OpenHPI 6.3 - Ontology Design 101

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OpenHPI 6.3 - Ontology Design 101

  1. 1. Semantic Web TechnologiesLecture 6: Applications in the Web of Data 03: Ontology Design 101 Dr. Harald Sack Hasso Plattner Institute for IT Systems Engineering University of Potsdam Spring 2013 This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)
  2. 2. 2 Lecture 6: Applications in the Web of Data Open HPI - Course: Semantic Web Technologies Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  3. 3. 3 03 - Ontology Design 101Open HPI - Course: Semantic Web Technologies - Lecture 6: Applications in the Web of Data Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  4. 4. (Noy, McGuinness, 2000) Ontology Development 101 •Example of a wine and food ontology4 Which wine is the right one for fish? French wine-growing regions and wines A shared ontology on wine and food Californian wine-growing regions and wines Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  5. 5. (Noy, McGuinness, 2000) Ontology Development 101 •Example of a wine and food ontology5 Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  6. 6. The Ontology Development 101 Process determine consider enumerate define define define create scope reuse terms classes properties constraints instances6 •in practice an iterative process that repeats continuously and improves the ontology •there are always different approaches for modelling an ontology •in practice the designated application decides about the modelling approach Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  7. 7. The Ontology Development 101 Process determine consider enumerate define define define create scope reuse terms classes properties constraints instances6 •in practice an iterative process that repeats continuously and improves the ontology •there are always different approaches for modelling an ontology •in practice the designated application decides about the modelling approach „There is no one cor rect way to model a domain. There are always vi able alternativ es.“ Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  8. 8. Determine Domain and Focus determine consider enumerate define define define create scope reuse terms classes properties constraints instances7 •Which domain should be covered by the ontology? •What should the ontology be used for? •What types of questions should be answered by the knowledge represented in the ontology? •Who will use and maintain the ontology? •Formulation of competence questions Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  9. 9. Determine Domain and Focus determine consider enumerate define define define create scope reuse terms classes properties constraints instances7 •Which domain should be covered by the ontology? •What should the ontology be used for? •What types of questions should be answered by the knowledge represented in the ontology? •Who will use and maintain the ontology? •Formulation of competence questions These Questions migh t change within the ontology life cycle Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  10. 10. Determine Domain and Focus determine consider enumerate define define define create scope reuse terms classes properties constraints instances8 Competence Questions (Wine Ontology) •Which properties of the wine should be considered for modelling? •Is Bordeaux a white wine or a red wine? •Does a Sauvignon Blanc match with fish? •Which wine matches best for grilled meat? •Which properties of a wine do influence whether it matches with a specific dish? •Does the bouquet of a wine change with different vintages? •... Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  11. 11. Consider Reuse determine consider enumerate define define define create scope reuse terms classes properties constraints instances9 •Why should we consider reuse? •in order to save cost •in order to apply tools that are applied for other existing ontologies also for our own ontology •in order to reuse ontologies that have been validated by their application Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  12. 12. Consider Reuse determine consider enumerate define define define create scope reuse terms classes properties constraints instances9 •Why should we consider reuse? •in order to save cost •in order to apply tools that are applied for other existing ontologies also for our own ontology •in order to reuse ontologies that have been validated by their application If you don‘t f ind a suitabl adaption is t e ontology or oo complex th if the en create a n ew ontology! Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  13. 13. Develop a Terminology determine consider enumerate define define define create scope reuse terms classes properties constraints instances10 •About which concepts are we talking? •What do we want to say about these concepts? •Which properties do these concepts have? Example: Wine Ontology •wine, grape, winery, location,... •a wine‘s color, body, flavor, sugar content,... •subtypes of wine: white wine, red wine, Bordeaux wine,... •types of food: seafood, fish, meat, vegetables, cheese,... •... Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  14. 