigger every minute! Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut Potsdam, Workshop: Interaktion und Visualisierung im Datenweb (IVDW 2012), Braunschweig, 20.09.2012Donnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • http://www.visualnews.com/2012/06/19/how-much-data-created-every-minute/ Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut Potsdam, Workshop: Interaktion und Visualisierung im Datenweb (IVDW 2012), Braunschweig, 20.09.2012Donnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • http://www.visualnews.com/2012/06/19/how-much-data-created-every-minute/ Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut Potsdam, Workshop: Interaktion und Visualisierung im Datenweb (IVDW 2012), Braunschweig, 20.09.2012Donnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web Technologien Quo vadis WWW ?26 Multimedia, Real-Time Data, Sensor Data, .... Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web Technologien Quo vadis WWW ?27 Multimedia, Real-Time Data, Sensor Data, .... Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 28 and all the things will connect with social networks... Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 29 Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Information in the WWW29 • what is important and how do you know? • what is information, what is advertisement? • what does the information mean? • how credible/trustworthy is the information? • what belongs together? • what is redundant? • Humans have contextual knowledge, world knowledge and experience to solve the problem Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 30 • The Web is supposed to be used by humans. • The Web is based on the markup language HTML • HTML describes • how information is presented • how information is linked • but not, what the information means Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 31 Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 32 Semantics Semantics (greek σεμαντικος = pertains to the character, the study of meaning) is part of the linguistics focussed on • Sense and • Meaning of language or symbols of language. It is the study of interpretation of signs or symbols as used by agents or communities within particular circumstances and contexts. Semantics asks, how sense and meaning of complex concepts can be derived from simple concepts based on the rules of syntax. The semantics of a message depends of its context and pragmatics. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 33 Syntax Syntax (greek σψνταξις = Arrangement, Ordering) as in grammatics denotes the study of the principles and processes by which sentences are constructed in particular languages. • In formal Languages, syntax is just a set of rules, by which well formed expressions can be created from a fundamental set of symbols (alphabet). • in computer science, syntax defines the normative structure of data. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 34 Context Context (lat. contextus = interweaved) denotes the surrounding of a symbol (concept) in an expression resp. its relationship with surrounding expressions (concepts) and further related elements, Contexts denotes all elements of any sort of communication that define the interpretation of the communicated content, as e.g., • general contexts: place, time, interrelation of action in a message • personal or social contexts: relation between sender and receiver of a message Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Pragmatics35 Pragmatics (greek. πραγμα = action) reflects the intention by which the language is used to communicate a message. In linguistics pragmatics denotes the study of applying language in different situations. Pragmatics studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 36 In the (traditional) Web there is no explicit semantics. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 37Problem 1: Information Retrieval Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 37 • traditional keyword-based search leads to many not relevant results • different meanings • polysemy • different contexts • traditional keyword-based search does not find all results • synonyms and metaphors • missing context definitionProblem 1: Information Retrieval Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 38 • can only be solved ,correctly‘ by a human agent • heterogeneous distribution and order of information • Software agent does not have sufficient • knowledge of contexts • world knowledge and • experience • to solve the problem Problem 2: Information Extraction Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 39 Problemfeld 2: Informationsextraktion • implicit knowledge, i.e. information does not have specified explicitely, but must be derived via logical deductions from available information. