The Unknown Little Ice Age

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The Unknown Little Ice Age

  1. 1. The Unknown Little Ice Age 2011 Summer HIST 141 – 50587 By: Le Thi My Ho
  2. 2. The Little Ice Age <ul><li>Began 7 Centuries ago, approximately from the 14 th – 19 th Century that targets mankind </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely cold period between 1550 AD and 1850 AD ; identified with three particularly cold intervals: one beginning about 1650 , another about 1770 , and the last in 1850 , each separated by intervals of slight warming climate </li></ul><ul><li>Period of unusual cooling that occurred after a warmer North Atlantic Era of the Northern Hemisphere known as the  Medieval Warm Period </li></ul><ul><li>Winter were longer and colder; Summer were shorter and cooler in many parts of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Increased glaciations and storms in a number of widely spread regions outside Europe prior to the 20 th century, including Alaska, New Zealand, and Patagonia </li></ul><ul><li>Over 25 million (1/3 population) people died during this Era due to famine (starvation), weather, and diseases </li></ul>
  3. 3. Climatologists and Historians don’t even know exactly the date the Little Ice Age occurred or ended Important dates and evidences that contributed to and indicated the beginning and end of the Little Ice Age: <ul><ul><li>1000 AD Vikings settled in Greenland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1250 Atlantic pack ice began to grow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1300 Warm summers stopped being dependable in Northern Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1315 The rains and Great Famine of 1315-1317 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1347 Bubonic Plague/Black Death from Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1550 Theorized beginning of worldwide glacial expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1600-10   Advances by Chamonix (France) glaciers cause massive floods which destroyed three villages and severely damaged a fourth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1670-80's  Maximum historical advances by glaciers in eastern Alps. Noticeable decline of human population by this time in areas close to glaciers, whereas population elsewhere in Europe had risen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1695-1709 Iceland glaciers advance dramatically, destroying farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1710-1735 A glacier in Norway was advancing at a rate of 100 m per year for 25 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1748-50 Norwegian glaciers achieved their historical maximum LIA positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1815 “A year without a summer” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1845 Ireland adopted the potato as their main crop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1850 Ice Age Ended </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Possible Causes of the Little Ice Age <ul><li>Orbital Cycles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orbital forcing due to cycles in the Earth's orbit around the Sun </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cyclical Lows In Solar Radiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not producing enough solar activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heightened Volcanic Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eruptions cause hot gas in the atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes In The Ocean Circulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slowing of thermohaline circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inherent Variability Of Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooling of the Northern Hemisphere – decreased by 4 °F </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decreased Human Populations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major population declines in Eurasia and the Americas leading to a cooling trend </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What was its effect on History? <ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease in crop production: Wheat, Rye, Barley, Oats, Grapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potatoes (Devil’s Plant) were introduced and highly consumed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in forest/tree population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bubonic Plague/Black Death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in price of crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease wine production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beer and Hard Liquor highly consumed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in deep-sea fishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of merchant shipping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social strife </li></ul><ul><li>Emigration </li></ul><ul><li>Art and Literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Writers increased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein and The Vampire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artists increased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Historical beautiful paintings </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Sources <ul><li>Documentary: Little Ice Age: Big Chill </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia : Little Ice Age </li></ul><ul><li>The Little Ice Age in Europe </li></ul>
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