Medieval Britain

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Medieval Britain

  1. 1. Medieval Britain 1066 - 1485
  2. 2. The Vikings and the Anglo-Saxons
  3. 3. Edward the Confessor (1016-1066)  Reign, marked by peace and prosperity  Built Westminster Abbey  After his death in 1066 - four claimants to the throne: • Edgar the Atheling • Harold Godwilson; • William of Normandy • Harald Hardrada
  4. 4. The Norman Conquest  14 Oct 1066 – the Battle of Hastings. William the Conqueror invades Britain;  25th Dec 1066 - Duke William of Normandy was crowned king of England  The Tower of London was built  1086 - The Domesday Book – the first national census – was completed
  5. 5. The Tower of London
  6. 6. The Battle of Hastings - reenactment
  7. 7. Norman houses  Wattle and daub huts with thatched straw roofs
  8. 8. Changes, brought about by the Normans  Strict feudal system was introduced;  Royal justice administration was enhanced;  Links with the church were tightened to strengthen the central government  A string of stone castles was built;  Trade (especially wool export) boosted;  The Parliament was formed;  The Magna Carta was signed by King John  The basis of the modern English language was set
  9. 9. Motte and Bailey Castles  Motte - mound or 'clod of earth'  Bailey - enclosure.
  10. 10. Motte and bailey castles restored
  11. 11. Windsor Castle  The official residence of Her Majesty The Queen;  The oldest and largest inhabited castle in the world;  Open to visitors
  12. 12. The Magna Carta and the Parliament  1215 – King George was forced by the barons to agree to Magna Carta, which gave more power to the nobility;  The Parliament: • In Anglo-Saxon times – the Witan; • After the Norman conquest – the Great Council, consisting of nobles and churchmen; • 1258 – the name Parliament was adopted (from the French word parler), non-noble representatives included; • Fully developed as an institution by Edward I
  13. 13. Scotland, Wales and Ireland  Scotland – remained politically independent; the Lowlands became partly normanized, the Highlands retained their Celtic language and traditions  Wales – by the end of the XIII century – under the direct rule of the English king, but retained its language;  Ireland – its eastern part was controlled by Anglo-Saxon lords, who gradually adopted the language and lifestyle of local people
  14. 14. A series of separate wars, lasting from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne, which: ► gave impetus to ideas of both French and English nationalism; ► saw the introduction of new military weapons and tactics
  15. 15. The War of the Roses (1455 – 1485)  The Lancaster family – the red rose  The York family – the white rose  Ended in 1485, when Henry VII defeated and killed Richard III  The Tudor dynasty (descendants of the Duke of Lancaster) came into power, bringing a long period of stability and prosperity
  16. 16. Thanks for your attention! Next time: Henry VIII and his six wives Bloody Mary the Virgin Queen the Spanish Armada defeated … and much more.

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