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 40 • the more complex and voluminous a website, the more complicated is the maintenance of the only weakly structured data. • Problems: • syntactic and semantic (link) consistency • correctness • timeliness Problem 3: Maintenance Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • • Adaption of the presented information content to personal requirements41 • Problems: • from where do we get the required (personal) information? • personalization vs. data security Problem 4: Personalization Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 42 GAME OVER Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web Technologies Content43 1. Introduction • From Internet to Web 2.0 ...from a historical point of view • Quo Vadis WWW? ...the limits of the WWW • Semantic Web ...towards an ,intelligent‘ WWW • Semantic Web Applications ...the semantic WWW begins Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • From World Wide Web to the Web of Data44 „The Web was designed as an information space, with the goal that it should be useful not only for human-human communication, but also that machines would be able to participate and help… “ Tim Berners-Lee, Semantic Web Roadmap, Sept 1998 Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • From World Wide Web to the Web of Data45 Precondition: • Content can be read and interpreted correctly (= „understood“) by machines Natural Language Processing • Technologies of traditional Information Retrieval (Search Engines) Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • From World Wide Web to the Web of Data46 Precondition: • Content can be read and interpreted correctly (= „understod“) by machines Natural Language Processing Semantic Web • Technologies of traditional • Natural language web content will Information Retrieval be explicitly annotated with (Search Engines) semantic metadata • Semantic metadata encode the Meaning (Semantics) of the content and can be read and interpreted correctly by machines Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • „Understanding“ Content on the Web48 Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • „Understanding“ Content on the Web49 Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • „Understanding“ Content on the Web49 Text: „Why snub me, Fab?“ Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • „Understanding“ Content on the Web49 Text: „Why snub me, Fab?“ • Disambiguation solution of linguistic ambiguities Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • „Understanding“ Content on the Web49 Text: „Why snub me, Fab?“ Entity Mapping Disambiguation Fab ? a detergent Fab ? a Canadian gay magazine FAB ? the Film Advisory Board FAB ? Federación Atlética de Bolivia Brazilian Basketball • Disambiguation Fab Melo ? Player solution of linguistic ambiguities Fabrizio Moretti ? Drummer of The Strokes Fabio Capello ? Manager of the UK national Football team Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • „Understanding“ Content on the Web50 Text: „Why snub me, Fab?“ Entity Mapping Fabio Capello Entity • The Meaning (Semantics) of entities and classes must be defined explicitly. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • „Understanding“ Content on the Web50 Text: „Why snub me, Fab?“ Entity Mapping Fabio Capello Entity is a Soccer Manager Class • The Meaning (Semantics) of entities and classes must be defined explicitly. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • „Understanding“ Content on the Web50 Text: „Why snub me, Fab?“ Entity Mapping Fabio Capello Entity is a Soccer Manager Class is subclass of • The Meaning (Semantics) of entities and classes must be defined explicitly. Person Class Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • „Understanding“ Content on the Web51 • The Meaning (Semantics) is expressed with the help of well suited knowledge representations (Ontologies) Fabio Capello (entity) Class- is a membership has class Soccer Manager (class) Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • „Understanding“ Content on the Web51 • The Meaning (Semantics) is expressed with the help of well suited knowledge representations (Ontologies) Fabio Capello (entity) Class- is a membership has class Soccer Manager (class) subclass is subclass of is subclass of superclass Person (class) Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • „Understanding“ Content on the Web (III)52 • The Meaning (Semantics) is expressed with the help of well suited knowledge representations (Ontologies) Fabio Capello Entities is a Classes Soccer Manager is subclass of Person Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • „Understanding“ Content on the Web (III)52 • The Meaning (Semantics) is expressed with the help of well suited knowledge representations (Ontologies) Fabio Capello Entities is a Classes Soccer Manager is subclass of Person Place birthPlace Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • „Understanding“ Content on the Web (III)52 • The Meaning (Semantics) is expressed with the help of well suited knowledge representations (Ontologies) Fabio Capello San Canzian birthPlace Entities is a Classes Soccer Manager is a is subclass of Person Place birthPlace Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • „Understanding“ Content on the Web (III)52 • The Meaning (Semantics) is expressed with the help of well suited knowledge representations (Ontologies) Fabio Capello San Canzian birthPlace Entities is a Classes Soccer Manager is a is subclass of Date