Germany

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Germany

  1. 1. International Symposium on Regional Commuter Railways Taipei, Taiwan, ROC July 1st 2009 “Creating World Class Regional Commuter Railway Systems in Taiwan Lessons From Hamburg - Germany” Karl H. Hoeffler Dipl.-Ing, M.Sc., Reg. Baumeister member of
  2. 2. General Background of Railway Transportation and Regional Commuter Railways in Germany  Long distance railway is mainly Deutsche Bahn D B business (120 Mio pass/year)  Market for Regional Commuter Railway is more and more open for competition, but share of „private“ operators is still less 10% – DB Nahverkehr Commuter Rail 1,100 Mio. passenger/year, 33.809 Millionen Personenkilometer turnover 2007: 6.532 Mio €, therof 4.147 Public Service subsidies – VEOLIA Group – ARRIVA Group – HOCHBAHN Gruppe (BENEX)  Commuter railway services in Germany are understood as a public service obligation member of GROUP 2
  3. 3. Hamburger Hochbahn Group  established in 1911 by SIEMENS and AEG  public limited company 100% owned by State of Hamburg  4,400 staff  393 Mill. passengers/year  14 subsidiaries Metro Bus 101 km network 1.303 km 89 Stations / Stops 1.303 214 Cars / Buses 726 75 million Car-km / year 46 million 189 million Passengers / year. 204 million member of GROUP 3
  4. 4. Hamburger Hochbahn: BeNEX manages Commuter Railway activities outside Hamburg  BeNEX takes care for all public transport operations outside of the state of Hamburg.  is bidding for commuter railway tenders alone or in joint ventures  Acquires established transport operating companies  BENEX long term goal 10 % market share of German commuter railway services  Shareholder HOCHBAHN 51% Int‘l Public Partnerships (49%) member of GROUP 4
  5. 5. Hamburg, the Metropolitan Region in the North of Germany Population Germany: 82.1 Mio Hamburg: 1,77 Mio Metropolitan Region: 4,29 Mio Key figures HVV service area: 8,700 km2 Hamburg: 755 km2 member of GROUP 5
  6. 6. Mass Transit Service Networks in the Hamburg Metropolitan Region Railbound public transport: • 3 metro lines (HOCHBAHN) • 6 suburban railway lines (S-Bahn, DB) • 12 regional railway lines (DB, metronom, AKN) Other public transport: • 408 bus lines (different operators) • 6 harbour ferries (Hadag) member of GROUP 6
  7. 7. Service Characteristics of the Commuter Railway  A = AKN Railway  R = Regional Express Rail Line  S = Urban / Suburban Rail  U = Metro (independent from other networks) Network Lines (No.) Length (Lines) Traction Power Diesel A 3 96,6 km (and bi-mode railcars) OCS: 15 kV, 16,7 Hz R 12 988 km and Diesel 1.200 V d.c. S 6 186,7 km (*) (and two system EMUs) 750 V d.c.750 V d.c. U 3 100,7 km (by third rail) member of GROUP 7
  8. 8. AKN – Railway (Regional Commuter Rail Network) member of GROUP 8
  9. 9. AKN – Railway (Regional Commuter Rail Network)  Track on separated right-of-way  Level crossings  Block signal system with fixed blocks  Traffic control by central electronic signal box (after former traffic regulation by radio) member of GROUP 9
  10. 10. AKN – Railway (Regional Commuter Rail Network)  Special feature: through trains to Hamburg Central station running on S-Bahn lines (dual mode trains – Diesel and electric, current collection 1.200 V d.c. from 3rd rail) Diesel & electric hybrid railcar type VTA (multiple units) in S-Bahn tunnel Station member of GROUP 10
  11. 11. AKN – Rolling Stock  DMU units type VT 2E Type VT 2E VTA (Alstom Germany) Year of 1976-77 1993 construction Length 30,13 m 32,62 m  Hybrid-railcars type VTA (o.c.) (Diesel & electric) Tare weight 51,9 t 55,4 t Power 2 x 242 kW 485 kW Diesel & electric Powered by Diesel (3rd rail) Multiple up to 4 up to 4 units Max. speed 88 km/h 105 km/h Seats 88 96 Standees 152 150 member of GROUP 11
  12. 12. Connection between AKN and Metro – common station member of GROUP 12
