OpenHPI 5.4 - Web Ontology Language
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OpenHPI 5.4 - Web Ontology Language

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  • 1. Semantic Web TechnologiesLecture 5: Knowledge Representations II 04: Web Ontology Language - OWL Dr. Harald Sack Hasso Plattner Institute for IT Systems Engineering University of Potsdam Spring 2013 This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)
  • 2. 2 Lecture 5: Knowledge Representations II Open HPI - Course: Semantic Web Technologies Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 3. 3 04 Web Ontology Language - OWLOpen HPI - Course: SemanticHarald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Web Technologies - Lecture 5: Knowledge Representations II
  • 4. OWL – Web Ontology Language • OWL (SHOIN(D))- W3C Recommendation since 20044 • OWL 2 (SHROIQ(D))- W3C Recommendation since 2009 Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 5. OWL – Web Ontology Language • OWL (SHOIN(D))- W3C Recommendation since 20044 • OWL 2 (SHROIQ(D))- W3C Recommendation since 2009 • OWL Ontology consists of Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 6. OWL – Web Ontology Language • OWL (SHOIN(D))- W3C Recommendation since 20044 • OWL 2 (SHROIQ(D))- W3C Recommendation since 2009 • OWL Ontology consists of • Classes / properties / individuals (instances of classes) Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 7. OWL – Web Ontology Language • OWL (SHOIN(D))- W3C Recommendation since 20044 • OWL 2 (SHROIQ(D))- W3C Recommendation since 2009 • OWL Ontology consists of • Classes / properties / individuals (instances of classes) • Open World Assumption Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 8. OWL – Web Ontology Language • OWL (SHOIN(D))- W3C Recommendation since 20044 • OWL 2 (SHROIQ(D))- W3C Recommendation since 2009 • OWL Ontology consists of • Classes / properties / individuals (instances of classes) • Open World Assumption • „Absence of information must not be valued as negative information.“ Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 9. OWL – Web Ontology Language • OWL (SHOIN(D))- W3C Recommendation since 20044 • OWL 2 (SHROIQ(D))- W3C Recommendation since 2009 • OWL Ontology consists of • Classes / properties / individuals (instances of classes) • Open World Assumption • „Absence of information must not be valued as negative information.“ • E.g.: sitsNextTo(PersonA, PersonB) PersonA may also sit next to another person… Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 10. OWL – Web Ontology Language • OWL (SHOIN(D))- W3C Recommendation since 20044 • OWL 2 (SHROIQ(D))- W3C Recommendation since 2009 • OWL Ontology consists of • Classes / properties / individuals (instances of classes) • Open World Assumption • „Absence of information must not be valued as negative information.“ • E.g.: sitsNextTo(PersonA, PersonB) PersonA may also sit next to another person… • No Unique Name Assumption Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 11. OWL – Web Ontology Language • OWL (SHOIN(D))- W3C Recommendation since 20044 • OWL 2 (SHROIQ(D))- W3C Recommendation since 2009 • OWL Ontology consists of • Classes / properties / individuals (instances of classes) • Open World Assumption • „Absence of information must not be valued as negative information.“ • E.g.: sitsNextTo(PersonA, PersonB) PersonA may also sit next to another person… • No Unique Name Assumption • „Difference must be expressed explicitly“ Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 12. OWL – Web Ontology Language • OWL (SHOIN(D))- W3C Recommendation since 20044 • OWL 2 (SHROIQ(D))- W3C Recommendation since 2009 • OWL Ontology consists of • Classes / properties / individuals (instances of classes) • Open World Assumption • „Absence of information must not be valued as negative information.