Person Place birthDate birthPlace Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • „Understanding“ Content on the Web (III)52 • The Meaning (Semantics) is expressed with the help of well suited knowledge representations (Ontologies) 1946-06-18 Fabio Capello San Canzian birthDate birthPlace Entities is a Classes Soccer Manager is a is a is subclass of Date Person Place birthDate birthPlace Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • What is the Semantic Web?53 „The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation" Tim Berners-Lee, James Hendler, Ora Lassila: The Semantic Web, Scientific American, 284(5), pp. 34-43(2001) Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • The Semantic Web - a Web of Data54 •The Meaning of Information (Semantics) is made explicit by formal (structured) and standardized knowledge representations (Ontologies). • Thus it will be possible, •to process the meaning of information automatically •to relate and integrate heterogeneous data •to deduce implicite (not evident) information from existing (evident) information in an automated way The Semantic Web is kind of a global database that contains a universal network of semantic propositions. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web ...towards an „intelligent“ Web55 Das Semantic Web • Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web ...towards an „intelligent“ Web56 URI - Uniform Resource Identifier Fabio Capello http://dbpedia.org/resource/Fabio_Capello Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web ...towards an „intelligent“ Web57 http://de.wikipediapedia.org/wiki/Fabio Capello http://dbpedia.org/resource/Fabio_Capello Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web ...towards an „intelligent“ Web http://dbpedia.org/resource/Fabio_Capello58 Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web ...towards an „intelligent“ Web59 http://dbpedia.org/resource/Fabio_Capello :Fabio_Capello dbpp:birthPlace :San_Canzian . :Fabio_Capello dbpp:birthDate “1946-06-18“ . :Fabio_Capello rdfs:type dbpo:SoccerManager . :Fabio_Capello rdfs:type dbpo:Person . ... RDF Resource Description Framework :Fabio_Capello rdf:type dbpo:SoccerManager . RDF Tripel RDF Subject RDF Property RDF Object Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web ...towards an „intelligent“ Web60 http://dbpedia.org/ontology/SoccerManager dbpo:SoccerManager rdf:type owl:class . dbpo:SoccerManager rdfs:subClassOf dbpo:Person . dbpo:SoccerManager rdfs:label “SoccerManager“ . dbpp:birthPlace rdf:type rdf:Property . dbpp:birthPlace rdfs:domain dbpo:Person . dbpp:birthPlace rdfs:range dbpo:Place . dbpp:birthDate rdf:type rdf:Property . dbpp:birthDate rdfs:domain :Person . dbpp:birthDate rdfs:range xsd:date . ... RDF Schema SoccerManager is subclass of Date Person Place birthDate birthPlace Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web ...towards an „intelligent“ Web61 1946-06-18 Fabio Capello birthDate entities classes is a is a LivingPeople ∩ DeadPeople =∅ is subclass of is subclass of logical constraint Date Person birthDate ∀x.∃y.hasDeathDate(x,y) ∧ Person(x) ∧ Date(y) + Rules → DeadPeople(x) (Description Logics) Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web ...towards an „intelligent“ Web62 Look for all Soccer Players that have scored more than 10 goals as member of a national team. SELECT DISTINCT ?l ?l2 ?g FROM <http://dbpedia.org> WHERE { ?s rdf:type dbpo:SoccerPlayer . ?s dbpp:nationalteam ?o . ?s rdfs:label?l FILTER langMatches( lang(?l), "EN" ) . ?s dbpp:nationalgoals ?g FILTER(?g>10). ?s dbprop:nationalteam ?nat . ?nat rdfs:label ?l2 FILTER langMatches( lang(?l2), "EN" ) . } ORDER BY DESC(?g) Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web ...towards an „intelligent“ Web63 Look for all Soccer Players that have scored more than 10 goals as member of a national team. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web ...towards an „intelligent“ Web64 Look for all Soccer Players that have scored more than 10 goals as member of a national team. Problem: Data Quality.... Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web Technologies Content65 1. Introduction • From Internet to Web 2.0 ...from a historical point of view • Quo Vadis WWW? ...the limits of the WWW • Semantic Web ...towards an ,intelligent‘ WWW • Semantic Web Applications ...the semantic WWW begins Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web Technologies Semantic Web Applications66 Linked Data □ Linked Open Data (LOD) denote publicly available (RDF) Data in the Web, identified via URI and accessable via HTTP. Linked data link to other data via URI. The ,Web of Data‘ • >31 billion facts • >500 million links (Oct. 2011) Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 67 http://www.bbc.co.uk/music Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • What is so special about the BBC68 Music Website? • Information is dynamically aggregated from external, publicly available data (Wikipedia, MusicBrainz,...) • no Screen Scraping • no specialized API • data available als Linked Open Data • data access via simple HTTP Request • data is always up-to-date without