The Fight for Slavery in California Part 2

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The Fight for Slavery in California Part 2

  1. 1. “ The Fight for Slavery in California” JAMES McPHERSON Hist 141 Summer 2011 By: Le Thi My Ho
  2. 2. Major Dates <ul><li>1820 Missouri Compromise </li></ul><ul><li>1845 Annexation of Texas to the United States </li></ul><ul><li>1846-1848 Mexican-American War </li></ul><ul><li>1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; transferred California to the US from Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act </li></ul><ul><li>Utah in 1852 and New Mexico in 1859 legalized slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Minnesota in 1858 and Oregon in 1859 came in as free states </li></ul><ul><li>1860 Abraham Lincoln won the Presidency </li></ul>
  3. 3. Civil War Ingredients <ul><li>Slavery due to the expansion of the cotton frontier into Eastern Texas had reached the “natural limits” of its growth in 1830s </li></ul><ul><li>Many opposed Pennsylvania Congressman David Wilmot’s “Proviso” – ‘any territory acquired from Mexico “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory”‘ </li></ul><ul><li>Disunion within the nation </li></ul><ul><li>Southern feared of losing control of the federal government to antislavery forces, and Northern resentment of the influence that the Slave Power  already wielded in government </li></ul><ul><li>Disagreements between Abolitionists and others over the morality of slavery, the scope of democracy and the economic merits of free labor versus slave plantations caused the Whig and “Know-Nothing&quot; parties to collapse, and new ones to arise </li></ul><ul><li>Southern concerns included not only economic loss but also fears of racial equality </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Northerners came to view slavery as the very antithesis of the good society, as well as a threat to their own fundamental values and interests.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of Confederate soldiers fought to protect slavery , which they viewed as an integral part of southern economy, culture, and manhood. </li></ul><ul><li>Union soldiers believed the primary reason for the war was to bring  emancipation to the slaves </li></ul>
  4. 4. GOLD RUSH!!! <ul><li>Early 1848 Gold was discovered in the riverbed on the American River near Sacramento </li></ul><ul><li>December 1848 - Two hundred ounces of pure gold was sent to Washington as proof </li></ul><ul><li>Spring of 1849 – California population boomed due to the discovery of gold </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;There is no vocation in the world in which slavery can be more useful and profitable than in mining“ </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;California is by nature peculiarly a slaveholding State.&quot; If it were not for the agitation to exclude slavery, &quot;thousands of young, intelligent, active men...would have been in that region, having each carried with them from one to five slaves.“ </li></ul>
  5. 5. Affects on California <ul><li>The Southern fear that admission of California as the sixteenth free state would tip the balance of power against slave states in the Senate and set a precedent for additional free states from the Mexican cession giving the Northern/Union the upper hand </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic Party vs. Chivalry’s Proslavery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Chivalry made repeated efforts to infiltrate slavery into California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1852 Permitted slave owners to “sojourn” indefinitely in California with his human property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided the state in two, with the Southern portion reverting to territorial status and open to slavery like New Mexico and Utah </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Violent and disharmony among California politicians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>David Terry killed David Broderick </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Despite everything, California remained one state and slave free in the end </li></ul>

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