  13. 13. Diesel-Hybrid Railcar in Hamburg Main Station Operation on third rail (1.200 V d.c.) member of GROUP 13
  14. 14. Regional Commuter Trains Infrastructure Characteristics  Operation on railway main line tracks and regional secondary feeder lines – 7 Commuter Lines on main line tracks – 5 local feeder lines  Track infrastructure: – Main Line: 2 up to 4 tracks (section-wise) – Local feeder lines: single track secondary lines  Sharing of main line tracks with – High speed trains (ICE, vmax = 200 km/h) – Intercity (vmax = 200 km/h) – Cargo trains  Maximum speed of Regional Express Trains – Locomotive operated double deck trains: 160 km/h – DMUs on secondary lines: 120 km/h  Power supply – 15.000 V, 16 2/3 Hz a.c. by catenary (main lines) – Diesel Operation on local feeder lines member of GROUP 14
  15. 15. Regional Commuter Trains Service Patterns  Express Lines: ME + RE (DB) – Calling only at important stations – Distances between stations: 15 – 25 km – 5 / 7 / 8 double deck cars + 1 loco – Platform length: 220 m – 400 m  Stop Train Lines: MEr + RB (DB) – Calling at all stations – Distances between stations: 3 - 4 km – 5 cars / 4 DD cars + 1 loco – Platform length: min. 167 m Service Peak hour service Off-peak hour Nights / Weekends 60‘ ME (+ single additional trains) 60‘ 60‘ MEr 30‘ 60‘ 60‘ DB-RE 30‘ 60‘ 60‘ DB-RB 15‘ 30‘ 30‘ member of GROUP 15
  16. 16. Double deck push-pull trains Definition of Push-pull Train  A push-pull train is a train operated in two directions by one single locomotive only.  In one direction the train is hauled or pulled by the locomotive with the driver controlling the train from cab located in the locomotive. In the reverse direction the train is pushed from the same locomotive.  The rear-end car of the train is a non-powered passenger car with an additional driver’s cab – a so-called control trailer, control cab car or pilot-car. ( TC ) Control Loco Cab car  For operating in the reverse direction the driver will change to TC-car and control the train from the driver’s console located herein.  The locomotive will push the train and will remain unmanned for the run in reverse direction. member of GROUP 16
  17. 17. Regional Commuter Trains Rolling Stock Characteristics  Locomotives – Electric locomotives (Bombardier Traxx) Series E 146: 5,6 MW – 84 t Max. speed: 160 km/h – RE50: Diesel locomotives (Traxx) 80% same components as E 146 Series V 246: 2,8 MW – 86 t Max. speed: 160 km/h  Double deck cars – 2nd class car: 125 seats + 130 standees – Control cab car: 98 seats + 140 standees – Tare weight: 56 t – 60 t – Max. speed: 160 km/h member of GROUP 17
  18. 18. Concept for regional train service member of GROUP 18
  19. 19. member of GROUP 19
  20. 20. S-Bahn – Urban & Suburban Rapid Transit Network Characteristics of S-Bahn Networks  Synchronised Timetables ( regular intervals / short headways )  High platforms & high floor vehicles ( stepless entry / quick boarding & alighting )  High capacity vehicles with large side doors ( quick boarding & alighting )  Usually EMU-type trains with high acceleration ( frequent stops, short distances between stops )  Mostly completely separated tracks, in urban areas also separate from main line tracks, no level-crossings  Closely tied networks with many links to other modes of public transport  High degree of embedding into Integrated Public Transport Networks member of GROUP 20
  21. 21. S-Bahn – Central Trunk Line Concepts Trunk Line Concept  Branch Lines from the region and suburbs are routed on one or two central trunk lines through the downtown  Metro operations typically on separated individual Lines ( Connections only for transfers to Depots / Workshops ) member of GROUP 21
