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A&p lesson 1   introduction A&p lesson 1 introduction Presentation Transcript

  • Chisholm Institute Department of Health & Community Care Diploma of Remedial Massage HLT50307     Anatomy & Physiology 2   Lesson 1: Bony landmarks, planes & sections, Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage Version 1.10
  • Introduction to advanced anatomy
    • A&P LAP 2010
    • Discussion regarding each region of the musculoskeletal system to be covered
    • Format/structure for each regional lecture
    • Wet Lab sessions
    • Assessment tasks for A&P 2010
    • Introduction to terminology & definitions
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Definitions
    • origin n . (in anatomy)
    • the point of attachment of a muscle that remains relatively fixed during contraction of the muscle (compare insertion).
    • the point at which a nerve or blood vessel branches from a main nerve or blood vessel.’
    • insertion n . (in anatomy) ‘the point of attachment of a muscle (eg. to a bone) that is relatively movable when the muscle contracts (compare origin).’
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Bone surface markings
    • The surfaces of bones have various structural features adapted to specific functions.
    • These features are called bone surface markings, more commonly referred to as bony landmarks.
    • Examples of bony landmarks include ….
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Bony landmarks
    • 1. Depressions and openings:
    • A foramen (meaning ‘hole’) is an opening
    • through which blood vessels, nerves or
    • ligaments pass.
    • Eg. Foramen magnum of the occipital bone.
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Bony landmarks
    • 1. Depressions and openings:
    • A meatus (meaning “passage”) is a tubelike channel extending within a bone.
    • Eg. the external auditory meatus of the temporal bone
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Bony landmarks
    • 1. Depressions and openings:
    • A fossa (meaning ‘ditch’ or ‘trench’) is a shallow depression in or on a bone.
    • Eg. the infraspinous fossa of the scapula
    • Infraspinous
    • fossa
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Bony landmarks
    • 2. Processes that form joints:
    • A condyle (meaning ‘knuckle-like’ process) is a large, rounded prominence that forms a joint, such as the medial condyle of the femur.
    • Condyle
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Bony landmarks
    • 2. Processes that form joints:
    • A head is a rounded projection forming a joint and is supported on the constricted portion (neck) of a bone.
    • Eg. head of the femur.
    • Head of the femur
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Bony landmarks
    • 2. Processes that form joints:
    • A facet is a smooth, flat articular surface.
    • Eg. facet on a vertebra
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Bony landmarks
    • 3. Processes to which tendons, ligaments, and other connective tissues attach :
    • A tuberosity is a large,
    • rounded projection, usually
    • with a rough surface.
    • Eg. deltoid tuberosity
    • of the humerus.
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Bony landmarks
    • 3. Processes to which tendons, ligaments, and other connective tissues attach :
    • A spinous process or spine is a sharp, slender projection.
    • Eg. spinous processes of the vertebra
    • Vertebral spinous
    • process
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Bony landmarks
    • 3. Processes to which tendons, ligaments, and other connective tissues attach :
    • A trochanter is a large,
    • blunt projection found
    • only on the femur
    • (greater trochanter)
    • greater trochanter
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Bony landmarks
    • 3. Processes to which tendons, ligaments, and other connective tissues attach :
    • A crest is a prominent border or ridge.
    • Eg. iliac crest of the pelvis
    • iliac crest
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Bony landmarks
    • 4. Other bony landmarks :
    • A trochlea is a ‘pulley-like’ end of bone that is smooth and grooved.
    • Eg. the trochlea on the distal humerus
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Bony landmarks
    • 4. Other bony landmarks :
    • A sulcus is a narrow groove.
    • Eg. the central sulcus of the brain
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Bony landmarks
    • 4. Other bony landmarks :
    • A ramus is an extension of a
    • bone that makes an angle to
    • the rest of the structure.
    • Eg. inferior pubic ramus of
    • the pelvis.
    • inferior pubic ramus
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Planes of movement
    • Sagittal plane:
    • Is a vertical plane that divides the body or an organ into right and left sides.
    • More specifically, when such a plane passes through the midline of the body or organ, dividing it into equal right and left sides it is called a midsagittal plane .
    • If the sagittal plane does not pass through the midline, and divides the body into unequal right and left sides, the term parasagittal plane (meaning ‘near-sagittal’) is used.
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Planes of movement
    • Frontal/coronal plane:
    • is any vertical plane dividing the body or organ into front and back (anterior and posterior) parts.
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Planes of movement
    • Transverse plane:
    • divides the body or organ into upper and lower (superior and inferior) parts. Also known as a ‘cross-sectional’ or horizontal plane .
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Planes of movement
    • Sagittal, frontal and transverse planes are all at right angles to each other
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Planes of movement
    • Oblique plane:
    • passes through the body or an organ at an angle between the transverse and sagittal planes OR between the transverse and frontal planes.
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Axes of movement
    • Sagittal axis:
    • the sagittal axis is a point passing horizontally through the body antero-posteriorly. It is also known as the antero-posterior (a/p) axis . Movement occurring around this axis takes place in the frontal or coronal plane.
    • ie movements that occur in this plane are abduction & adduction
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Axes of movement
    • Frontal/coronal axis:
    • the frontal/coronal axis is a point passing horizontally through the body from one side to the other. Movement occurring around this axis takes place in the sagittal plane.
    • ie movements that occur in this plane are flexion & extension
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  • Axes of movement
    • Longitudinal axis:
    • also known as the vertical axis , the
    • longitudinal axis passes through the
    • body, superiorly to inferiorly. Movement
    • occurring around this axis takes place
    • in the transverse plane.
    • ie movements that occur in this plane
    • are internal & external rotation
    • (pronation & supination in the forearm)
    Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10