University of Heurdreems Designing Hybrid Courses Lynda Milne
Why hybrid? Flexibility for students Whole world at students’ access—in classroom limited by walls and one display computer More choices for how to learn (multiple formats—text, video, audio, etc…) More opportunities for self-directed learning Fits millennials better—they like technology and are used to it Hybrid v. online requires students to work in “our space”—traditional contexts as well as in more familiar tech environments Caution, though: We assume that Ss who know some tech (games, e.g.) know the tech for information literacy, e.g.—and they don’t
Why hybrid? It’s the only way of teaching that can incorporate all the modes of communication that we currently use for learning In classroom: Lecture Discussion Demonstration and practice Question/answer Online Email Written texts Discussion groups Oral discussion (Skype, e.g.) Video presentations Audio/video/textual creative products Video meetings Social networking Blogging/journals/essays Micro-blogging (newsy tweets)
Any more reasons? It takes advantage of the spectrum of opportunities for learning available to students—in class and out. Student : student Student : faculty Student : course materials Student : alternate sources Student : tools for creative products Astin, A. (1997). What matters in college: Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Harper, S.R. & Quaye, S. J. (Eds.), Student engagement in higher education: Theoretical perspectives and practical approaches for diverse populations. New York: Routledge Kuh, G. D. (2007). What student engagement data tell us about college readiness. Peer Review, 9 (1), 4-8.
Yup. Anything else? It provides students with unique opportunities to spend out-of-class time on the tasks of learning and practice. It provides faculty with unique opportunities to assign mastery and reward it with special in-class learning opportunities (lectures for advanced thinkers vs. covering the basic material, e.g.)
So how’s it measure up to the Seven Principles? Good practice in undergraduate education: encourages contact between students and faculty develops reciprocity and cooperation among students, encourages active learning, gives prompt feedback, emphasizes time on task, communicates high expectations, and respects diverse talents and ways of learning. Chickering, A.W.. & Gamson, Z. F. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education, AAHE Bulletin, March, 1987. Chickering, A.W. & Ehrmann. (1996). Implementing the seven principles: Technology as lever. AAHE Bulletin, 49(2), 3-6
Ok, we’re ready to design ADDIE Model Analyze and assess Design Develop Implement Evaluate Molenda, M. (2003). In search of the elusive ADDIE model. Performance Improvement, May/June 2003. Backward Design Model Identify desired results Determine acceptable evidence Plan learning experiences and instruction Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005, 2nd Edition). Understanding by design. Alexandria, VA. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
Five Effective Models from the National Center for Academic Transformation The Supplemental Model Retains the basic structure of the traditional course and a) supplements lectures and textbooks with technology-based, out-of-class activities, or b) also changes what goes on in the class by creating an active learning environment within a large lecture hall setting. The Replacement Model Reduces the number of in-class meetings and a) replaces some in-class time with out-of-class, online, interactive learning activities, or b) also makes significant changes in remaining in-class meetings.
Five Effective Models from the National Center for Academic Transformation The Emporium Model Eliminates all class meetings and replaces them with a learning resource center featuring online materials and on-demand personalized assistance, using a) an open attendance model or b) a required attendance model depending on student motivation and experience levels. The Buffet Model Customizes the learning environment for each student based on background, learning preference, and academic/professional goals and offers students an assortment of individualized paths to reach the same learning outcomes.
Five Effective Models from the National Center for Academic Transformation The Linked Workshop Model Retains the basic structure of the college-level course, particularly the number of class meetings. Replaces the remedial/developmental course with just-in-time workshops. Workshops are designed to remove deficiencies in core course competencies. Workshops consist of computer-based instruction, small-group activities and test reviews to provide additional instruction on key concepts. Students are individually assigned software modules based on results of diagnostic assessments. Workshops are facilitated by students who have previously excelled in the core course and are trained and supervised by core course faculty. Workshop activities are just-in-time—i.e., designed so that students use the concepts during the next core course class session, which in turn helps them see the value of the workshops and motivates them to do the workshop activities.
One more model: Mazur Eric Mazur describes how he uses his course management system for: Ensuring reading assignments are done; Engaging students in asking questions before class; Using student questions as assessments; AND Letting student questions drive lectures. He also points out that this method has helped him personalize his teaching, and get to know his students, and what they know, much better. From Questions to Concepts: Interactive Teaching (2004), E. Mazur
How well-designed? Goals clearly stated? Learning outcomes at the forefront? Measures and evidence appropriate? Valid relationship to goals? Meaningful indicators? Methods appropriate and sound? 7 Principles? Reasonable uses of FTF and online time? Motivation developed, rewarded?
Some final considerations Institutional preparedness Necessary IT tools and support? Capacity and infrastructure Library ability to support course Registrar and room scheduling issues Administrative commitment Faculty readiness All the training needed for the design AND for teaching in new ways? Guidelines and plans for new ways of interacting with students (avoid overload…) Student readiness Expectations clearly stated Quality as well as quantity of interactions clearly described Technology knowledge and capacity
Specific help abounds Hybrid Courses: University of Milwaukee http://www4.uwm.edu/ltc/hybrid/index.cfm NCAT - Project Descriptions Sorted by Model http://www.thencat.org/PCR/Proj_Model_all.htm Hybrid Course Resources - Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction http://www.mcli.dist.maricopa.edu/ocotillo/hybrids/resources.php IMPLEMENTING THE SEVEN PRINCIPLES - Chickering and Ehrmann http://www.tltgroup.org/programs/seven.html A Baker's Dozen Ideas to Foster Engagement http://ctl.stanford.edu/Tomprof/postings/796.html What Student Engagement Data Tell Us about College Readiness http://www.aacu.org/peerreview/pr-wi07/pr-wi07_analysis1.cfm Vanderbilt Center for Teaching: Understanding By Design http://www.vanderbilt.edu/cft/resources/teaching_resources/theory/design.htm Creating a hybrid college course: Instructional design notes and recommendations for beginners (article) http://jolt.merlot.org/vol1_no2_hensley.htm All above links at http://www.diigo.com/list/lmilne/hybrid-course-design