The Elements and organization of Music
- Notation is a system of signs by means of which music is written down.
- Serves mainly to indicate two properties of tone which ate pitch and duration.
Notation of pitch
- is a letter sign placed on the staff in order to indicate the pitch of the notes.
- The clef signs used in musical notations are the G clef, C clef, and F clef.
- For ordinary purposes the notes are arranged on two staffs. The C at the
beginning is located between the two staffs.
F or Bass Clef G or Treble clef
- One has to know not only where a note is but also how long a time it is held.
- Duration of silence between notes is indicated by rest.
- Every kind of note has a corresponding kind of rest to indicate that nothing shall
-It takes two notes of one kind to make the same time value of the next larger kind note:
two half notes make one whole note, two sixteenth notes make one eighth note.
- Sometimes note values are divided by three’s of two’s.
- Indicated by the sign 3.
- Is a series of regular pulses, as in the ticking of a clock.
- If we are to think of them as being grouped in two’s, three’s, or fours, we are in
this way measuring the pulses.
- This indicated the time signatureswhich show the number of beats to a
- Measures are indicated by means of vertical lines or bars down through the staff.
- The time signature of a composition appears on the staff or staffs at the
beginning of the score.
- It consists of two numbers:
o The upper number indicates the number of beats to a measure.
o The lower number indicates the kind of note that will receive one beat.
- Above a note gives extra stress to the note it accompanies.
- It means play the note louder.
- Indicates a gradual increase in loudness.
- Also called Diminuendo mark, gradually decreases the loudness.
- Means the holding of a note or chord longer than its normal value.
Adot over or under a note indicates Staccato. Detached or shortening the sound.
- A curved line above or below or more notes.
- Connected, no silence between notes.
- The group of flats or sharps appearing at the beginning of a piece.
- Each sharp or flat, appearing on the line of the staff, means that the tone is to be
raised or lowered by a half tone throughout the entire composition unless it is
temporarily cancelled for duration of the measure by the use of a natural sign
appearing immediately before a note.
- Every key signature may indicate either a major or a minor key.
- A chart of key signatures and the keys, major or minor, can be seen in the
- Music is an art whose basic material is sound.
- Musical sounds have no meanings beyond themselves and therefore may be
said to deal with pure sound.
- The performers who make it possible for the listenerto hear or understand the
- It is a sound produced by regular vibrations of air.
Components of tone
- Refer s to the highness or lowness of tonal sounds.
- Is determined by the length of time the vibration is sustained.
3. Intensity of volume
- Tone may vary in their degree of loudness and softness.
- The fundamental to musical rhythm and it provides the basis for a separate
- Enables one to distinguish one sound from another, one instrument from
The organization of the elements
The organization of pitch
- In western music, pitch spectrum is limited to a total 12 different pitches.
- Is a series of consecutive tones
- Element for a music into which one should have a clear insight for a better
understanding of it.
The organization of duration
- Considered the most basic element.
- It is a way of measuring durations on fixed regular pattern, so that the listener
becomes aware of a basic pulse or beat.
- Italian word which means time.
Allegro – fast
Vivace - lively
Andante- moderate slow
Adagio- slower than andante
Lento – slow
Largo- very slow
- Make the most direct appeal.
- Consists of a series of pitches and durations.
Four characteristics or properties
- Length and range.
- Many melodies are neither extremely short nor usually long.
- The length of the melody is relative to the number of measure which composes it.
- The range of the melody is the pitch distance from its lowest to its highest tone.
- The relative highness or lowness of the aggregate tones of a melody.
- Upwards and downwards.
- Melody may moves rapidly or gradually, ascending or descending.
- Refers to the intervals between the tones as a melody moves from one tone to
Function of melody
- Melody is the element of music that arouses interest.
- It is what listener can easily identify.
- It is the musical idea around which a composition is constructed.
- This melodic idea or basic tune of the composition is called theme.
- The theme is of paramount importance to composition, and it provides one of the
most important approaches to intelligent listening.
- The ability to recognize one or more themes, when the recur in a composition, is
clear indication that you are moving toward full appreciation.
- Simultaneous sounding of two or more tones.
- is two or more notes or tones sounded at the same time and conceived
- Triad- the most common chord in our music is a certain combination of three
- Chords not only are constructed in a variety ways, but also progress from one to
another according to many different plans.
- The scheme by which chords change.
Consonance and dissonance
Consonance – certain combinations of tones produce a quality of repose or
Dissonance – certain other combinations of tones produce a quality of unrest or
- Music which two or more keys are combines simultaneously in a single
- Is used to bring out the different levels or planes of the harmony.
- Displaced tonality.
- It is music that rejects the framework of key.
Fortissimo- very loud
Pianissimo- very soft
Mezzo forte- moderately loud
Mezzo piano-moderately soft
To the direction of dynamics:
Crescendo- becoming louder
Diminuendo- becoming soft
Sudden stress- sforzando(accent on a single note or chord).
The number of terms embraces both tempo and dynamics:
Andante- fairly slow and majestic
- Implies a stately pace and full sonority
Morendo- dying away indicates that the music is to become slower and softer.
- Requires a light tone and brisk movement.
Conbrio- (with vigor) suggests an energetic pace and vibrant sonority.
- Refers to the rate of speed, the pace of the music.
- It determines the speed of the beats in the measure, their duration in actual time.
Most frequently encountered are the following:
Very slow: Largo (broad)
Adagio (gently, leisurely, slowly)
Moderate: Andante (going at a walking pace)
Andantino (a little andante, somewhat faster than andante)
Moderato (moderate speed)
Fairly fast: Allegretto (a little lively- not as fast as allegro)
Fast: Allegro (happy, cheerful, lively)
Very fast: Allegro multo (very lively)
Vivace (vivacious, lively)
Presto (very quick)
Prestissimo(as quick as possible)
Accelerando- gradual increase of speed.
- The tone quality.
- Refers to the melodic and harmonic relationship of musical factors.
Types of texture
- Is created for special effects in which harmonic sounds obscure or partly exclude
the melodic content of a composition.
- Occurs in contemporary and modern music.
- Is an attribute of texture which is based more on harmonic than melodic
- Refer to the quality of richness or thinness of texture.
- Determined by:
o Number of parts
- Refers to the number of voices involved.
o Spacing of tones
- Refers to the musical intervals between parts,.
o Register tones
- Refers to whether the tones are high, medium, or slow
- Refers to the tone quality or qualities of the mediums which will play the music.
Central Bicol State university of Agriculture
Calabanga, Camarines Sur
The Elements and
Jalyn C. Refugio BSE 2MATH
Dr. Gil F. Pangindian