Grammar book


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Grammar book

  1. 1. Larisa Bresserlibro de gramática
  2. 2. Present TenseStem ChangersIrregulars in the “Yo”Saber vs. ConocerReflexivesDipthongsVerbs like gustarIrregular verbs ending in Uir/Guir, Cer/Cir, Ger/GirHace + __ + que + present tenseImperfectPreterite TenseComparatives/SuperlativesFuture tabla de contenidos
  3. 3. ConditionalPorParaPor vs. ParaCommandsPresent PerfectDouble Object PronounsAdverbsSubjuctive“Se” ImpersonalProgressives tabla de contenidos
  4. 4. AR ER IRYO o o oTú as es esEL/ELLA/USTED a e eNOSOTROS amos emos imosELLOS/ELLAS/UDS an en en Present tense
  5. 5. E ----- IE ----- Perder ----- Ella pierdeE ----- I ----- Pedir ----- Ella pideO ----- UE ----- Dormir ----- Ella duermeU ----- UE ----- Jugar ----- Ella juegeVerbs stay regular in the nosotros form.The changes occurs in the first vowel. Stem changers
  6. 6. Verbs that change to “go”: caer, decir, oir, poner, hacer, tener, traer, venirYo tengo su libro.Verbs that change to “zco”: verbs that end in “cer” or “cir”Conocer: Yo conozco. irregular in the “yo”
  7. 7. Saber: to know (facts or information)Conocer: to know (people or places)Mi amiga sabe como hacer el problema de matematicas.My friends knows how to do the math problem, she knows FACTS.Maria conoce a mi padre.Maria knows my dad, she knows a PERSON. saber vs. conocer
  8. 8. Reflexives are actions that are reflected upon oneself or othersYo: Me, Tú: Te, El/Ella/Ud: Se, Nosotros: Nos, Ellos/Ellas/Uds: Se Cepillarse (to brush): Me cepillo mi pelo. Pedirse (to ask): Se pedimos a la maestra. Levantarse (to get up): Te levantas a las ocho de la manana. reflexives
  9. 9. Enviar- to send Continuar- to continue Envío Enviamos Continúo Continuamos Envías Continúas Envía Envían Continúa ContinúanEsquiar- to ski Esquío Esquiamos Esqías Esquía Esquían dipthongs with accents
  10. 10. Distinguir (to distinguish) Distingo Distinguimos Distingues Distingue DistinguenExtinguir (to extinguish)Seguir (e→i) (to follow/continue)Conseguir (e→i) (to get, obtain, succeed in) uir/guir
  11. 11. Cocer (to cook): cuezoTorcer (to twist): tuerzoMecer (to rock): mezoEjercer (to practice a profession): ejerzoVencer (to overcome): venzoOfrecer (to offer): ofrezoObedecer (to obey): obedezco cer/cir
  12. 12. Coger (to catch, grab) Cojo Cogemos CogesCoge Cogen Proteger (to protect): protejo Escoger (to choose): escojo Recoger (to pick up): recojo ger/gir
  13. 13. This equation tells how long it has been since the subject has done something. Hace un mes que estudio.Adding “no” in from of the present tense verb makes the action negative. Hace dos dias que no hablas con tu madre. hace + que + present
  14. 14. Imperfect is used to describe a continuous action in the past.Ex. I used to go shopping every day.Ex. I always went to that restaurant.Endings: yo – ía, tú – ías, ella – ía, nosostros – íamos, ellas – ían imperfect
  15. 15. Ser, Ir, Verera éramos veía veíamoseras erias veías veíaisera eran veía veían iba ibamos ibas ibais iba iban Imperfect irregulars
  16. 16. A vecesGeneralmenteNuncaSiempreTodas la semanas Imperfect trigger words
  17. 17. Used to describe a completed action in the past.Ex. I studied AR ER/IRfor the test. YO é íYo estudié TÚ aste istepor la examen. ÉL/ELLA/ ó ió USTED NOSOTROS amos imos ELLOS(AS)/ aron ieron UDS. preterite
  18. 18. Less than, greater than, equal toMás/Menos + ____ + que _____Verb + ____ que _______Tan + _____ +como ________Tantos + ______ (noun) + como _______Verb tanto como + _______Juan es menos alto que Julio. comparatives, superlatives
