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  • 1. Effect of cooperative learning on the acquisition of second language rules and machines Shing-Yu Lynn Tsai Dr. Pi-Ying Teresa Hsu Date: October 1st, 2009
  • 2.
    • Ghaith, G., & Yaghi, H. ( 1998 ). Effect of
    • cooperative learning on the acquisition of
    • second language rules and mechanics.
    • System 26 , 223-234.
  • 3. Contents Reflection Results Methodology Introduction
  • 4. Introduction
    • The past few years have been productive in
    • scholarly advocating the use of cooperative
    • learning in the L2 classroom.
    • (Ghaith & Yaghi, 1998)
  • 5. Introduction A B C Rich interaction Organization framework Individualized instruction ( Olsen & Kagan, 1992 )
  • 6. Introduction
    • Purpose:
    to examine the effects of cooperative learning on the acquisition of ESL rules and mechanics by low-and high-achieving learners in comparison with equal counterparts studying the same content according to an individualistic method of instruction
  • 7. Research Questions
    • Q1: Is there a general effect of the participants’ level of
    • achievement on their acquisition of ESL rules and
    • mechanics?
    There was no significant interaction between the participants’ achievement level and their acquisition of ESL rules and mechanics.
  • 8. Research Questions
    • Q2: Is cooperative learning more effective than
    • individualistic instruction in the acquisition of ESL
    • rules and mechanics?
    The overall effect of cooperative learning was at least equal to that of individualistic instruction in helping ESL learners acquire the rules and mechanics.
  • 9. Research Questions
    • Q3: Do low-achieving ESL learners in the treatment group
    • benefit more than their high-achieving counterparts,
    • and if so, are the relative gains made at the expense of
    • the high achievers in the same group?
    Yes, cooperative learning could be beneficial for low achieving learners who managed to achieve relatively more gains than their high-achieving group-mates through not at the expense of the latter.
  • 10. Methodology Participant 318 junior high school students 164 males & 154 females Socio-economic background Middle Eastern country C B D A
  • 11. Participants Total: 157 students 6 experimental groups: 6 control groups: fourth grade: 2 classes fifth grade: 2 classes sixth grade: 2 classes fourth grade: 2 classes fifth grade: 2 classes sixth grade: 2 classes Total: 161 students
  • 12. Methodology Before During During After Instruments EG: cooperative learning ( Students’ Teams Achievement Division ) CG: individualistic approach Researchers’ observation during the period of experimentation Pre-test for fourth, fifth, sixth students Post-test for fourth, fifth, sixth students
  • 13. Pre-test & Post-test
    • Fourth grade Ss:
    • Yesterday we go to the park.
    (went) (well) ( themselves ) Fifth grade Ss: He plays the piano good. Sixth grade Ss: They bought theirselves a new reference book.
  • 14. Pre-test & Post-test The teachers and researchers were matched. The researchers checked whether the test items match the objectives. Teachers assessed relevance of pre-test & post-test to the course objectives. Validity
  • 15. Methodology
    • Control Group:
    • Individualistic approach
    Treatment
    • Experimental Group:
    • Cooperative Learning
    • ( STAD )
    • 3 units for fourth Ss
    • 3 units for fifth Ss
    • 3 units for sixth Ss
    • ( units are from English
    • art ESL program for six
    • weeks)
    • 3 units for fourth Ss
    • 3 units for fifth Ss
    • 3 units for sixth Ss
    • ( units are from English
    • art ESL program for six
    • weeks )
  • 16. Methodology 6 teachers 6 years of full-time service training in using STAD Teachers
  • 17. Procedure Teacher’s presentation Individual quizzes Learning exercises Correct own work Team study STAD
  • 18. Teachers’ observation Observation notes Impressionistic reports students’ behavior students’ interaction
  • 19. Methodology Statistical analysis T-test ( Q2 ) Statistical analysis Two-way factor analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) ( Q1 & Q3 )
  • 20. Results Table 1 Analysis of Covariance Results Using the Post-Test Scores as a Dependent Variable and the Pre-Test Scores as Covariance There was no significantly interaction between the participants’ achievement level and their acquisition of ESL rules and mechanics.
  • 21. Results Table 2 Comparison of the Relative Gains of Low Achievers and High Achievers in the Experimental Group Low-achieving students in the experimental group would gain relatively more than their high-achieving counterparts in the same group.
  • 22. Results Table 3 Comparison of the Relative Gains of High Achievers Both in the Control and Experimental Groups High achievers in the experimental group gained at least as their high-achieving counterparts in the control group.
  • 23. Reflection ? How did the researchers divide students into high and low achievers? ? Why did the researchers not interview the participants?
  • 24. Reflection What did the researchers find out during the observation? ? ? Why did the researcher provide the units’ contents?
  • 25. www.themegallery.com Thank You !