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    proposal proposal Presentation Transcript

    • The effectiveness of applying cooperative learning to the EFL classroom in a technological university 合作學習在科技大學外語教學之應用成效 Presenter: Shing-Yu Tsai Advisor: Dr. Chin-Ling Lee Date: December 24, 2009
    • Contents Introduction Literature Review Methodology 1 2 3
    • Research Questions Purposes of the Study Problems of EFL Teaching in Taiwan Background of the Study Introduction
    • Background of the Study
      • The globalization trend has undoubtedly placed,
      • which makes English as the language for worldwide
      • communication .
      ( Falits & Hudelson, 1998; McCrum, MacNeil, & Cran, 2002 )
    • Background of the Study
      • Among the four English language skills, English
      • speaking proficiency has drawn a great deal of recent
      • attention in Taiwan , since it plays an important role
      • in tourism, business, and cultural exchange in the
      • global village.
      • ( Chang, 2008; Hsu, 2004; Wang, 2008 )
    • Background of the Study Grammar-Translation Method (GTM) Inadequate Learning Environments Reasons ( Chen, 2004; Huang, 1999 )
    • Problems of EFL Teaching in Taiwan GTM ( Lai, 2002; Tsai, 1998; Yu, 1995; Wei & Chen, 1993 ) Students have little team work. 1 Students are shy, passive and have no confidence. 2 Their scores are graded by individual. 3 Students can’t put what they have learned into practice. 4
    • Purposes of the Study To investigate the effectiveness of cooperative learning for business major college students to develop curriculum and pedagogy modification P1
    • Purposes of the Study To examine the differences on conceptual learning style preferences and learning motivation among students in cooperative learning and traditional learning To explore the perspectives of EFL learners in the two different classes through interview P2 P3
    • Research Questions Is there any difference between the effects of different teaching methods ( cooperative learning method and traditional teaching method ) on students’ learning achievement ? 2 Is there any difference between the effects of different teaching methods ( cooperative learning method and traditional teaching method ) on students’ conceptual learning style preferences ? 1
    • Research Questions Is there any difference between the effects of different teaching methods ( cooperative learning method and traditional teaching method) on students’ learning motivation ? What main elements consist of the perspectives of EFL learners ( in the cooperative learning class and traditional English class )? 3 4
    • Research Questions What variables affect the perspectives of EFL learners (in the cooperative learning class and traditional English class)?   5
    • Literature Review Communicative Competence C ooperative Learning Perceptual Language Learning Style Preference L anguage Learning Motivation
    • Communicative competence
      • Communicative competence is the
      • expression of sociolinguistic that regards
      • language as social behavior .
      • ( Wellman, 2002 )
    • C ooperative Learning
      • Cooperative group made students of
      • different performance levels engage in
      • instructional methods to pursue a common
      • goal .
      • ( Slavin, 1987 )
    • C ooperative Learning CL ( Liang, 2000 ) It reduced learning anxiety. 1 It increased the amount of students participating in learning activities. 2 It built a supportive learning environment. 3
    • C ooperative Learning social skills academic achievement Effectiveness ( Johnson & Johnson, 1999; Fenton, 1992; Putnam, 1997; Ye, 1993 )
    • C ooperative Learning
      • Five major factors
      ( Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, 1993 ) Social and Small Group Skills 4 Group Processing 5 1 Face to Face Interaction 2 Positive Interdependence 1 1 Individual Accountability 3
    • C ooperative Learning
      • Positive Interdependence
      • Positive interdependence creates the sense
      • that” we sink or swim together ”. Group
      • members perceive “all” members as essential
      • for group success and work together towards
      • a common goal of each other’s learning.
