More Women in Informatics Research & Education, Oviedo July 2014

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Why are there too few women in computer science?
What can we do about it?
Best practices based on Informatics Europe booklet
http://www.informatics-europe.org/images/documents/more-women-in-informatics-research-and-education_2013.pdf

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  • Google understands the tech world must win them over them at a young age.
    They state four major factors that determine whether girls opted into computer science:
    social encouragement,
    self-perception,
    academic exposure,
    career perception. female technology role models
    Google is investing $50 Million to Close the Tech Gender Gap
  • Figures come from reports commissioned by the Dutch association for women professors.
    LNVH monitor figures
  • We are faced with a talent drain. Female students perform better than male students. (Certainly in NL.) More efficient, take less time to finish degree.
    This figure shows the problem best. Across all disciplines except medical.
    As women climb the career ladder their relative numbers drop.
    Highlight the 2 “steepest” drops: PhD to lecturer (permanent position); then to senior lecturer (worst gap)
    This decrease in % is what we call the LEAKY PIPELINE
  • The leaky pipeline.... which we’ll revisit.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women_in_STEM_fields
  • Across all disciplines except medical.
    The higher the level, the lower the graph. (Same leaky pipeline)
    You would expect the % of PhDs in, say 1999, to be the % lecturers around 2005 or 2008
    Ratios barely getting better over time.
    % lecturers has doubled since 1990.
    % senior lecturers and professors quadrupled.
    % professors 3,4% in 1991 to nearly 15% in 2011.
    50% female professors by 2060 at the current growth rate
  • Stereotypes about women’s roles are held by both men and women.
    Unconscious bias training British Computer Society women, UK.
    Harvard has carried out research on this.
  • First fill in a questionnaire to understand your own attitudes and background
  • After you have filled in the questions, you are presented with a large number of simple questions.
    CLICK You need to answer these as fast as possible. The results are based on the timing of the answers.
    CLICK After the first set, mix gender & categories
    CLICK and again you answer a large number of them.
  • Where does the problem lie? (This is not scientifically backed up!)
    Mark Gungor gives marital advice to large audiences. When I saw it it made many things much clearer...
    Switch to VLC “A Tale of Two Brains – selection”
  • Causes are multiple and each contributes and needs to be tackled.
    Similarly female dominated culture is self-perpetuating.
  • Assessment appears to be fair, whereas many cultural factors influence it.
    Sometimes the problem is perceived that women aren’t as ambitious – although this is not the case.
    Also, women themselves can deny the problem:
    - Successful women made it on their own merit: there is no problem.
    - Young women do not see the problem because they haven’t hit the barriers yet.
    They also don’t want “something special for women”
  • Any culture is self-perpetuating, need to move from one stable situation to another
    Mixed culture is also stable – but need to “force” culture change to get there
  • This is not going to go away by itself.
    We have known the problem for years,
    What should we do about it? What can we do about it?
    Already many networks at national and European level with many different policies, some of which are applied and work, some of which are “worked around”.
    Do not want to create “yet another long report on the number of women”.

    Collected tips from published sources and IE members
    Created small, cheerful booklet, which you all have/will get.
    Created complementary web resource with pointers to background material

    Booklet from Informatics Europe website
    http://www.informatics-europe.org/images/documents/more-women-in-informatics-research-and-education_2013.pdf

  • I will go through each of these categories.
    Concrete measures you can implement in your own department.
    Categories reflect the different leaks...
  • The leaky pipeline....
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women_in_STEM_fields

    Ask questions:
    Does your department have female students?
    Does your department have female lecturers?
    Does your department have female full professors?
    Does your department explicitly target attracting female students?

  • 2, 3: Women are more sensitive to the need for role models.

    4: “Ensure that the courses offered at bachelors and masters level have titles emphasising the aspects typically more popular with women.”
    Need to be careful to avoid stereotypes in course names.
    Harvard Mudd college examples
    Spring 2014 semester at University of California Berkeley: changed the name from "Introduction to Symbolic Programming" to "Beauty and the Joy of Computing,”
    http://www.techrepublic.com/article/the-state-of-women-in-technology-15-data-points-you-should-know/#ftag=RSS56d97e7

    Norway example – girl- only study/coffee room where they can create their own space.
    Also controversial.
  • 2, 3: Women are more sensitive to the need for role models.

