Before discussing job analysis in more
detail, many related terms used in
personnel should be carefully defined
because, job analysis begins at the level
of the element and attempts to build
understanding of the combination of
components and total organizational
• JOB ELEMENT: is the smallest unit into
which work can be divided
• TASK: is a distinct work activity carried
out for a distinct purpose which has an
identifiable beginning and end
Ex: Post Man Sorting Bag Full of mails
in appropriate boxes
• DUTY: several tasks which are related
by some sequence of events
• POSITION: a collection of
tasks and duties which are
performed by one person
Ex: Mail Room Clerk
• JOB: one or more positions
within an organization
• JOB FAMILY: several jobs of a
similar nature which may come
into direct contact with each other
or may be spread throughout the
organization performing similar
Ex: Jobs Located in different
•OCCUPATION: is a group of
similar jobs found across
•CAREER: Sequence of positions,
jobs, or occupations that a person
has over his or her working life.
Is the process of gathering
information about a job.
It is, to be more specific, a
systematic investigation of the tasks,
duties and responsibilities necessary
to do a job.
It is a process to identify
and determine in detail
the particular job, duties
and requirements and the
relative importance of
these duties for a given
While Job Analysis data may
be collected from incumbents
through interviews or
questionnaires, the product of
the analysis is a description or
specifications of the job, not a
description of the person.
concept of Job
Analysis is that the
analysis is conducted
of the Job, not the
There are several ways to conduct a job
analysis, including: interviews with
incumbents and supervisors,
questionnaires, observation, and gathering
background information such as duty
statements or classification specifications.
In job analysis conducted by Human
Resource (HR) professionals, it is common
to use more than one of these methods.
Selection of Representative
position to be analyzed
Collection of Job analysis data
Preparation of Job Description
Preparation of Job specification
Organizational Analysis: It is
necessary to first have an overall picture
of the various jobs in an organization.
Selection of representative positions to
be analyzed: It is not possible to analyze
all the jobs and a representative sample of
jobs can be selected for analysis keeping
in mind time and cost constraints.
Collection of job analysis
data: The step involves the
collection of data on the
characteristics of the job, the
required behavior and personal
qualifications needed to carry
out the job effectively.
Preparation of job description: This
step involves describing the contents of
the job in terms of functions, duties,
responsibilities, operations, etc.
Preparation of job specification:
The step involves conversion of the
job description statements into a
Job analysis is performed as a preliminary
to successive actions, including to define a
job domain, write a job description, create
performance appraisals, selection and
promotion, training needs assessment,
compensation, and organizational analysis
A job description is a
written statement of what
the jobholder does how it
is done, under what
conditions it is done, and
why it is done.
Job title: Tells about the job title, code
number, and the department where it is
done. A good title will closely
approximate the nature of the work
content and will distinguish the job from
Job summary: A brief write-up about
what the job is all about.
Job activities: A description of the tasks
done, facilities used, extent of supervisory
Working conditions: The physical
environment of job in terms of heat, light,
noise and other hazards.
Social environment: Size of work group
and interpersonal interactions required to
do the job.
The job specification states the
minimum acceptable qualifications that
the incumbent must possess to perform
the job successfully.
It is a statement of human
qualifications necessary to do the job.
Essential attributes: Skills,
knowledge and abilities (SKAs) a
person must possess.
Desirable attributes: Qualifications
a person ought to possess.
Contra-indicators: Attributes that
will become a handicap to successful