Wicked Problems and Designing Games for Change
Dr. Cynthia Calongne
CTU Doctoral Symposium, April 17-19, 2014
Wicked Problems
• Hard to characterize
• No simple solution
• Ambiguous or complex
• Diverse perspectives
• Changing condi...
Wicked Problem Examples
• Public Planning and Policy
– Global climate change
– Human trafficking
– Drug trafficking
– Natu...
Addressing Wicked Problems
• Novel solutions for unique problems
– Normal tactics will fail
– Exploration by trial and err...
Types of Wicked Problems
• Environmental
• Economic
• Spiritual
• Political
• Medical
• Social
• Moral
How Can Emerging Media Help?
Global Communication
Global Argument
Social Media
Presencing
Diversity
Games
MIT’s Action Research Global Wellbeing and Gross National Happiness Lab
Presencing and Emerging Media
Virtual-
Physioception
Motivation Intersubjective
Presencing
Collaborative Virtual
Environments (CVEs)
Transdisciplinarity...
Presencing
Sharing
the
Social Space
within the
Mind Space
thru
Games &
Simulations
Everyone Matters
Benefits of Games
Games can stimulate
• Problem solving
• Critical thinking
• Digital literacy
• Strategy & tactics
• Moto...
Game Design and Prototyping
Roleplay, Social Games and Simulations
Leveraging a Game-Based Culture
• Alternate reality games
• Augmented reality
• Games for change
• Serious games
• Gamific...
Design Games for Change
• Define the problem and desired outcomes
• Identify the possible genres and tactics
• Explore the...
Design Goals, Game Elements and Outcomes
By Jane McGonigal http://janemcgonigal.com/learn-me/
Game Genres and Play Styles
Types of games
• Word, trivia or puzzle
• Scavenger or Treasure Hunt
• Action or adventure
• R...
Designing the Game Components
Design Concepts
Game Mechanics
• Rules
• Objectives
• Environment
• Setting
• Win Conditions
• Challenges
• Treasure, Loot...
Game Controls and Observation
Game Scoreboard
A Few Design Distinctions
Strategy Game
• Game engine
• Modeling
– 2D diagrams and 3D objects
• Character Creation
• Level...
Requirements for the Environment & Aesthetics
Activity
• In groups of 3-5
–Identify a problem
–Identify a game genre for investigating it
»Explore the problem
»Explore ...
Prototyping the Game’s Design
A Game Designer Demos Her Game Badge
Emerging Media Tactics
• Global conversation
– Social networks
• Social media
• Semantic Web
• Mobile technology
• Cloud c...
Designing Collectible Card Games
Crowdsourcing the problem
Trial and error
Willingness to fail
Game Activity
• Using games for change
–Identify the EM strategies for your game
–Review its features and behavior
»How it...
Mayan Temple Game Simulation
Non-Player Characters (NPCs)
Players and NPCs
Story, characterization and
aesthetics
Development of quality models
and game prototypes
Collaboration, Communication and
Transdisciplinarity
Scene from a CTU Emerging Media Sick Bay
Immersive and Mobile Games
Courtesy of Dr. Andrew Stricker
Designing a Game Inside a Game
Photo by C. Calongne
Game Design by AgileBill Firehawk
Wicked Problems and Designing Games
for Change
Dr. Cynthia Calongne
CTU Doctoral Symposium, April 17-19, 2014
Game Activit...
Designing games for change for wicked problems
Designing games for change for wicked problems
Designing games for change for wicked problems
Designing games for change for wicked problems
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Designing games for change for wicked problems

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Spring CTU Doctoral Symposium Workshop and EM Workshop Activities held on April 17-18, 2014 by Dr. Cynthia Calongne.

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  • You draw an interesting correlation between 'Wicked Problems' and forces ( *al ). It certainly makes sense that games for change would be centered on one or more aspects of these forces. Thank you for sharing this!
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Transcript of "Designing games for change for wicked problems"

