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The Panama Canal and The Los Angeles Aqueducts Hist 141 Summer 2011 By: Le Thi My Ho
Panama Canal – Largest Civil Engineering Project in US History <ul><li>For hundreds of years people dreamed of linking the...
Panama Canal Creditors: <ul><li>President Theodore Roosevelt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraged Panamanian desire for indepe...
Panama Canal Conflicts: <ul><li>Private French company stuggled with  finances, technology,  and  disease  before abandoni...
Panama Canal Significant Benefits <ul><li>Break through  and  prevention  of yellow fever and other diseases and prolong t...
The Los Angeles Aqueduct <ul><li>With Los Angeles growing at a rapid pace due to the  Progressive Era of Entertainment, Te...
The Los Angeles Aqueduct  Significant People: <ul><li>President Theodore Roosevelt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported a 1902 ...
The Los Angeles Aqueduct Conflicts: <ul><ul><li>The challenge to supply water to Los Angeles continued </li></ul></ul><ul>...
The Los Angeles Aqueduct Effects: <ul><ul><li>Since Mulholland realized his dream of the Los Angeles Aqueduct,  millions h...
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The Panama Canal and The Los Angeles Aqueducts

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  • how these engineering projects were representative of the Progressive Age in American History, and why they were important for the economic growth of California and the Western states in the 20th century.  Use the title listed above as the title for your essay Explain the reasons why these projects were viewed as necessary.  What did the builders hope to accomplish with these projects? Describe the engineering skills necessary and the demands of the projects. Describe some of the technical problems faced by the engineers and builders. Who benefited from these projects, and who did not
  • how these engineering projects were representative of the Progressive Age in American History, and why they were important for the economic growth of California and the Western states in the 20th century.  Use the title listed above as the title for your essay Explain the reasons why these projects were viewed as necessary.  What did the builders hope to accomplish with these projects? Describe the engineering skills necessary and the demands of the projects. Describe some of the technical problems faced by the engineers and builders. Who benefited from these projects, and who did not
  • how these engineering projects were representative of the Progressive Age in American History, and why they were important for the economic growth of California and the Western states in the 20th century.  Use the title listed above as the title for your essay Explain the reasons why these projects were viewed as necessary.  What did the builders hope to accomplish with these projects? Describe the engineering skills necessary and the demands of the projects. Describe some of the technical problems faced by the engineers and builders. Who benefited from these projects, and who did not
  • how these engineering projects were representative of the Progressive Age in American History, and why they were important for the economic growth of California and the Western states in the 20th century.  Use the title listed above as the title for your essay Explain the reasons why these projects were viewed as necessary.  What did the builders hope to accomplish with these projects? Describe the engineering skills necessary and the demands of the projects. Describe some of the technical problems faced by the engineers and builders. Who benefited from these projects, and who did not
  • how these engineering projects were representative of the Progressive Age in American History, and why they were important for the economic growth of California and the Western states in the 20th century.  Use the title listed above as the title for your essay Explain the reasons why these projects were viewed as necessary.  What did the builders hope to accomplish with these projects? Describe the engineering skills necessary and the demands of the projects. Describe some of the technical problems faced by the engineers and builders. Who benefited from these projects, and who did not
  • how these engineering projects were representative of the Progressive Age in American History, and why they were important for the economic growth of California and the Western states in the 20th century.  Use the title listed above as the title for your essay Explain the reasons why these projects were viewed as necessary.  What did the builders hope to accomplish with these projects? Describe the engineering skills necessary and the demands of the projects. Describe some of the technical problems faced by the engineers and builders. Who benefited from these projects, and who did not
  • how these engineering projects were representative of the Progressive Age in American History, and why they were important for the economic growth of California and the Western states in the 20th century.  Use the title listed above as the title for your essay Explain the reasons why these projects were viewed as necessary.  What did the builders hope to accomplish with these projects? Describe the engineering skills necessary and the demands of the projects. Describe some of the technical problems faced by the engineers and builders. Who benefited from these projects, and who did not
  • how these engineering projects were representative of the Progressive Age in American History, and why they were important for the economic growth of California and the Western states in the 20th century.  Use the title listed above as the title for your essay Explain the reasons why these projects were viewed as necessary.  What did the builders hope to accomplish with these projects? Describe the engineering skills necessary and the demands of the projects. Describe some of the technical problems faced by the engineers and builders. Who benefited from these projects, and who did not
  • Transcript of "The Panama Canal and The Los Angeles Aqueducts"

    1. 1. The Panama Canal and The Los Angeles Aqueducts Hist 141 Summer 2011 By: Le Thi My Ho
    2. 2. Panama Canal – Largest Civil Engineering Project in US History <ul><li>For hundreds of years people dreamed of linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans by a shorter economical inter-oceanic route </li></ul><ul><li>The design and built of Canals were products of the era’s confidence in science and engineering as the key to progress, to promote commerce economically, and to unite nations </li></ul><ul><li>With the 1849 discovery of gold in California and the booming of the western economy, the isthmus poured with fortune seekers looking for the fastest route to the gold fields and to the land of big opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>High quality of American heavy machinery was critical to U.S. success in Panama where Engineers easily adapted drilling, digging, moving, unloading, spreading, and grading equipment that had been originally developed for the railroad industry </li></ul><ul><li>The Panama Canal requires more than 4,000 flatcars, 200 locomotives, and 100 steam shovels of heavy equipments </li></ul><ul><li>From the Atlantic Ocean the Panama Canal runs south for ten miles (17 km) and then eastward to the Pacific Ocean </li></ul>
