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Brazil 1
Brazil 1
Brazil 1
Brazil 1
Brazil 1
Brazil 1
Brazil 1
Brazil 1
Brazil 1
Brazil 1
Brazil 1
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Brazil 1

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  • important regions, major rivers, lakes, mountain ranges, climate, and how this influences the development of the country People - the ethnic and racial composition of the country History - major historical events, from independence to the present, including important political actors
  • important regions, major rivers, lakes, mountain ranges, climate, and how this influences the development of the country People - the ethnic and racial composition of the country History - major historical events, from independence to the present, including important political actors
  • important regions, major rivers, lakes, mountain ranges, climate, and how this influences the development of the country People - the ethnic and racial composition of the country History - major historical events, from independence to the present, including important political actors
  • Transcript

    • 1. BRAZIL Why is it unique and special? Nations of the Americas: A Country Report HIST 141 Summer 2011 By: Le Thi My Ho
    • 2. Geography <ul><li>The largest country in South America </li></ul><ul><li>It is the world's fifth largest country , both by geographical area and by population with over 190 million people </li></ul><ul><li>Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of over 7,491 km </li></ul><ul><li>It borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile </li></ul>
    • 3. Geography <ul><li>Area  -  Total 8,514,877 km 2  (5th) 3,287,597 sq mi   -  Water (%) 0.65 </li></ul><ul><li>It spans three time zones; from UTC-4 in the western states, to UTC-3 in the eastern states (the official time of Brazil) and UTC-2 in the Atlantic islands </li></ul><ul><li>Brazilian topography is also diverse and includes hills , mountains , plains , highlands , and scrublands </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil has a dense and complex system of rivers , one of the world's most extensive, with eight major drainage basins, all of which drain into the Atlantic </li></ul><ul><li>The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from equatorial rainforests in the north and semiarid deserts in the northeast , to temperate coniferous forests in the south and tropical savannas in central Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Temperatures average 25 °C (77 °F), with more significant temperature variation between night and day than between seasons </li></ul>
    • 4. <ul><li>Brazil is also home to a diversity of wildlife , natural environments , and extensive natural resources in a variety of protected habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Its size , relief , climate , and natural resources make Brazil geographically diverse </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil's large territory comprises different ecosystems, such as the Amazon Rainforest , recognized as having the greatest biological diversity in the world, with the Atlantic Forest and the Cerrado , sustaining the greatest biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>The natural heritage of Brazil is severely threatened by cattle ranching and agriculture, logging, mining, resettlement, oil and gas extraction, over-fishing, wildlife trade, dams and infrastructure, water contamination, climate change, fire, and invasive species </li></ul>Geography
    • 5. People <ul><li>It is the only Portuguese-speaking country in the Americas and the largest lusophone (Portuguese-speaking) country in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Most Brazilians descend from the country's indigenous peoples , Portuguese settlers , and African slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Since the arrival of the Portuguese in 1500, considerable intermarriage between these three groups has taken place </li></ul>
    • 6. People <ul><li>Population  -  2010 census 190,732,694 - with a ratio of men to women of 0.95:1 and 83.75% of the population defined as urban </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic groups  (2008 ) </li></ul><ul><li>48.43 % White 43.80 % Brown ( Multiracial ) 6.84 % Black 0.58 % Asian 0.28 % Amerindian </li></ul>
    • 7. People <ul><li>From the 19th century, Brazil opened its borders to immigration. About five million people from over 60 countries migrated to Brazil between 1808 and 1972, most of them from Portugal, Italy, Spain, Germany, Japan and the Middle-East </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil's population increased significantly between 1940 and 1970, due to a decline in the mortality rate, even though the birth rate underwent a slight decline </li></ul><ul><li>In 2007, the National Indian Foundation reported the existence of 67 different uncontacted tribes, up from 40 in 2005. Brazil is believed to have the largest number of uncontacted peoples in the world </li></ul>
    • 8. History <ul><li>Independence From Kingdom of Portugal  </li></ul><ul><li>Declared 7 September 1822   </li></ul><ul><li>Recognized 29 August 1825 </li></ul><ul><li>Republic 15 November 1889 </li></ul><ul><li>Current constitution 5 October 1988   </li></ul>
    • 9. History <ul><li>Brazil was a colony of Portugal from the landing of Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500 until 1815, when it was elevated to United Kingdom with Portugal and Algarves </li></ul><ul><li>By the mid-16th century, sugar had become Brazil's most important export and the Portuguese imported African slaves to cope with the increasing international demand </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the 17th century, sugar exports started to decline but beginning in the 1690s, the discovery of gold by explorers in the region that would later be called Minas Gerais (General Mines) in current Mato Grosso and Goiás, saved the colony from imminent collapse </li></ul><ul><li>On 12 October 1822 , Pedro , King Joao VI’s son, was declared the first Emperor of Brazil and crowned Dom Pedro I on 1 December 1822 </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil won three international wars during the 58-year reign of Pedro II (the Platine War , the Uruguayan War and the War of the Triple Alliance , which left over 50,000 dead ) </li></ul>
    • 10. History <ul><li>The Brazilian fastest growing economy is the world's seventh largest economy by nominal GDP and the eighth largest by purchasing power parity; political and economic leader in Latin America </li></ul><ul><li>Initially independent as the Empire of Brazil, the country has been a republic since 1889, although the bicameral legislature, now called Congress, dates back to 1824, when the first constitution was ratified </li></ul><ul><li>The Brazilian Federation is the &quot; indissoluble union &quot; of three distinct political entities: the States , the Municipalities and the Federal District . The Union, the states and the Federal District, and the municipalities, are the &quot; spheres of government .&quot; The Federation is set on five fundamental principles: sovereignty, citizenship, dignity of human beings, the social values of labour and freedom of enterprise , and political pluralism </li></ul>
    • 11. Sources <ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Google </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107357.html </li></ul>

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