English Colonies of North America HIST 140 Theme 4 Summer 2011 By: Le Thi My Ho
American Colonies 6  <ul><li>After successfully colonizing Ireland, English leaders extend their colonial conquering acros...
American Colonies 6 <ul><li>16 th  Century England concentrated wealth and power at the narrow top of the steep social pyr...
American Colonies 6  <ul><li>“ West Country Men”  – Promoters: Sir Francis Drake, Sir Richard Grenville, Sir John Hawkins,...
American Colonies 6  <ul><li>Chesapeake Bay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1587 – 94 colonists included 17 women and 9 children wer...
American Colonies 11 Carolina <ul><li>1670s – West Indian Planters established a new colony on the Atlantic seaboard north...
American Colonies 11 Carolina <ul><li>To secure Carolina, Loads Proprietor  offered  colonists the most alluring  incentiv...
American Colonies 11 Carolina <ul><li>Key to managing the local Indians was to recruit them as slave catchers by offering ...
American Colonies 11 Carolina <ul><li>Became the leading colonial producer of  tar  and preeminent cattle country in the E...
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English Colonies of North America

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English Colonies of North America

  1. 1. English Colonies of North America HIST 140 Theme 4 Summer 2011 By: Le Thi My Ho
  2. 2. American Colonies 6 <ul><li>After successfully colonizing Ireland, English leaders extend their colonial conquering across the Atlantic to the region they called Virginia, named in honor of their queen, Elizabeth I, a supposed virgin </li></ul><ul><li>1580-1620 Entire mid-Atlantic coast between Florida and Acadia was called “Virginia” </li></ul><ul><li>1616 – The colonist discovered tobacco, which permitted an explosive growth in population, territory, and wealth </li></ul><ul><li>After an immense cost in lives – natives and colonist – the English had secured a lucrative, dynamic, and expansive base on the North American continent </li></ul>
  3. 3. American Colonies 6 <ul><li>16 th Century England concentrated wealth and power at the narrow top of the steep social pyramid, in the hands of a monarch, an aristocracy, and a lesser aristocracy known as the gentry </li></ul><ul><li>As the wealthiest and most populous kingdom, England dominated the whole, from the capital in London </li></ul><ul><li>The realm included the distinct kingdoms of England, Wales, Ireland, and later Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>After the war with Spain in 1585, Queen Elizabeth I lacked the means to finance and govern an overseas colony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subcontracted colonization by issuing licenses and monopolies to private risk taking adventurers </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. American Colonies 6 <ul><li>“ West Country Men” – Promoters: Sir Francis Drake, Sir Richard Grenville, Sir John Hawkins, Sir Walter Ralegh, and Sir Humphrey Gilbert – regarded colonial trade as the key to imperial power with goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To Plant Christian Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To Trafficke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To Conquer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In pleasing investors and the crown, the promoters addressed a pervasive anxiety over the proliferation of poverty, vagrancy, and crime in the 16 th century England </li></ul>
  5. 5. American Colonies 6 <ul><li>Chesapeake Bay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1587 – 94 colonists included 17 women and 9 children were the first English families to settle in the Americas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustained about 24,000 Indians divided into 30 tribes but united by an Algonquian language and the rule of a paramount chief named Powhatan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lived by a mix of horticulture, fishing, hunting, and gathering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men – hunted, fished, cleared land for crops, and made dugout canoes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women – cultivated crops, gathered nuts and fruits, and tended the village or camp, putting up the lodges and preparing the skins to make clothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shamans – tended temples, constructed houses </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. American Colonies 11 Carolina <ul><li>1670s – West Indian Planters established a new colony on the Atlantic seaboard north of Florida but south of the Chesapeake and named it Carolina to honor King Charles II </li></ul><ul><li>Carolina officially belonged to a set of English aristocrats, the Lords Proprietor – eight powerful political favorites of the king </li></ul><ul><li>South Carolina featured a broad, fertile coastal plain meandered by many large, muddy rivers and broad swamps </li></ul><ul><li>Making a plantation colony , the Carolinians feared that their African slaves might combine with defiant Indians to merge slave rebellion with frontier war which is fatal to the new colony </li></ul>
  7. 7. American Colonies 11 Carolina <ul><li>To secure Carolina, Loads Proprietor offered colonists the most alluring incentives : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious Toleration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political Representation in an assembly with power over public taxation and expenditures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long exemption from quitrents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large grants of land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Promised ambitious and wealthy men the opportunity to get in on the ground floor of a new colony </li></ul><ul><li>Attracted farmers and artisans from both the Chesapeake and the West Indies </li></ul><ul><li>Planters would enjoy “absolute Power and Authority over his Negro Slaves” but later frontier conditions obliged the planters to allow their slaves more autonomy than was common in either the West Indies or the Chesapeake </li></ul><ul><li>Even the poor and servants were entitled to land, clothes, corn, tools and some freedom </li></ul>
  8. 8. American Colonies 11 Carolina <ul><li>Key to managing the local Indians was to recruit them as slave catchers by offering guns and ammunition as incentive </li></ul><ul><li>The gun trade rendered the natives dependent upon weapons that they could neither make nor repair </li></ul><ul><li>If deprived of ammunition, the natives would suffer in their hunting and fall prey to slave-raiding by better-armed Indians more favored by their colonial supplier </li></ul><ul><li>By pushing the gun and slave trade, the Carolinians gained mastery over a network of native peoples, securing their own frontier and wreaking havoc on a widening array of Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Although they traded with each other, the Indians and the Carolinians did not share the same economic views </li></ul>
  9. 9. American Colonies 11 Carolina <ul><li>Became the leading colonial producer of tar and preeminent cattle country in the English empire </li></ul><ul><li>Became the empire’s great RICE colony, just as the Chesapeake specialized in tobacco and the West Indies in sugar </li></ul><ul><li>1750s Developed a second valuable plantation crop for export – INDIGO </li></ul><ul><li>Carolina planters became the wealthiest colonial elite on the Atlantic seaboard, 2 nd only to the West Indians within the empire </li></ul>
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