    3. 3. Panama Canal Creditors: <ul><li>President Theodore Roosevelt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraged Panamanian desire for independence from Colombia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported and Approved the Panama Canal Project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ferdinand de Lesseps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French mastermind behind the Suez Canal who brought the same idea for a canal across the Isthmus of Panama </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chief Engineer John Stevens 1905 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most experienced railroad builders in US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He saw that disease was brought under control and was largely responsible for deciding to build a lock-type canal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build the infrastructure needed for the completion of the canal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colonial George Washington Goethals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed Chairman and Chief Engineer of the Isthmian Canal Commission in 1907 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under his leadership, the Canal was completed six months ahead of schedule and $23 million below budget </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dr. William Gorgas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Tropical Disease Expert used their research and his own experience to rid the isthmus of yellow fever in 18 months and cut down malaria </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Panama Canal Conflicts: <ul><li>Private French company stuggled with finances, technology, and disease before abandoning the work and selling its rights and equipment to the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Engineer Napoleon Garella believed that yellow fever did not exist on the isthmus and failed to predict the health hazards that would claim thousands of workers’ lives during construction of the canal </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting the canal route was primarily an engineering issue, but individuals outside of the profession determined its final site </li></ul><ul><li>Sovereignty was a factor; at the time, Panama was part of Colombia, which held legal jurisdiction over the French canal lease   </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical diseases like yellow fever and malaria killed thousands of workers during the French years threatened to derail the American effort before it even got started </li></ul><ul><li>Injuries and deaths from dynamite blasts, drowning, railroad accidents , and other trauma occurred throughout the entire project </li></ul>
    5. 5. Panama Canal Significant Benefits <ul><li>Break through and prevention of yellow fever and other diseases and prolong the progress of malaria </li></ul><ul><li>Generous pay, free housing and medical care, and subsidized food prices helped ensure a highly motivated American work force with an overwhelming sense of purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Workers came from other parts of the world, with Spain, Greece, Italy, and India supplying help in varying numbers </li></ul><ul><li>A presidential medal was given to every U.S. citizen who worked two years on the canal </li></ul><ul><li>“ Every successful structure serves as a guide in the construction of all future similar works. Thus the experience of one may become the wisdom of many.” </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol of human creativity, persistence, and achievement </li></ul><ul><li>A key channel for i nternational maritime trade and access within the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans </li></ul>
    6. 6. The Los Angeles Aqueduct <ul><li>With Los Angeles growing at a rapid pace due to the Progressive Era of Entertainment, Technology, Science, Medicine, Agriculture Economy , not only the availability of water, but also the quality of water became more important in the 20th century </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Aqueduct Completed 1913 ; 5yrs to Build; Cost $23 Million; Length 223 Miles; Capacity 485 cfs </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Aqueduct Completed 1970 ; 5yrs to Build; Cost $89 Million; Length 137 Miles; Capacity 290 cfs </li></ul><ul><li>Water Source : Colorado River, Owens River, Haiwee Reservoir, Mono Lake's Seven Tributary Streams: Lee Vining, Parker, Walker, Rush Creeks, Crowley Lake and Grant Lake </li></ul><ul><li>Workers from all over the world came to work at high-paying jobs that would last for several years </li></ul>
    7. 7. The Los Angeles Aqueduct Significant People: <ul><li>President Theodore Roosevelt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported a 1902 law to provide irrigation and hydroelectric development by building dams on some of the nation’s rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decided that Los Angeles should have the rights to the Owens River water stating “… yet it is a hundred or a thousand fold more important to the state and more valuable to the people as a whole if used by the city than if used by the people of the Owens Valley ” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>William Mulholland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An Ireland Immigrant who started out as a ditch tender for the Los Angeles City Water Company, later engineered and built the Los Angeles Aqueduct that allowed the city to grow into one of the largest in the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First American Engineer to utilize hydraulic sluicing to build a dam; government engineers later adopted the method in building Gatun Dam in the Panama Canal Zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated the benefit of the Aqueduct to &quot; you and your children and your children's children for all time “ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fred Eaton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convinced Mulholland that the Owens River could provide Los Angeles with a reliable source of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brought land and water rights for Los Angeles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>City Engineer in 1886 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mayor of Los Angeles in 1898 </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. The Los Angeles Aqueduct Conflicts: <ul><ul><li>The challenge to supply water to Los Angeles continued </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>City had problems securing the Owens Valley land and water rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Owens Valley residents began to fight the City's water export </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confrontations escalated to several dynamiting of the Aqueduct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To secure its water rights, the City began to purchase extensive tracts of land in the Owens Valley. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because the capacity of the Los Angeles Aqueduct was limited , the City was unable to take its full entitlement from the Mono Basin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The completion of the Second Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1970 and the City's plans to augment the Aqueduct flow with Owens Valley groundwater prompted renewed local protests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inyo County filed suit against Los Angeles under the new California Environmental Quality Act, seeking an Environmental Impact Report on new aqueduct </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. The Los Angeles Aqueduct Effects: <ul><ul><li>Since Mulholland realized his dream of the Los Angeles Aqueduct, millions have come to Los Angeles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water has made it possible for people to stay , to flourish , and to continue to dream of the greatness of the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today the people of the Department of Water and Power continue to serve the City in Mulholland’s tradition, meeting the challenges and always searching for the best solutions to the problems of supply, demand, and quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Los Angeles has become the nation's second largest city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Los Angeles built a filtration plant in 1986 and continues to monitor and improve water quality from its three sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Los Angeles began a program of metering all water uses to encourage water conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Los Angeles a water conservation leader in the Nation. </li></ul></ul>
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