14. Develop Classes and Class Hierarchies determine consider enumerate define define define create scope reuse terms classes properties constraints instances11 •Classes are concepts in the designated domain •class of wines •class of wineries •class of red wines •... •Classes are collections of objects with similar properties •Choose an approach to model class hierarchies •top-down: start with most general concept with subsequent specialization •bottom-up: start with most specific concepts with subsequent grouping into more general concepts •middle-out: start with most imnportant concepts with subsequent specialization and generalization Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  15. 15. Define Properties determine consider enumerate define define define create scope reuse terms classes properties constraints instances12 •Properties in a class definition describe attributes of instances •every wine has a color, residual sugar, producer, etc... Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  16. 16. Define Property Constraints determine consider enumerate define define define create scope reuse terms classes properties constraints instances13 •Property constraints (restrictions) describe or restrict the set of possible property values •The name of a wine is a string •The producer is an instance of winemaker Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  17. 17. Definition of Individuals determine consider enumerate define define define create scope reuse terms classes properties constraints instances14 •Create individuals populating the classes •every class directly becomes the type of its individuals •every superclass of a type is also a type of its individuals •Create instances for properties, i.e. assignment of property values for the individuals according to the given constraints •„the glass of red wine that I drank last supper...“ Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  18. 18. The Ontology Development 101 Process determine consider enumerate define define define create scope reuse terms classes properties constraints instances15 •in practice an iterative Process that repeats continuously and improves the ontology •Attention: •Further refinement should include the formulation of axioms •Not well suited for large scale industrial ontology engineering •version control, evaluation, quality assurance, etc. Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  19. 19. The Ontology Development 101 Process determine consider enumerate define define define create scope reuse terms classes properties constraints instances15 •in practice an iterative Process that repeats continuously and improves the ontology •Attention: •Further refinement should include the formulation of axioms •Not well suited for large scale industrial ontology engineering •version control, evaluation, quality assurance, etc. „There is no one cor rect way to model a domain. There are always vi able alternativ es.“ Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  20. 20. 16 Further Ontology Design Methodologies Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  21. 21. Unified Process for Ontology Building De Nicola, Missikoff, Navigli (2005)17 •Based on Unified Process (UP) methodology in software development and Unified Modelling Language (UML) •Use-Case driven, i.e. more suitable for application ontologies than for domain ontologies •Goals: •Reduction of time and cost in the development of large scale ontologies •Quality improvement of the developed ontology via progressive validation of intermediate results •Methodology for efficient collaboration of knowledge engineers and domain experts with clear separation of roles •Intermediate results can already be evaluated by the user Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  22. 22. Unified Process for Ontology Building De Nicola, Missikoff, Navigli (2005) •Development is divided into cycles, which are subdivided into 4 phases of iterations (Inception, Elaboration, Construction,18 Transition). Each iteration results in a new prototype. •Each iteration consists of 5 workflows (Requirements, Analysis, Design, Implementation, Test) Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  23. 23. Unified Process for Ontology Building De Nicola, Missikoff, Navigli (2005) •Workflows and phases are almost orthogonal, i.e. involvement of single workflows in different phases of ontology19 development does vary Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  24. 24. Ontology Design Patterns (Gangemi et al., 2005) •Adapting an idea originally from architecture •recurring modeling problems20 •providing a set of adaptable standard solutions •Ontology Design Patterns provide •small reusable (abstract) ontology templates with explicit documentation •searchable repository ordered by competence questions http://ontologydesignpatterns.org/ Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  25. 25. Ontology Design Patterns - A Simple Example •Example: taking over a temporary role21 •e.g.: Basil Rathbone played Sherlock Holmes in the 1939 movie „The Hound of the Baskervilles“ •Analyze the sentence, detect the modeling issues, and match to the Content ODPs •A person •represent objects and plays a character the roles they play Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam http://ontologydesignpatterns.org/
  26. 26. 03 - Ontology Design 10122 Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  27. 27. 23 04 - Linked Data Engineering Open HPI - Course: Semantic Web Technologies - Lecture 6: Applications in the Web of Data Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam

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