    4: “Ensure that the courses offered at bachelors and masters level have titles emphasising the aspects typically more popular with women.”
    Need to be careful to avoid stereotypes in course names.
    Harvard Mudd college examples
    Spring 2014 semester at University of California Berkeley: changed the name from "Introduction to Symbolic Programming" to "Beauty and the Joy of Computing,”
    http://www.techrepublic.com/article/the-state-of-women-in-technology-15-data-points-you-should-know/#ftag=RSS56d97e7

    Norway example – girl- only study/coffee room where they can create their own space.
    Also controversial.

  • Unwelcome comments, insubordinate behaviour, even cases of bullying and mobbing
    Women tend to attribute these problems to their own inaptness, hardly ever talk about them.
    Coaching has to become standard, Intervision is offered to specifically address this
  • !. LNVH collect national statistics on women at different levels in academia.
    2. TttT allows organisations to monitor their own performance internally, public sign up.
    Organisations sign the charter voluntarily
    3. Athena Swan gives public awards for universities/departments for gender policy.
    4. ACM-W EU provides support for women in computing progress their own careers.
  • http://www.lnvh.nl
    Graphs of figures earlier in talk came from the monitor
    2500 professors in NL
    2000 senior lecturers/associate professors
    4500 Prof+UHD
    from http://www.stichtingdebeauvoir.nl/wp-content/uploads/Monitor_Vrouwelijke_Hoogleraren_2012.pdf
  • Why does it help?
    Raises awareness.
    Raising awareness helps.
  • Award winners are listed on the website.
  • 1st womENcourage held March 1st, 2014 at Manchester University, UK
    More than 200 attendees (28 men)
    48 student posters (out of 119 submissions)
    Participants were students, early career researchers, and practitioners from the computing profession
    Participants shared and celebrated their technical accomplishments and their experiences working and studying
    Mix of technical presentations and discussions of current issues by leading experts from industry, academia, and international bodies
  • More Women in Informatics Research & Education, Oviedo July 2014

