PHOTOSYNTHESIS
GENERAL INFORMATION <ul><li>Autotrophs: self feeders, producers,  produce organic molecules from CO 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Leaf  Structure <ul><li>Chlorophyll – green pigment </li></ul><ul><li>Mesophyll – tissue layer  </li></ul><ul><li>Stomata ...
EQUATIONS <ul><li>Summary equation: </li></ul><ul><li>6CO 2  + 12 H 2 0 + light energy -> C 6 H 12 O 6  + 60 2  + 6H 2 0 <...
Tracking Atoms (water is split) <ul><li>Photosynthesis: redox reaction, water split, electrons and hydrogen ions transferr...
OVERVIEW <ul><li>LIGHT REACTIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photolysis: splitting of water, oxygen waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
 
 
 
 
Sunlight & Pigments <ul><li>Wavelength :  distance between crests </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic spectrum :  range of r...
Electromagnetic Spectrum
WHY ARE LEAVES GREEN? <ul><li>Chloroplast </li></ul><ul><li>pigments </li></ul><ul><li>absorb blue </li></ul><ul><li>and r...
INSIDE A SPECTROPHOTOMETER
 
 
 
PHOTOSYSTEMS : organized chlorophyll, proteins, sm. organic molecules.  REACTION CENTER : chlorophyll  a  receives energiz...
NONCYCLIC ELECTRON FLOW
NONCYCLIC ELECTRON FLOW
NONCYCLIC ELECTRON FLOW
NONCYCLIC ELECTRON FLOW
NONCYCLIC ELECTRON FLOW <ul><li>Generates equal amounts of ATP and NADPH </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclic photophosphorylation </l...
 
 
CYCLIC ELECTRON FLOW <ul><li>Cyclic photophosphorylation </li></ul><ul><li>No NADPH </li></ul><ul><li>No oxygen released <...
 
 
 
Light Reactions and Chemiosmosis: the organization of the thylakoid membrane
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Ch. 10 Photosynthesis

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Ch. 10 Photosynthesis

  1. 1. PHOTOSYNTHESIS
  2. 2. GENERAL INFORMATION <ul><li>Autotrophs: self feeders, producers, produce organic molecules from CO 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photoautotrophs: light energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemoautotrophs: oxidize inorganic compounds i.e. sulfur or ammonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs: other feeding, rely on photoautotrophs for food & oxygen </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Leaf Structure <ul><li>Chlorophyll – green pigment </li></ul><ul><li>Mesophyll – tissue layer </li></ul><ul><li>Stomata – pores for gas exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thylakoids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stroma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Membranes </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. EQUATIONS <ul><li>Summary equation: </li></ul><ul><li>6CO 2 + 12 H 2 0 + light energy -> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 60 2 + 6H 2 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Net: </li></ul><ul><li>6CO 2 + 6 H 2 0 + light energy -> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 60 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Simplified: </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 + H 2 0 + -> CH 2 O + 0 2 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Tracking Atoms (water is split) <ul><li>Photosynthesis: redox reaction, water split, electrons and hydrogen ions transferred to CO 2 reducing it to sugar. </li></ul>
  6. 6. OVERVIEW <ul><li>LIGHT REACTIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photolysis: splitting of water, oxygen waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photophosphorylation: generates ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of NADP + -> NADPH </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CALVIN CYCLE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon fixation (incorporation of CO 2 from atmosphere) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses products of light reactions (ATP, NADPH) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 11. Sunlight & Pigments <ul><li>Wavelength : distance between crests </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic spectrum : range of radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Visible light : 380-750nm, detected by human eye </li></ul><ul><li>Photons : act like objects, fixed quantity of energy (inversely related to wavelength) </li></ul><ul><li>Spectrophotometer : measures light transmittance </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption spectrum : fraction of light not transmitted </li></ul><ul><li>Action spectrum : relative performance of different wavelengths </li></ul><ul><li>Pigments : chlorophyll a , chlorophyll b , carotenoids, xanthophyll </li></ul>
  8. 12. Electromagnetic Spectrum
  9. 13. WHY ARE LEAVES GREEN? <ul><li>Chloroplast </li></ul><ul><li>pigments </li></ul><ul><li>absorb blue </li></ul><ul><li>and red light </li></ul><ul><li>and reflect or </li></ul><ul><li>transmit </li></ul><ul><li>green light. </li></ul>
  10. 14. INSIDE A SPECTROPHOTOMETER
  11. 18. PHOTOSYSTEMS : organized chlorophyll, proteins, sm. organic molecules. REACTION CENTER : chlorophyll a receives energized e- from other pigments, passes them to PRIMARY ELECTRON ACCEPTOR : traps high energy electrons.
  12. 19. NONCYCLIC ELECTRON FLOW
  13. 20. NONCYCLIC ELECTRON FLOW
  14. 21. NONCYCLIC ELECTRON FLOW
  15. 22. NONCYCLIC ELECTRON FLOW
  16. 23. NONCYCLIC ELECTRON FLOW <ul><li>Generates equal amounts of ATP and NADPH </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclic photophosphorylation </li></ul>
  17. 26. CYCLIC ELECTRON FLOW <ul><li>Cyclic photophosphorylation </li></ul><ul><li>No NADPH </li></ul><ul><li>No oxygen released </li></ul><ul><li>Generates more ATP for Calvin cycle </li></ul>
  18. 30. Light Reactions and Chemiosmosis: the organization of the thylakoid membrane

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