manual interaction Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Search Engines - Document Retrieval69 •Search Engine Query String: “Jaguar of 2000“ Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Search Engines - Document Retrieval69 •Search Engine Query String: “Jaguar of 2000“ • Refine ,jaguar‘ CAR or ANIMAL or OPERATINGSYSTEM etc. ? Refine: CAR Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Search Engines - Document Retrieval70 •Search Engine Query String: “Jaguar of 2000“ • Name: Jaguar E Type • Category: Car • ... • ConstructionYear <Integer> • technicalParameter • CylinderCapacity <Integer> • Power <Integer> • ... • ... Knowledge Representation (Ontologie, Linked Data) Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Search Engines - Document Retrieval70 •Search Engine Query String: “Jaguar of 2000“ • Name: Jaguar E Type • Category: Car • ... • ConstructionYear <Integer> • technicalParameter • CylinderCapacity <Integer> • Power <Integer> • ... • ... Knowledge Representation • Refine ,2000‘ (Ontologie, Linked Data) ConstructionYear or technicalParameter ? Refine: ConstructionYear Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Search Engines - Document Retrieval71 • General Problems: • correct interpretation of query string • correct identification of entities • automatic disambiguation • usability • personalization Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Search Engines - Fact Retrieval72 •Query String: “Where can I fill up the tank at a considerable discount?“ Answer : - Hohenfelden, xy-Str. 32 -> Super leaded, 1,99 € - fuel-efficient route will be passed to navigation - drive only at half throttle for saving fuel… Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Search Engines - Exploratory Search dbpedia:Michael_Collins73 dbpedia-owl:mission dbpedia:Apollo_11 dbpedia-owl:mission dcterms:subject dbpedia-owl:mission dbpedia:Neil_Armstrong dbpedia:Buzz_Aldrin dcterms:subject category:Apollo_program dbpedia:Apollo_13 rdf:type dbpedia:Space_Shuttle_Challenger yago:Space_accidents_and_incidents rdf:type Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Intelligent Agents in the Semantic Web74 WWW User presentation service retrieval service (e.g. Firefox) (e.g. Google) WWW documents Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Intelligent Agents in the Semantic Web74 WWW Semantic Web User User personal assistant intelligent infrastructure presentation service retrieval service services (e.g. Firefox) (e.g. Google) WWW documents WWW documents Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 3 Generations of Web Documents75 static web pages HTML / CSS 1. Generation Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 3 Generations of Web Documents75 interactive web pages static web pages JavaScript / Applets Data Base Access HTML / CSS Template-based Generation dynamische web pages 1. Generation 2. Generation Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 3 Generations of Web Documents75 interactive virtual web pages web pages static Netbots web pages JavaScript / Applets Information Extraction Presentation Planning Data Base Access HTML / CSS User Models Template-based Machine Learning Generation Online Layout dynamische adaptive web pages web pages 1. Generation 2. Generation 3. Generation Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • 76 Toolbox for the Semantic Web • Standardized languages to express semantics of information content in the Web (XML/XSD, RDF(S), OWL, RIF) • Tools to use semantic information in the Web (RDFa, GRDDL, ...) • Various fields of computer science: • artificial intelligence • linguistics • computer architecture • cryptography • software engineering • data bases • systems theory • theoretical computer science • computer networks Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web Technologies Content77 1. Introduction • From Internet to Web 2.0 ...from a historical point of view • Quo Vadis WWW? ...the limits of the WWW • Semantic Web ...towards an ,intelligent‘ WWW • Semantic Web Applications ...the semantic WWW begins Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Next Lecture...78 URI/URL - Designator and Designated Brushup your XML and XML Schema... Resource Description Framework Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web Technologies Bibliography79 • P. Hitzler, S. Roschke, Y. Sure: Semantic Web Grundlagen, Springer, 2007. • P. Hitzler, M. Krötzsch, S. Rudolph: Foundations of Semantic Web Technologies, CRC Press, 2009. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web Technologies Bibliography80 • T. Heath, Ch. Bitzer Linked Data - Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space, Morgan & Claypool, 2011. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12
  • Semantic Web Technologies Further Reading81 □Blog http://semweb2013.blogspot.com/ □Webseite http://www.hpi.uni-potsdam.de/studium/ lehrangebot/itse/veranstaltung/ semantic_web_technologien-3.html □bibsonomy - Bookmarks http://www.bibsonomy.org/user/lysander07/ swt1213_01 Lecture Semantic Web Technologies, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität PotsdamDonnerstag, 18. Oktober 12