    1. 1. Creative Commons CC BY 3.0: allowed to share & remix (also commercial) but must attribute
    2. 2. Why should we care?  Encouraging women to pursue a digital career would benefit  the digital industry  themselves  Europe’s economy  29 in 1,000 women hold a first degree in ICTs (compared with 95 men)  4 in 1,000 women will work in the ICT sector  Women leave the sector mid-career to a greater extent than men  Women are more under-represented in managerial and decision-making positions than in other sectors http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htmeuropa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htm
    3. 3. Why should informatics departments care?  Google cares... http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htm
    4. 4. Google cares!
    5. 5. Why should informatics departments care?  Google cares...  Diversity gives different perspectives to approaching problems  the digital industry  themselves  Europe’s economy  Cooperative vs competitive style of communication  better social cohesion  improved dialogue http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htm
    6. 6. Can we quantify the problem? http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htm
    7. 7. Monitor Women Professors Netherlands 2011 http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htmwww.lnvh.nl/files/downloads/233.pdf Women Men Students Graduates PhD students Lecturers Senior lecturers Professors
    8. 8. Scouting for talent Recruiting students Evaluating staff MotherhoodInterviewing applicants
    9. 9. % women (FTE) http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htmwww.lnvh.nl/files/downloads/233.pdf PhD students Lecturers Senior lecturers Professors 50%
    10. 10. % female students/professors 2011 http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htm % female students % female professors www.lnvh.nl/files/downloads/233.pdf Agriculture Science Technology Economy Law Social Sciences Humanities Discipline 16% 26% 36% 26% 38% 31% 37%
    11. 11. Professors across EU She Figures 2012 http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htmwww.lnvh.nl/files/downloads/233.pdf
    12. 12. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htmwww.lnvh.nl/files/downloads/233.pdf Agriculture Science Technology Economy Law Social Sciences Humanities % female professors 2003-2011 2003 2011 25%
    13. 13. What are barriers to women?  Cultural traditions and stereotypes about women's roles  Internal barriers and socio-psychological factors  lack of self-confidence and bargaining skills  risk-aversion and negative attitudes towards competition  External barriers  strongly male-dominated environment  difficulties in balancing personal and professional life  lack of role models http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htmeuropa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htm
    14. 14. Take the test!  Men and women have similar biases  Implicit Social Attitudes https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/ http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htm
    15. 15. left key (e) since Chemistry is a science right key (i) since Philosophy is Liberal Arts Take the test! implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/
    16. 16. A Tale of Two Brains - Men's Brain Women's Brain http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htmwww.youtube.com/watch?v=29JPnJSmDs0 Mark Gungor markgungor.com
    17. 17. What is the problem  There is no single problem  Male dominated culture is self-perpetuating (as is female)  Assessment appears to be fair http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htm
    18. 18. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htm
    19. 19. What is the problem  There is no single problem  Male dominated culture is self-perpetuating (as is female)  Assessment appears to be fair  From the male perspective:  women aren’t as ambitious  From the female perspective:  “there is no problem” http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htm
    20. 20. What do we need to change?  Any dominant culture is self-perpetuating  We need a culture shift  Luckily, mixed culture is also self-perpetuating  Need transitional period from one stable culture to another http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htm
    21. 21. How can we tackle the problems?  Best practices need to become part of culture for sustainable change  Informatics Europe working group Women in ICST Research and Education  created booklet with best practices  can be carried out within a department  generally raise awareness  don’t have to cost a lot of money  often help men as well! http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htmwww.informatics-europe.org
    22. 22. Categories of Best Practices  Recruiting female students  Recruiting female employees  Interviewing women  Keeping women  Promoting women  Support measures
    23. 23. Scouting for talent Recruiting students Evaluating staff MotherhoodInterviewing applicants
    24. 24. Scouting for talent
    25. 25. Recruiting students  Reach potential students through social media  Recruit female student ambassadors and role models from the department and industry  Depict women in recruitment brochures and websites  Name courses so they also appeal to women http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htm
    26. 26. Recruiting students  Reach potential students through social media  Recruit female student ambassadors and role models from the department and industry  Depict women in recruitment brochures and websites  Name courses so they also appeal to women http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htm For example:  human computer interaction  multimedia  lifestyle informatics  medical informatics  computational linguistics  beauty and the joy of computing
    27. 27. Recruiting female employees  Describe job criteria explicitly  Advertise positions openly and widely  Allow plenty of time for applications  Approach candidates directly  Take action if too few qualified women apply http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htm
    28. 28. Interviewing applicants
    29. 29. Interviewing women  Take maternity/paternity leave into account when judging CVs  Nomination committee should have at least 30% women with a minimum of 2  Invite at least the same number of (qualified) women to interview  Ask all candidates how they would increase the numbers of women in the department  Provide support for “two body problem” (position in same city for partner) http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htm
    30. 30. Motherhood
    31. 31. Motherhood  Schedule meetings to allow for childcare  Fund childcare and partner expenses for conferences for mothers with very young children  When assessing a female member of staff, at any stage in her career, subtract  18 months per child  periods of part-time employment  ERC and NWO already implement this http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htm
    32. 32. Evaluating staff
    33. 33. Evaluating staff  Make senior staff members aware of unconscious prejudices  Ensure a balanced representation of women in evaluation committees  Make performance evaluation criteria explicit  In training programs for high potentials ensure that at least 30% are women http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htm