“ • E.g.: sitsNextTo(PersonA, PersonB) PersonA may also sit next to another person… • No Unique Name Assumption • „Difference must be expressed explicitly“ • E.g.: PersonA possibly denotes the same individual as PersonB Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 13. OWL – Web Ontology Language5 • OWL is a semantic fragment of FOL • OWL exists in different flavors FOL SWRL/RIF OWL Full OWL DL OWL EL OWL Lite RDFS OWL RL OWL QL Concept Hierarchies Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 14. OWL – Web Ontology Language5 • OWL is a semantic fragment of FOL • OWL exists in different flavors • OWL Lite ⊆ OWL DL ⊆ OWL Full FOL SWRL/RIF OWL Full OWL DL OWL EL OWL Lite RDFS OWL RL OWL QL Concept Hierarchies Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 15. OWL – Web Ontology Language5 • OWL is a semantic fragment of FOL • OWL exists in different flavors • OWL Lite ⊆ OWL DL ⊆ OWL Full OWL1 FOL OWL1 SWRL/RIF OWL Full OWL DL OWL EL OWL Lite RDFS OWL RL OWL QL Concept Hierarchies Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 16. OWL – Web Ontology Language6 • OWL is a semantic fragment of FOL • OWL exists in different flavors • OWL Lite ⊆ OWL DL ⊆ OWL Full • for OWL2: FOL OWL2 SWRL/RIF OWL Full OWL DL OWL EL OWL Lite RDFS OWL RL OWL QL Concept Hierarchies Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 17. OWL – Web Ontology Language6 • OWL is a semantic fragment of FOL • OWL exists in different flavors • OWL Lite ⊆ OWL DL ⊆ OWL Full • for OWL2: FOL • OWL EL, OWL RL, OWL QL OWL2 ⊆ OWL DL ⊆ OWL Full SWRL/RIF OWL Full OWL DL OWL EL OWL Lite RDFS OWL RL OWL QL Concept Hierarchies Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 18. OWL – Web Ontology Language6 • OWL is a semantic fragment of FOL • OWL exists in different flavors • OWL Lite ⊆ OWL DL ⊆ OWL Full • for OWL2: FOL • OWL EL, OWL RL, OWL QL OWL2 ⊆ OWL DL ⊆ OWL Full SWRL/RIF OWL Full OWL2 OWL DL OWL EL OWL Lite RDFS OWL RL OWL QL Concept Hierarchies Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 19. OWL 1 DL is based on SHOIN(D) • Axioms7 Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 20. OWL 1 DL is based on SHOIN(D) • Axioms7 • TBox: subclass relationships C ⊑ D Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 21. OWL 1 DL is based on SHOIN(D) • Axioms7 • TBox: subclass relationships C ⊑ D • RBox: subproperty relationships R ⊑ S (H), inverse properties R- (I), transitivity ⊑+ (S) Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 22. OWL 1 DL is based on SHOIN(D) • Axioms7 • TBox: subclass relationships C ⊑ D • RBox: subproperty relationships R ⊑ S (H), inverse properties R- (I), transitivity ⊑+ (S) • ABox: facts for classes C(a), properties R(a,b), equality a=b, difference a≠b Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 23. OWL 1 DL is based on SHOIN(D) • Axioms7 • TBox: subclass relationships C ⊑ D • RBox: subproperty relationships R ⊑ S (H), inverse properties R- (I), transitivity ⊑+ (S) • ABox: facts for classes C(a), properties R(a,b), equality a=b, difference a≠b • Class constructors: Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 24. OWL 1 DL is based on SHOIN(D) • Axioms7 • TBox: subclass relationships C ⊑ D • RBox: subproperty relationships R ⊑ S (H), inverse properties R- (I), transitivity ⊑+ (S) • ABox: facts for classes C(a), properties R(a,b), equality a=b, difference a≠b • Class constructors: • conjunction C⊓D, disjunction C⊔D, negation ¬C of classes Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 25. OWL 1 DL is based on SHOIN(D) • Axioms7 • TBox: subclass relationships C ⊑ D • RBox: subproperty relationships R ⊑ S (H), inverse properties R- (I), transitivity ⊑+ (S) • ABox: facts for classes C(a), properties R(a,b), equality a=b, difference a≠b • Class constructors: • conjunction C⊓D, disjunction C⊔D, negation ¬C of classes • property restrictions: universal ∀R.C and existential ∃R.C Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 26. OWL 1 DL is based on SHOIN(D) • Axioms7 • TBox: subclass relationships C ⊑ D • RBox: subproperty relationships R ⊑ S (H), inverse properties R- (I), transitivity ⊑+ (S) • ABox: facts for classes C(a), properties R(a,b), equality a=b, difference a≠b • Class constructors: • conjunction C⊓D, disjunction C⊔D, negation ¬C of classes • property restrictions: universal ∀R.C and