  19. 19. ALL VERBS: Infinitive + É Ás Á Emos ÁnFor immediate future (going to)IR + A + INFINITIVE future
  20. 20. Decir: dir- to sayHaber: habr- there to be; to haveHacer: har- to make, doPoder: podr- to be ablePoner: pondr- to put, place, setQuerer: querr- to want, loveSaber: sabr- to know(fact), know howSalir: saldr- to leave, go outTener: tendr- to haveValer: valdr- to be worthVenir: vendr- to come future irregulars
  21. 21. ía íamosShould, could, or would ías íaisYou SHOULD study for test ía íanin history class.Tú estudiarías por la examen en la clase de historia.If a verb in irregular in the future tense, it keeps its irregular stem in the conditional. Inf nitive i Future Conditional Decir diré diría conditional
  22. 22. Motion/General location: round, through, along, byDuration of action: for, during, inReason/motive for action: because of, on account of, on behalf ofObject of a search: for, in search ofMeans by which something is done: by, by way of, by means ofExchange/Substitution: in exchange forUnit of measure: per, by por
  23. 23. Destination: toward, in the directionofDeadline/specific time in future: by, forPurpose/goal + (infinative): in order toPurpose + (noun): for, used forRecipient of something: forComparison withothers or an opinion: for, consideringIn the employment of: for para
  24. 24. Por and para CANNOT be used interchangeably.Each must be used appropriately using the rules stated in the two previous slides. Por v. para
  25. 25. Usted Commands:Put the verb in the “yo” form and then drop the -O and add an -E for AR and an -A for ER/IRCompre los dulces. (Usted)Coman la cena. (Ustedes)Negative commands use the same form.No coman la cena. commands
  26. 26. Tú Commands:Affirmative tú commands are formed like the present usted form.Escribe la carta.Negative commands are formed like the tú form of the present subjunctive.No hables con ella. commands
  27. 27. Used to decribe something that “has been” done.He, has, ha, hemos, han + ado/idoDrop the infinitive and add -ado for AR and -ido for ER/IRI have eaten ---- Yo he comido. Present perfect
  28. 28. Abrir AbiertoCubrir CubiertoDecir DichoEscribir EscritoHacer HechoMorir MuertoPoner PuestoResolver ResueltoRomper RotoVer VistoVolver VueltoIr Ido Present perfect irregulars
  29. 29. VERB + Indirect Object + Direct ObjectJuan escribe una carta a MariaEscribe = verb, una carta = DO (la), Maria = IO (le)Juan le la escribe.However, this must become “Juan se la escribe” because of the exceptions on the next slide. Double object pronouns
  30. 30. If the double object pronoun ends up with a “le la” or “le lo”If this happens, the “le” becomes “se.” Present perfect exceptions
  31. 31. Quickly, slowly, happily, magically.They end in -menteThoughtfully - pensativamenteIf the noun version of the verb ends in an -O, add an -A before adding mente.Rapido – rapidamente. adverbs
  32. 32. Indicates mood (facts or to express facts).Uses: will and influence, emotion, doubt, disbelief, and denial, indefiniteness and nonexistence.To conjugate: put in the “yo” form and then change to the opposite vowl.Yo hable, tú hables, ella hable, nosotros hablemos, ellas hablen. subjunctive
  33. 33. Used to make general statementsWhat “one” does, avoids specifying who youre talking about.Formula: Se + El/Ella/Ud formEx: One brushes his/her teeth.Se cepilla sus dientes. “se” impersonal
  34. 34. IR + Present Participle= is slowly but surely ______ing.ANDAR + Present Participle= is going around _____ing.SEGUIR +Present Participle= is still ______ing. Yo voy estudiando el libro. Ella anda buscando un empleo. Los estudiantes sigen escuchando a la maestra.Progressives With Ir/Andar/Seguir