  1. 1. Wicked Problems and Designing Games for Change Dr. Cynthia Calongne CTU Doctoral Symposium, April 17-19, 2014
  2. 2. Wicked Problems • Hard to characterize • No simple solution • Ambiguous or complex • Diverse perspectives • Changing conditions • Global impact
  3. 3. Wicked Problem Examples • Public Planning and Policy – Global climate change – Human trafficking – Drug trafficking – Natural hazards – Social injustice – Healthcare – Pandemics – Nuclear
  4. 4. Addressing Wicked Problems • Novel solutions for unique problems – Normal tactics will fail – Exploration by trial and error – Solution defines the problem • Potential steps lead to consequences • Solutions are neither right or wrong • A symptom of another problem • Reciprocal cause and effect
  5. 5. Types of Wicked Problems • Environmental • Economic • Spiritual • Political • Medical • Social • Moral
  6. 6. How Can Emerging Media Help? Global Communication Global Argument Social Media Presencing Diversity Games
  7. 7. MIT’s Action Research Global Wellbeing and Gross National Happiness Lab Presencing and Emerging Media
  8. 8. Virtual- Physioception Motivation Intersubjective Presencing Collaborative Virtual Environments (CVEs) Transdisciplinarity Body awareness (Mehling, Gopisetty, Daubenmier, Price, Hecht & Stewart) Virtual Self (Fox & Bailenson; Ratan; McCreery) Social Presence (Biocca et al.; Blascovich) Player Identification (Van Looy) Supermorphic Persona (Young) Metacognition Theory (Flavell) Being (Maslow) Grit (Duckworth) Generativity (McAdams ) Intrinsic (Dickey) Intrinsic v. Extrinsic (Finkelstien) Volunteerism (Shye) Avatar appearance (Baylor) Presencing- (Senge et. Al; Scharmer) Transformed Social Interaction (Bailenson, Beall, Loomis, Blascovich &Turk; Bailenson) Presence in VWs – (Allmendinger, Suter) Dialogue (Bohm) Transformed Social Interaction in CVEs- (Bailenson) CVEs- (Montoya) WoW- (Yee) 3D Visualization (Siau, Nah, Mennecke & Schiller; Sonnewald) Manifesto (Nicolescu, Montuori) Team Science (Stokols) Team cognition (Salas & Fiore) Complexity Theory (Morin) Wicked Problems- (Rittel; Conklin) Courtesy of Dr. Barbara Truman, research in presencing and transdisciplinarity
  9. 9. Presencing Sharing the Social Space within the Mind Space thru Games & Simulations Everyone Matters
  10. 10. Benefits of Games Games can stimulate • Problem solving • Critical thinking • Digital literacy • Strategy & tactics • Motor skill development • Collaboration • Leadership & courage • Socialization Game-based learning • Vision & creativity • Sustainability • Immersion • Learning retention • Heutagogy • Knowledge networks • Socio-technical skills • Entrepreneurship
  11. 11. Game Design and Prototyping Roleplay, Social Games and Simulations
  12. 12. Leveraging a Game-Based Culture • Alternate reality games • Augmented reality • Games for change • Serious games • Gamification • Social games • MMORPGs • MMOGs
  13. 13. Design Games for Change • Define the problem and desired outcomes • Identify the possible genres and tactics • Explore the story and game mechanics • Identify the EM tools, technology and resources • Design the quests • Integrate the story, quests and game mechanics • Play the game • Evaluate the desired outcomes and aesthetics
  14. 14. Design Goals, Game Elements and Outcomes
  15. 15. By Jane McGonigal http://janemcgonigal.com/learn-me/
  16. 16. Game Genres and Play Styles Types of games • Word, trivia or puzzle • Scavenger or Treasure Hunt • Action or adventure • Real Time Strategy (RTS) • Roleplay game (RPG) • MMORPGs • Arcade or Video games • First Person Shooter (FPS) • Simulations (Sims) • Board or card games • Mobile and social games Play styles • Individual or social • Multiplayer cooperative • Multiplayer competitive • Everyone is a winner! • Last man standing – PvP • Player vs Environment • Roleplay • Capture the flag • Team wins • High score • Social and free play games
  17. 17. Designing the Game Components
  18. 18. Design Concepts Game Mechanics • Rules • Objectives • Environment • Setting • Win Conditions • Challenges • Treasure, Loot or Gold • Badges • Reputation Roleplay Games • Story • Terrain • 2D or 3D Graphics • Strategies • Conflict • Players • Non-Player Character (NPC) • Enemies or Monsters • Competition
  19. 19. Game Controls and Observation
  20. 20. Game Scoreboard
  21. 21. A Few Design Distinctions Strategy Game • Game engine • Modeling – 2D diagrams and 3D objects • Character Creation • Level & Strategy Design • System Integration • Game Events • Win Strategy - Objectives • Quality Assurance – Unit & Integration Tests – Play and Usability Tests Virtual World Game • Virtual World Simulator • Rapid Prototyping – 3D Game Objects • Bots (NPCs) and Avatars • Linking Object Models – Designing Holodecks • Multimedia & Animations • Rubrics - Objectives & Outcomes • QA - Change Management – Object Behavior Tests – Integration, Play & Usability Tests
  22. 22. Requirements for the Environment & Aesthetics
  23. 23. Activity • In groups of 3-5 –Identify a problem –Identify a game genre for investigating it »Explore the problem »Explore possible solutions • Discuss the forces at work –The mnemonic = the words that end in –al
  24. 24. Prototyping the Game’s Design
  25. 25. A Game Designer Demos Her Game Badge
  26. 26. Emerging Media Tactics • Global conversation – Social networks • Social media • Semantic Web • Mobile technology • Cloud computing • Game-based culture
  27. 27. Designing Collectible Card Games
  28. 28. Crowdsourcing the problem Trial and error Willingness to fail
  29. 29. Game Activity • Using games for change –Identify the EM strategies for your game –Review its features and behavior »How it uses the Web »How it leverages socialization & collaboration »How it supports individual play • Describe the game mechanics –How do the players “win” at the game?
  30. 30. Mayan Temple Game Simulation
  31. 31. Non-Player Characters (NPCs)
  32. 32. Players and NPCs Story, characterization and aesthetics Development of quality models and game prototypes
  33. 33. Collaboration, Communication and Transdisciplinarity Scene from a CTU Emerging Media Sick Bay
  34. 34. Immersive and Mobile Games Courtesy of Dr. Andrew Stricker
  35. 35. Designing a Game Inside a Game Photo by C. Calongne Game Design by AgileBill Firehawk
  36. 36. Wicked Problems and Designing Games for Change Dr. Cynthia Calongne CTU Doctoral Symposium, April 17-19, 2014 Game Activities
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