      • ( Johnson et al, 1994 )
    • C ooperative Learning Positive goal interdependence Resource interdependence Role interdependence ( Johnson et al., 1991 )
    • C ooperative Learning Face to Face Interaction ( Johnson & Johnson, 2000 ) Click to add Title 1 exchanging needed resources Click to add Title 2 encouraging their group members Click to add Title 1 explaining how to solve problems Click to add Title 2 checking for understanding Click to add Title 1 discussing concepts being learned Click to add Title 2 connecting present with past learning
    • C ooperative Learning
      • Individual Accountability
      • Individual accountability exists when each
      • of the group members contributes his or
      • her efforts to accomplish the goal. This
      • element stresses that group accomplishment
      • depends on the coordination of all members’
      • efforts .
      ( Johnson & Johnson, 2000 )
    • C ooperative Learning interact in leadership decision-making trust-building conflict-managements Social and Small Group Skills ( Karrie & Jennifer, 2008 )
    • C ooperative Learning
      • Group Processing
      • Group processing clarifies and improves
      • member effectiveness in contributing to
      • cooperative efforts to attain the group’s
      • goal .
      ( Johnson & Johnson, 2000 )
    • Perceptual Language Learning Style Preference
      • Foreign language learners claimed that
      • learners’ learning style would determine
      • whether they success in the academic
      • performance .
      • ( Castro & Peck, 2005 )
    • L anguage Learning Motivation
      • The correlation between motivation and
      • English achievements was very high .
      • ( Chou, 1989; Huang, 1990; Liang, 2002 )
    • Methodology Instruments Participants Research Structure Experimental Design Data Collection Procedure of the Study Data Analysis
    • Procedure of the Study Pilot Study Formal Study Control Group 1. Pre- test on listening and oral proficiency 2. Two questionnaires on students’ learning-style preference and learning motivation at the pre-test Pre-test Pre-test 1. Pre- test on listening and oral proficiency 2. Two questionnaires on students’ learning-style preference and learning motivation at the pre-test Experimental Group
    • Procedure of the Study Cooperative learning for one semester Traditional learning for one semester Semi-structure interview Post-test 1. Post-test on listening and oral proficiency 2. Two questionnaires on students’ learning-style preference and learning motivation at the post-test Post-test 1. Post-test on listening and oral proficiency 2. Two questionnaires on students’ learning-style preference and learning motivation at the post-test Semi-structure interview Data Collection & Analyzing Data Collection & Analyzing
    • Research Structure 1. Classes 2. Proficiency level Independent variables Experiment process 1.Experimental group: (cooperative learning: STAD & Jigsaw II) 2. Control group: (traditional learning) Control variables 1.Instructor 2.Instructional time 3.Teaching materials & aids 4. learners’ background Dependent variables 1. Learning achievement 2. Learning style preference 3 . Learning motivation
    • Participants 39 participants English conversation class Department of business Studying English for more than six years Participants 6 males; 33 females Two-year System College
    • Instruments 1. An academic achievement test 2. A questionnaire 3 . An English speaking evaluation form 4. An interview protocol
    • Academic achievement test ( LTTC at elementary level ) Picture description Statement response Questions ( 20 mins ) Read passage Repeat the words Answer questions ( 5 mins ) Listening Speaking
    • Questionnaire 1 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree strongly agree Questionnaire Permission Consent form Time Consent form: 5 Questionnaire: 15
    • Questionnaire Part 3 Perceptual Learning-style Preference Learning Motivation Part 2 Part 1 Individual Background Survey
    • Questionnaire Joy Reid ( 1995 ) Clement et al. ( 1994 ) 28 items 20 items Crobach’s alpha: .87 Crobach’s alpha: .95 Perceptual Learning-style Preference  Learning Motivation