existential ∃R.C • number restrictions: ≤n R and ≥n R (N) Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 27. OWL 1 DL is based on SHOIN(D) • Axioms7 • TBox: subclass relationships C ⊑ D • RBox: subproperty relationships R ⊑ S (H), inverse properties R- (I), transitivity ⊑+ (S) • ABox: facts for classes C(a), properties R(a,b), equality a=b, difference a≠b • Class constructors: • conjunction C⊓D, disjunction C⊔D, negation ¬C of classes • property restrictions: universal ∀R.C and existential ∃R.C • number restrictions: ≤n R and ≥n R (N) • closed classes (nominals): {a} (O) Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 28. OWL 1 DL is based on SHOIN(D) • Axioms7 • TBox: subclass relationships C ⊑ D • RBox: subproperty relationships R ⊑ S (H), inverse properties R- (I), transitivity ⊑+ (S) • ABox: facts for classes C(a), properties R(a,b), equality a=b, difference a≠b • Class constructors: • conjunction C⊓D, disjunction C⊔D, negation ¬C of classes • property restrictions: universal ∀R.C and existential ∃R.C • number restrictions: ≤n R and ≥n R (N) • closed classes (nominals): {a} (O) • Datatypes (D) Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 29. OWL Syntax Variants • OWL 2 can be represented in different Syntax variants8 • Functional Syntax: substitutes abstract syntax of OWL 1 • RDF-Syntax: extension of existing OWL/RDF • XML-Syntax: independent XML serialisation • Manchester-Syntax: machine readable syntax, esp. for ontology editors • Turtle: optional • Functional Syntax is easy to define, no RDF restrictions, more compact • RDF-Syntax important for compatibility issues • Turtle: simple and efficient to write... Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 30. OWL 2 - Functional Syntax SubClassOf(  :Teenager DataSomeValuesFrom( :hasAge9 DatatypeRestriction( xsd:integer xsd:minExclusive "12"^^xsd:integer xsd:maxInclusive "19"^^xsd:integer ) ) ) SubClassOf( :Woman :Person ) SubClassOf( :Mother :Woman ) ... SubObjectPropertyOf( :hasWife :hasSpouse ) SymmetricObjectProperty( :hasSpouse ) AsymmetricObjectProperty( :hasChild ) ... Declaration( NamedIndividual( :John ) ) Declaration( NamedIndividual( :Mary ) ) Declaration( NamedIndividual( :Jim ) ) ... ClassAssertion( :Person :Mary ) ClassAssertion( :Woman :Mary ) ... ObjectPropertyAssertion( :hasWife :John :Mary ) NegativeObjectPropertyAssertion( :hasWife :Bill :Mary ) Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 31. OWL 2 - Manchester Syntax Class: Person Annotations: ...10 SubClassOf: owl:Thing that hasFirstName exactly 1 and hasFirstName only string[minLength 1] ,... SubClassOf: hasAge exactly 1 and hasAge only not NegInt,... SubClassOf: hasGender exactly 1 and hasGender only {female , male} ,... SubClassOf: not hates Self, ... EquivalentTo: g:People ,... DisjointWith: g:Rock , g:Mineral ,... ObjectProperty: hasWife Annotations: ... Characteristics: Functional, InverseFunctional, Reflexive, Irreflexive, Asymmetric, Transitive Domain: Man Range: Person, Woman SubPropertyOf: hasSpouse, loves EquivalentTo: isMarriedTo ,... DisjointWith: hates ,... InverseOf: hasSpouse Individual: John Annotations: ... Types: Person , hasFirstName value "John" or hasFirstName value "Jack"^^xsd:string Facts: hasWife Mary, not hasChild Susan, hasAge 33, hasChild _:child1 SameAs: Jack ,... DifferentFrom: Susan ,... Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 32. OWL 2 - Turtle Syntax11 :HappyPerson a owl:Class ; owl:equivalentClass [ a owl:Class ; owl:intersectionOf ([ a owl:Restriction ; owl:onProperty :hasChild ; owl:allValuesFrom :HappyPerson ] [ a owl:Restriction ; owl:onProperty :hasChild ; owl:someValuesFrom :HappyPerson ] ) ]. Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 33. Standard Namespaces and Prefixes12 (cf. http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-syntax/ ) http://prefix.cc/ Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  • 34. 13 05 Web Ontology Language - OWL (Part 2)Open HPI - Course: SemanticHarald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Web Technologies - Lecture 5: Knowledge Representations II