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MEANING OF HYDROSPHERE A hydrosphere (from Greekὕδωρ - hydor, "water" and σφαῖρα - sphaira, "sphere") in physical geography describes the combined mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of a planet. The total mass of the Earth's hydrosphere is about 1.4 × 1018tonnes, which is about 0.023% of the Earth's total mass. About 20 × 1012tonnes of this is in the Earth's atmosphere (the volume of one tonne of water is approximately 1 cubic metre). Approximately 75% of the Earth's surface, an area of some 361 million square kilometres (139.5 million square miles), is covered by ocean. The average salinity of the Earth's oceans is about 35 grams of salt per kilogram of sea water (35 ‰).
Hydrological cycle Isolation, or energy (in the form of heat and light) from the sun, provides the energy necessary to cause evaporation from all wet surfaces including oceans, rivers, lakes, soil and the leaves of plants. Water vapor is further released as transpiration from vegetation and from humans and other animals. Aquifer drawdown or over drafting and the pumping of fossil water increases the total amount of water in the hydrospherethat is subject to transpiration and evaporation thereby causing accretion in water vapor and cloud cover which are the primary absorbers of infrared radiation in the earth's atmosphere. Adding water to the system has a forcing effect on the whole earth system, an accurate estimate of which hydrogeological fact is yet to be quantified.
Four types of sphere Lithosphere The lithosphere is the solid, rocky crust covering entire planet. This crust is inorganic and is composed of minerals. It covers the entire surface of the earth from the top of Mount Everest to the bottom of the Mariana Trench. Hydrosphere The hydrosphere is composed of all of the water on or near the earth. This includes the oceans, rivers, lakes, and even the moisture in the air. Ninety-seven percent of the earth's water is in the oceans. The remaining three percent is fresh water; three-quarters of the fresh water is solid and exists in ice sheets
Biosphere The biosphere is composed of all living organisms. Plants, animals, and one-celled organisms are all part of the biosphere. Most of the planet's life is found from three meters below the ground to thirty meters above it and in the top 200 meters of the oceans and seas. Atmosphere The atmosphere is the body of air which surrounds our planet. Most of our atmosphere is located close to the earth's surface where it is most dense. The air of our planet is 79% nitrogen and just under 21% oxygen; the small amount remaining is composed of carbon dioxide and other gasses. All four spheres can be and often are present in a single location. For example, a piece of soil will of course have mineral material from the lithosphere. Additionally, there will be elements of the hydrosphere present as moisture within the soil, the biosphere as insects and plants, and even the atmosphere as pockets of air between soil pieces.
Meaning of water pollution Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater). Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water; and, in almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities.
Introduction Water pollution is a major global problem. It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases,and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily.An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet, and 1,000 Indian children die of diarrheal sickness every day.Some 90% of China's cities suffer from some degree of water pollution,and nearly 500 million people lack access to safe drinking water.In addition to the acute problems of water pollution in developing countries, industrialized countries continue to struggle with pollution problems as well. In the most recent national report on water quality in the United States, 45 percent of assessed streammiles, 47 percent of assessed lake acres, and 32 percent of assessed bay and estuarinesquare miles were classified as polluted. Water is typically referred to as polluted when it is impaired by anthropogenic contaminants and either does not support a human use, such as drinking water, and/or undergoes a marked shift in its ability to support its constituent biotic communities, such as fish. Natural phenomena such as volcanoes, algae blooms, storms, and earthquakes also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water.
Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in water bodies; and, in almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities. Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily.
Causes The major sources of water pollution are as described below. Discharge of contaminated and/or heated water that has been used for industrial purposes. The surface runoff that contains spilled petroleum products. The surface runoff from farms, construction sites or other impervious surfaces. The improper disposal of solid wastes like littering on a localized scale. Addition of excessive nutrients by runoff containing detergents or fertilizers called as eutrophication. The geology of aquifers where groundwater is abstracted. Maltreated sewage discharged in a wrong manner. Slash and burn farming practice is a component in shifting cultivation agricultural systems. Radioactive substances from nuclear power plants and industrial, medical and scientific use are also contributive. Uranium and thorium mining and refining are some of the examples. Heat is a leading cause as it results in the death of several aquatic organisms. A discharge of cooling water by factories and power plants lowers the temperature of the water bodies. Oil pollution is very harmful for coastal wildlife. Oil spreads on huge areas to form oil slicks. If there are trials to sink the oil or chemically treat it, the marine and beach ecosystems may be further disrupted.
The effects in living organisms may range from mild discomfort to serious diseases such as cancer to physical deformities; ex., extra or missing limbs in frogs. Soil pollution may also result from secondary contamination of water supplies and from deposition of air contaminants (for example, via acid rain)
Solution Prevent EmissionsIndustrial water pollution isn't something that any of us are privy to, but one of the most scary discoveries of late has been the graveness of the fact that is known as mercury pollution. US power plants account for more than 40% of mercury emissions in the US. Also, the phenomenon of mercury poisoning isn't new to us either. The solution to this problem is to prevent the amount of mercury pollution coming from land. We can implement one of the simplest water pollution solutions by simply preventing the amount of coal burning that is done, as this will significantly reduce the mercury pollution, that is occurring to such an extent that our marine ecosystem is being irreversibly harmed and damaged. Other problems, like acid rain can also be dealt with by preventing the amount of emissions coming from factories and production plants. Preventing Oil SpillsOil spills are a sad but true fact that is plaguing our oceans and having disastrous consequences on our marine ecosystem. Some simple and practical ways of nipping this problem in the bud is to simply quicken the pace and the rate at which such vessels carrying oil move. Also, the government can play an important role in this problem, like strictly regulating and inspecting the movement of commercial ships, and educating citizens about the dire consequences of this problem. Also a way in which we can all contribute in our own small way is to try and use transport that does not consume too much of petrol, like public transport. Imagine, preventing water pollution and air pollution at the same time!