    34. 34. Promoting Women  Nominate women for prizes and awards  If there is currently no suitable woman available then coach someone for next time  Invite internal/external women to speak at colloquia  Provide support for a women’s network in the department  Hold regular discussions between representatives of the women’s network and department head  Encourage senior personnel to act as mentors  Administer hours spent on diversity tasks http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htm
    35. 35. Support measures 1  Offer incentives for groups when they employ a female member of staff  Offer an excellent postdoc candidate a tenure track position based on specified criteria  Provide visibility and self-promotion training for all female researchers  Provide coaching and mentoring on how to  combine work and family demands  deal with the competition for scarce permanent positions http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htm
    36. 36. Support Measures 2  Consult regularly with women at different levels e.g. monthly lunch  Scout and follow talented female researchers  Train/scout for female successors to retiring professors  Monitor % women at all levels in organisation. Create realistic targets and action plans. Include figures in departmental and national evaluations.  Assign gender diversity to scientific member of management team  Consider a women-only tenure track programme until representation is balanced http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htm
    37. 37. 13-7-2014 Special circumstances require special measures The Rosalind Franklin Fellows tenure track assistant professorships exclusively for women. First 5 years paid by University Board then by Faculty.
    38. 38. 13-7-2014The example is followed… - University of Groningen: Rosalind Franklin fellowships - University of Twente: Tenure Track UTwist3 Woman in Science More than 100 applicants for 4 positions - UvA: Carolina MacGillavry fellowship Over 200 applicants for 3 positions in 2010, 6 in 2013 - VUA: Fenna Diener Lindeboom Chairs (19 since 2005) - TU/e Women in Science tenure tracks 5 positions - TU Delft Delft Technology Fellowship - Radboud University Joliot-Curie Fellowships - NWO is considering organising a national program
    39. 39. 13-7-2014What do we do at RUG? The number of female professors has gone up considerably! 60 invited for opening 2006/2007 Now: 122 invited for female professors’ dinner 2011 – not a complete list… But…
    40. 40. 13-7-2014 Not all the staff is used to a “woman boss” Point of attention: female professor as manager
    41. 41. Organisations with similar goals  LNVH, NL  Women professors  Collect national statistics on women at different levels in academia  Talent to the Top, NL  Business, academia, public organisations  Promotes better gender balance at top levels  LinkedIn group for finding top talent  Athena SWAN, UK  Academic Science  Gives public awards for promoting gender equality  ACM-W Europe  Computer science professionals  Provides career and networking support
    42. 42. LNVH: Dutch network of Women Professors  Aims to promote the proportionate representation of women in academia  Network of over 850 female professors and associate professors  out of 4,500 prof.s & associate prof.s in NL  Organises courses for all levels of academic staff  Commissions monitor of female professors and other publications  Mediates between mentors and mentees http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htmwww.lnvh.nl
    43. 43. What does signing the Charter mean in practice? 1. assessing your initial situation, objectives and strategy regarding gender diversity 2. providing information to begin measurement in the first six months after signing 3. reporting annually on progress and results using the Talent Monitoring Tool 4. receiving feedback from the Talent to the Top Monitoring Commission in the form of  an individual report  a benchmark of all signatories. www.talentnaardetop.nl/Home_EN/Charter/What_is_Charter_/
    44. 44. Athena SWAN  The Athena SWAN Charter developed to advance the representation of women in science, engineering and technology.  It grants awards to higher education institutions, and departments within them, that can demonstrate that they are taking action to address its six principles.  Launched in 2005  First awards granted in 2006 www.athenaswan.org.uk
    45. 45. Athena SWAN Principles  To address gender inequalities requires commitment and action from everyone, at all levels of the organisation  To tackle the unequal representation of women in science requires changing cultures and attitudes across the organisation  The absence of diversity at management and policy- making levels has broad implications which the organisation will examine
    46. 46. Athena SWAN Principles  The high loss rate of women in science is an urgent concern which the organisation will address  The system of short-term contracts has particularly negative consequences for the retention and progression of women in science, which the organisation recognises  There are both personal and structural obstacles to women making the transition from PhD into a sustainable academic career in science, which require the active consideration of the organisation
    47. 47. Athena SWAN Awards  Bronze: identified particular challenges and planned activities for the future.  Silver: significant record of activity and achievement and can demonstrate impact of implemented activities.  Gold: significant, sustained progression and achievement, beacons of achievement that champion and promote good practice and Athena SWAN
    48. 48. How to obtain an award  Identify a self-assessment team.  Collect and analyse data about recruitment, retention and promotion of female students and staff at all levels.  Report on current good practice in the department, and present evidence of its impact.  Identify current weaknesses, or even bad practice, in the department.  Write a three year action plan of how to build on the good practice and eliminate the bad practice.  (Present two case studies of how good practice in the department has enhanced the experience of women in the department.)
    49. 49. ACM-W Europe  Established in July 2012  Vision “Cultivate and inspire people about the opportunities in computer science and clear the pathways for women in computing” europe.acm.org/acm-w-europe.html
    50. 50. ACM-W Europe Goals  Raise awareness of the importance of women being in the computing profession  Make women aware of career options  Promote new ways of facing the challenges of the next generation of women in computing  Increase participation of women in senior level positions of ACM and its conferences  Provide a platform for sharing resources, ideas and experiences  Work on programmes related to women in computing with the EU and the European Commission
    51. 51. ACM-W Europe womENcourage womencourage.acm.org 1st March 2014
    52. 52. Closing remarks  Gender is not only a women’s issue  Gender is only one aspect of diversity  Need extra measures in transitional period  Diversity needs to be tackled at different levels:  group  department  university  national http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-905_en.htm
    53. 53. Acknowledgements Petra Rudolf, University of Groningen Jane Hillston (Athena SWAN information) Reyyan Ayfer, ACM-W Europe Floris Jansen, graphic design

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