Gian Kurt Perolina
Definition of Meat
• Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food. Meat is mainly
composed of water and protein, and is usually eaten
together with other food. It is edible raw, but is normally
eaten after it has been cooked and seasoned or
processed in a variety of ways (e.g., curing or smoking).
Unprocessed meat will spoil within hours or days.
Spoilage is caused by the practically unavoidable
infection and subsequent decomposition of meat by
bacteria and fungi, which are borne by the animal itself,
by the people handling the meat, and by their
• Meat consumption varies worldwide,
depending on cultural or religious
preferences, as well as economic
conditions. Vegetarians choose not to eat
meat because of ethical, economic,
environmental, religious or health
concerns that are associated with meat
production and consumption.
Market Forms of Meat
• Fresh Meat – Meat that has not
undergone chilling, freezing or any
• Chilled Meat – this has been cooled to
temperature range of 1˚ to 3˚ C within 24
hours after slaughter.
• Frozen Meat – this has been chilled and
frozen to an air temperature of 20˚ C
• Cured - meat which has been treated with
salt and nitrate or nitrite.
• Canned - meat preserved in a can or tin.
• Dried - dried or preserved by exposure to
• is a cut of beef and is part of the sub primal cut known as
the chuck. The typical chuck steak is a rectangular cut,
about 1" thick and containing parts of the shoulder
bones, and is often known as a "7-bone steak". (This is
in reference to the shape of the bone, which resembles
the numeral '7', not to the number of bones in the cut.)
This cut is usually grilled or broiled; a thicker version is
sold as a "7-Bone Roast" or "chuck roast" and is usually
cooked with liquid as a pot roast. The bone-in chuck
steak or roast is one of the more economical cuts of
beef. In the United Kingdom, this part is commonly
referred to as "braising steak". It is particularly popular
for use as ground beef, due to its richness of flavor and
balance of meat and fat.
• (also called spareribs) are a variety of pork
ribs and beef ribs, cooked and eaten in
various cuisines around the world. They
are the most inexpensive cut of pork and
beef ribs. They are a long cut from the
lower portion of the pig or cattle,
specifically the belly and breastbone,
behind the shoulder, and include 11 to 13
long bones. There is a covering of meat
on top of the bones as well as between
• is a cut of beef that comes from the back of the
steer or heifer. It contains part of the spine and
includes the top loin and the tenderloin. This cut
yields types of steak including porterhouse, strip
steak (Kansas City Strip, New York Strip), and
T-bone (a cut also containing partial meat from
the tenderloin). The T-bone is a cut that contains
less of the tenderloin than does the porterhouse.
Webster's Dictionary defines it as "a portion of
the hindquarter of beef immediately behind the
ribs that is usually cut into steaks."
• the steak is cut from the rear back portion of the animal,
continuing off the short loin from which T-bone,
porterhouse, and club steaks are cut. The sirloin is
actually divided into several types of steak. The top
sirloin is the most prized of these and is specifically
marked for sale under that name. The bottom sirloin,
which is less tender and much larger, is typically marked
for sale simply as "sirloin steak." The bottom sirloin in
turn connects to the sirloin tip roast.
• In British and Australian butchery, the word sirloin refers
to cuts of meat from the upper middle of the animal,
similar to the American short loin.
• A round steak is a steak from the round primal cut of beef.
Specifically, a round steak is the eye (of) round, bottom round, and
top round still connected, with or without the "round" bone (femur),
and may include the knuckle (sirloin tip), depending on how the
round is separated from the loin. This is a lean cut and it is
moderately tough. Lack of fat and marbling makes round dry out
when cooked with dry-heat cooking methods like roasting or grilling.
 Round steak is commonly prepared with slow
moist-heat methods including braising, to tenderize the meat and
maintain moisture. The cut is often sliced thin, then dried or smoked
at low temperature to make jerky.
• Rump cover, with its thick layer of accompanying fat, is considered
one of the best (and most flavorful) beef cuts in many South
American countries, particularly Brazil and Argentina. This specific
cut does not tend to be found elsewhere, however.
• The flank steak is a beef steak cut from the abdominal muscles of
the cow. A relatively long and flat cut, flank steak is used in a variety
of dishes including London broil and as an alternative to the
traditional skirt steak in fajitas. It can be grilled, pan-fried, broiled, or
braised for increased tenderness.
• The cut is common in Colombia, where it is known as sobrebarriga,
literally meaning "over the belly”.
• Flank steak is best when it has a bright red color. Because it comes
from a strong, well-exercised part of the cow, it is best sliced across
the grain before serving, to maximize tenderness.
• Flank steak is frequently used in Asian cuisine, often sold in
Chinese markets as "stir-fry beef".. In the United
Kingdom McDonald's uses "100% forequarter and flank" in its
• The plate cut (also known as the short
plate) is from the front belly of the cow,
just below the rib cut. The short plate
produces types of steak such as the skirt
steak and the hanger steak. It is typically a
cheap, tough and fatty meat. In the United
States, the plate is the traditional cut of
beef used for making pastrami.