    • Questionnaire visual auditory tactile kinesthetic group integrative instrumental motivational achieving learning goal age gender experiences proficiency IBS  PLPQ  QLM subscales
    • Questionnaire
      • Table 1
      • Samples of the questionnaire of individual background survey
         24 1 . Gender: □ (1)male □ (2)female 2. Age: ____ 3. In the English conversation class, I think the classroom atmosphere is □ (1)dull and tedious □ (2) not so interesting □ (3) no special feeling □ (4)interesting □ (5) very interesting 4. In general, what language aspects do you think the most difficult when using English? □ (1) pronunciation □ (2) grammar □ (3) vocabulary □ (4) Listening □ (5) speaking □ (6) reading □ (7) writing
    • Questionnaire
      • Table 2
      • Samples of the questionnaire of perceptual learning-style preference
      I understand things better in class when I participated in role-playing. 1. When I read instructions, I remember them better. 1 2 3 4 5 2. I remember things I have heard in class better than things I have read. 1 2 3 4 5 3. 1 2 3 4 5 4. I learn more when I make something for a class project. 1 2 3 4 5 5. I get more work done when I work with others. 1 2 3 4 5 6. When I study alone, I remember things better. 1 2 3 4 5
    • Questionnaire
      • Table 3
      • Samples of the questionnaire of learning motivation
      1. I want to make friends with foreigners. 1 2 3 4 5 2. I can understand English movies or TV programs. 1 2 3 4 5 3. I could learn more things that are related to the world of English. 1 2 3 4 5
    • English speaking evaluation form Content:20% Grammar:20% Vocabulary:20% Fluency:20% Appropriateness: 20% English Speaking Evaluation Form
    • English speaking evaluation form
      • Two raters:
      • Class instructor
      • Teaching English for
      • more than 15 years
      • Expertise on
      • cooperative learning
      • Experienced
      • English institute
      • for many years
    • Interview Protocol 2 high achievers 2 high achievers 2 intermediate achievers 2 intermediate achievers 2 low achievers 2 low achievers 15-20 mins Tape- recorded 15-20 mins Tape- recorded Chinese Chinese Experimental group Control group Interviewee Time Tool Language
    • Interview Protocol
      • I nterview concern:
      ( Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, 1993 ) social and small group skills 4 group processing 5 1 face to face interaction 2 positive interdependence 1 1 individual accountability 3
    • Interview Protocol Interview Questions 1. 請您描述這學期英語會話課課堂 教學策略 的看法 ? Click to 2. 請您描述這學期英語會話課老師和同學的 觀感 和 互動 的關係 ? 3. 請您描述一下您在英語教學的 最典型課堂經驗 ? ( 小組成員之間的分工合作、共同利用資源、互相支援學習、利用課堂活動或團隊比賽的班上學習氣氛 ) 4. 談你理想中英語會話課的 內容 、 本質 和 架構 為何 ? ( 目標互賴 : 你和小組組員努力去完成共同目標。例如 : 和組員說一個完整的故事。 資料互賴 : 小組的組員每個人只有一部分的資訊、資源及教材,每個人必須整理資料後,才能完成小組的任務。 角色互賴 : 在於分配小組中每個人有不同的任務,已達成小組共同目標。例如 : 紀錄、主持、報告等等 )
    • Experimental Design Experimental Group: Control Group: ED 23 participants 16 participants Traditional learning Cooperative learning One semester One semester Two periods a week Two periods a week Same material Same material Same instructor Same instructor Heterogeneous grouping No heterogeneous grouping
    • Control Group Traditional learning: Students listen to and repeat dialogue. 1 Students work independently and compete with one another. 2 The teacher is the instructor while students are listeners. 3 3
    • Experimental Group
      • Cooperative learning:
      Jigsaw II STAD (Student-Team-Achievement- Divisions) CL CL
    • STAD STAD teacher’s lecture team study group recognition class presentation individual quizzes B E C D A
    • Jigsaw II teacher’s lecture cooperative groups preparation pairs practice pairs team performance
    • Data Collection A B C The scores of academic achievement tests: listening &speaking The results of questionnaire: learning style preference & learning motivation Individual interview: control & experimental group
    • Data Analysis Demographic Information Post-test of the learning achievement (Q1) The significant differences between two classes (Q2. Q3) Interview (Q4. Q5) Descriptive Statistics ANCOVA Independent Samples Test Constant Comparative Analysis
    • Suggestions 1. There are some grammar errors. 2. The interview questions would be designed to the research questions directly.
    • Thank you for your attention!