A&p lesson 1 introduction

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A&p lesson 1 introduction

  1. 1. Chisholm Institute Department of Health & Community Care Diploma of Remedial Massage HLT50307     Anatomy & Physiology 2   Lesson 1: Bony landmarks, planes & sections, Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage Version 1.10
  2. 2. Introduction to advanced anatomy <ul><li>A&P LAP 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion regarding each region of the musculoskeletal system to be covered </li></ul><ul><li>Format/structure for each regional lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Wet Lab sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment tasks for A&P 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to terminology & definitions </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  3. 3. Definitions <ul><li>origin n . (in anatomy) </li></ul><ul><li>the point of attachment of a muscle that remains relatively fixed during contraction of the muscle (compare insertion). </li></ul><ul><li>the point at which a nerve or blood vessel branches from a main nerve or blood vessel.’ </li></ul><ul><li>insertion n . (in anatomy) ‘the point of attachment of a muscle (eg. to a bone) that is relatively movable when the muscle contracts (compare origin).’ </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  4. 4. Bone surface markings <ul><li>The surfaces of bones have various structural features adapted to specific functions. </li></ul><ul><li>These features are called bone surface markings, more commonly referred to as bony landmarks. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of bony landmarks include …. </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  5. 5. Bony landmarks <ul><li>1. Depressions and openings: </li></ul><ul><li>A foramen (meaning ‘hole’) is an opening </li></ul><ul><li>through which blood vessels, nerves or </li></ul><ul><li>ligaments pass. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. Foramen magnum of the occipital bone. </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  6. 6. Bony landmarks <ul><li>1. Depressions and openings: </li></ul><ul><li>A meatus (meaning “passage”) is a tubelike channel extending within a bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. the external auditory meatus of the temporal bone </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  7. 7. Bony landmarks <ul><li>1. Depressions and openings: </li></ul><ul><li>A fossa (meaning ‘ditch’ or ‘trench’) is a shallow depression in or on a bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. the infraspinous fossa of the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>Infraspinous </li></ul><ul><li>fossa </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  8. 8. Bony landmarks <ul><li>2. Processes that form joints: </li></ul><ul><li>A condyle (meaning ‘knuckle-like’ process) is a large, rounded prominence that forms a joint, such as the medial condyle of the femur. </li></ul><ul><li>Condyle </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  9. 9. Bony landmarks <ul><li>2. Processes that form joints: </li></ul><ul><li>A head is a rounded projection forming a joint and is supported on the constricted portion (neck) of a bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. head of the femur. </li></ul><ul><li>Head of the femur </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  10. 10. Bony landmarks <ul><li>2. Processes that form joints: </li></ul><ul><li>A facet is a smooth, flat articular surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. facet on a vertebra </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  11. 11. Bony landmarks <ul><li>3. Processes to which tendons, ligaments, and other connective tissues attach : </li></ul><ul><li>A tuberosity is a large, </li></ul><ul><li>rounded projection, usually </li></ul><ul><li>with a rough surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. deltoid tuberosity </li></ul><ul><li>of the humerus. </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  12. 12. Bony landmarks <ul><li>3. Processes to which tendons, ligaments, and other connective tissues attach : </li></ul><ul><li>A spinous process or spine is a sharp, slender projection. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. spinous processes of the vertebra </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebral spinous </li></ul><ul><li>process </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  13. 13. Bony landmarks <ul><li>3. Processes to which tendons, ligaments, and other connective tissues attach : </li></ul><ul><li>A trochanter is a large, </li></ul><ul><li>blunt projection found </li></ul><ul><li>only on the femur </li></ul><ul><li>(greater trochanter) </li></ul><ul><li>greater trochanter </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  14. 14. Bony landmarks <ul><li>3. Processes to which tendons, ligaments, and other connective tissues attach : </li></ul><ul><li>A crest is a prominent border or ridge. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. iliac crest of the pelvis </li></ul><ul><li> iliac crest </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  15. 15. Bony landmarks <ul><li>4. Other bony landmarks : </li></ul><ul><li>A trochlea is a ‘pulley-like’ end of bone that is smooth and grooved. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. the trochlea on the distal humerus </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  16. 16. Bony landmarks <ul><li>4. Other bony landmarks : </li></ul><ul><li> A sulcus is a narrow groove. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. the central sulcus of the brain </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  17. 17. Bony landmarks <ul><li>4. Other bony landmarks : </li></ul><ul><li>A ramus is an extension of a </li></ul><ul><li>bone that makes an angle to </li></ul><ul><li>the rest of the structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. inferior pubic ramus of </li></ul><ul><li>the pelvis. </li></ul><ul><li>inferior pubic ramus </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  18. 18. Planes of movement <ul><li>Sagittal plane: </li></ul><ul><li>Is a vertical plane that divides the body or an organ into right and left sides. </li></ul><ul><li>More specifically, when such a plane passes through the midline of the body or organ, dividing it into equal right and left sides it is called a midsagittal plane . </li></ul><ul><li>If the sagittal plane does not pass through the midline, and divides the body into unequal right and left sides, the term parasagittal plane (meaning ‘near-sagittal’) is used. </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  19. 19. Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  20. 20. Planes of movement <ul><li>Frontal/coronal plane: </li></ul><ul><li>is any vertical plane dividing the body or organ into front and back (anterior and posterior) parts. </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  21. 21. Planes of movement <ul><li>Transverse plane: </li></ul><ul><li>divides the body or organ into upper and lower (superior and inferior) parts. Also known as a ‘cross-sectional’ or horizontal plane . </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  22. 22. Planes of movement <ul><li>Sagittal, frontal and transverse planes are all at right angles to each other </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  23. 23. Planes of movement <ul><li>Oblique plane: </li></ul><ul><li>passes through the body or an organ at an angle between the transverse and sagittal planes OR between the transverse and frontal planes. </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  24. 24. Axes of movement <ul><li>Sagittal axis: </li></ul><ul><li>the sagittal axis is a point passing horizontally through the body antero-posteriorly. It is also known as the antero-posterior (a/p) axis . Movement occurring around this axis takes place in the frontal or coronal plane. </li></ul><ul><li>ie movements that occur in this plane are abduction & adduction </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  25. 25. Axes of movement <ul><li>Frontal/coronal axis: </li></ul><ul><li>the frontal/coronal axis is a point passing horizontally through the body from one side to the other. Movement occurring around this axis takes place in the sagittal plane. </li></ul><ul><li>ie movements that occur in this plane are flexion & extension </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10
  26. 26. Axes of movement <ul><li>Longitudinal axis: </li></ul><ul><li>also known as the vertical axis , the </li></ul><ul><li>longitudinal axis passes through the </li></ul><ul><li>body, superiorly to inferiorly. Movement </li></ul><ul><li>occurring around this axis takes place </li></ul><ul><li>in the transverse plane. </li></ul><ul><li>ie movements that occur in this plane </li></ul><ul><li>are internal & external rotation </li></ul><ul><li>(pronation & supination in the forearm) </li></ul>Chisholm Institute – Diploma of Remedial Massage & Myotherapy Version 1.10

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