  22. 22. S-Bahn Hamburg – Infrastructure Characteristics  4 regular Lines + 2 lines only during peak-hours)  Network Length: 144 km  68 Stations  ROW segregated tracks  Platforms: – Length: 140 m (minimum – 6-car trains) – 201 m – 240 m (maximum – 9 cars) – Platform height: 76 cm + 96 cm  Power supply – 1.200 V d.c. by third rail – 15.000 V, 16 2/3 Hz a.c. by catenary – 31 km extension on main line railway line  Block signal system with fixed blocks  Traffic control by relay & electronic signal boxes member of GROUP 22
  23. 23. S-Bahn Hamburg – Rolling Stock (EMU)  Basic units: 3 cars Type ET 472  EMUs – up to 3 units / 9 cars Year of 1974-1984  Type ET 472 (only d.c.) construction – 62 3-car units Length (o.c.) 65,82m – All 3 cars / 12 axles powered Tare weight 114,4 t Power 1.500 kW Power supply 3rd rail Multiple units up to 3 88 km/h Max. speed Seats 88 Standees 152 member of GROUP 23
  24. 24. S-Bahn Hamburg – Rolling Stock (EMU)  Type ET 474 – 2/3 cars powered (front & Type ET 474 rear) Year of 1996 – 2004 – Middle car: Trailer construction 2006  2 vehicles types Length (o.c.) 66,00 m – solely d.c.: 70 units 94 t (d.c. version) – dual system: 42 units Tare weight 106 t (bi-mode) (d.c./3rd rail + a.c./catenary) Power 485 kW 1.200 V d.c. Power supply 15 kV, 16,7 Hz a.c. Multiple up to 3 units Max. speed 100 km/h Seats 208 Standees 306 member of GROUP 24
  25. 25. S-Bahn Hamburg – Service Pattern / Headways Line Peak hour service Off-peak hour Nights / Weekends S1 10‘ ( 5‘ incl. S11) 10‘ 20‘ S2 10‘ ( 5‘ incl. S21) -/- -/- S3 10‘ / 20‘ (5‘ incl. S 31) 10‘ / 20‘ / 60‘ 10‘ / 30‘ / 60‘ S 11 10‘ ( 5‘ incl. S1) -/- -/- S 21 10‘ ( 5‘ incl. S2) 10‘ 20‘ S 31 10‘ ( 5‘ incl. S3) 10‘ 20‘ member of GROUP 25
  26. 26. S-Bahn Hamburg – Dual System EMU type 474 (d.c.+ a.c.) member of GROUP 26
  27. 27. S-Bahn Hamburg – EMU type ET 474 member of GROUP 27
  28. 28. S-Bahn Hamburg – EMU type ET 474 under catenary member of GROUP 28
  29. 29. Integration of public transportation networks and services  Hamburger Verkehrsverbund (HVV Hamburg Transit authority)  the first integrated public transit authority worldwide founded 1986  intended to stop competition between guided transit modes and bus lines  intended to offer services following the principle – one integrated network – one integrated timetable – one tariff member of GROUP 29
  30. 30. Modal split member of GROUP 30
  31. 31. Passenger trips acc to tickets sold member of GROUP 31
  32. 32. Hamburg: PT services organised in three tiers member of GROUP 32
  33. 33. The contractual framework member of GROUP 33
  34. 34. OPEX financing approach member of GROUP 34
  35. 35. Sustainable financing for CAPEX and OPEX remains a challenge for Germany  for new investments and extension in regional railways we estimate 1,7 Bill €/Year  infrastructure of maintenance needs 330 Mill €/year  infrastructure maintenance backlog sums up to 2.4 Bill.€  cost recovery ratio remains under 80%, i.e. the need for public subsidies will not disappear  but without public transit city life would sooner or later collapse member of GROUP 35
  36. 36. Executive Summary  Commuter Railway Services in Germany is understood as a public service obligation  Regional Commuter Railways in Germany is big business with a turnover of more than 7.000 Mio Euro p.a.  Regional Commuter Railways in Hamburg is part of a seamlessly integrated public transit network  Regional Commuter Railway operation has become open for competition, infrastructure remains in hands of DB  the use of existing railway infrastructure has turned out as a good decision to establish a sound and environmental friendly commuter services. member of GROUP 36
  37. 37. With regard to climate change and efficient use of ressources, PT is indispensable for metropolitan life - and Hamburg has good marks member of GROUP 37
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