INVESTING IN PEOPLE: SCALING UP THE EDUCATION OF HEALTH PROFESSIONALS IN AFRICA CONFERENCE  LESSONS FROM THE PAST FOR THE ...
OBJECTIVES OF THE PRESENTATION <ul><li>APPRECIATE THE ORIGINS OF MEDICAL EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>APPRECIATE THE LANDMA...
  HEALTH SERVICE IN GHANA BEFORE THE 20 TH  CENTURY <ul><li>MEDICAL SERVICES  AVAILABLE BUT SERVED INTEREST OF SLAVE TRADE...
FIRST MAJOR HEALTH POLICY IN GHANA 1890-1900 <ul><li>FOCUS ON EUROPEAN POPULATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GROWTH OF BRITISH ...
POLICY TO CATER FOR ALL GHANAIANS <ul><li>GOVERNOR HUGH CLIFFORD 1912-1917 </li></ul><ul><li>EXTENSION OF SERVICES OF MEDI...
SECOND MAJOR HEALTH POLICY <ul><li>GOVENOR GORDON GUGGISBERG 1918-1927 </li></ul><ul><li>MAJOR SHIFT TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPME...
DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICAL RESEARCH <ul><li>ESTABLISHMENT OF MEDICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE – 1920 </li></ul><ul><li>ESTABLISHMENT...
DECLINE IN DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICAL EDUCATION AND THE HEALTH SECTOR  <ul><li>GOVENOR ARNOLD SLATER </li></ul><ul><li>TOOK OV...
DEVELOPMENT OF  QUALITY HUMAN RESOURCE FOR HEALTH <ul><li>1930 – 1962 GOVERNMENT POLICY TO TRAIN DOCTORS OVERSEAS </li></u...
DEVELOPMENT OF  HEALTH TRAINING INSTITUTIONS 1  <ul><li>1900 MEDICAL LABORATORY </li></ul><ul><li>1920  MEDICAL RESEARCH I...
DEVELOPMENT OF HEALTH TRAINING INSTITUTIONS 2 <ul><li>1962 FIRST MEDICAL SCHOOL (DR. KWAME NKRUMAH’S AMBITION TO HAVE ALL ...
ACADEMIC GROWTH IN NURSING  <ul><li>CERTIFICATE LEVEL NURSING - 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>DIPLOMA IN NURSING – 2004 </li></ul...
DEVELOPMENT OF FACULTY FOR BASIC BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES - UG <ul><li>1964-73 LOCAL AND EXPATRIATE STAFF  </li></ul><ul><li>19...
MAJOR CHALLENGES TO ADVANCING HEALTH CARE IN GHANA <ul><li>ENSURE QUALITY OF TRAINED STAFF AT ALL LEVELS  </li></ul><ul><l...
MEETING THE CHALLENGES 1 <ul><li>CHANGE IN MINDSET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EMPHASIS ON INVESTMENTS WITH LONG TERM BENEFITS  ...
MEETING CHALLENGES 2 <ul><li>REGIONAL COOPERATION </li></ul><ul><li>ESTABLISHMENT OF REGIONAL CENTERS OF EXCELLENCE </li><...
MEETING THE CHALLENGES 3 <ul><li>POLICY TO ENHANCE PRIVATE SECTOR ROLE IN MEDICAL EDUCATION  </li></ul><ul><li>POLICY TO P...
MEETING THE CHALLENGES 4: QUALITY CONTROL <ul><li>ACCREDITATION OF SCHOOLS </li></ul><ul><li>PEER REVIEW MECHANISMS </li><...
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Ayettey Ghana Korle Bu Teaching Hospital

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  • SOURCE: HISTORY OF WESTERN MEDICINE IN GHANA: 1880-1960; STEPHEN ADDAE
  • CLOSE TO ABOUT 2000 OFFICIALS BY 1910
  • MEDICAL ASSISTANTS PROGRAM SCRAPPED IN INDIA AND SINGAPORE AT THE TIME
  • ALL NATIONAL INVESTMENTS AND AT LOW COST
  • GOOD ROOTS; QUALITY BRANCHES; MORE AND HEALTHEIR FRUIT; BETTER SEEDS FOR MORE TREES; THE MULTIPLIER FACTOR
  • GUGGISBERG’S INVESTMENT VERSUS SLATER; MEDICAL SCHOOL; DENTAL SCHOOL; SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH; NOGUCHI; SCHOOL OF NURSING; SCHOOL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES
  • Ayettey Ghana Korle Bu Teaching Hospital

    1. 1. INVESTING IN PEOPLE: SCALING UP THE EDUCATION OF HEALTH PROFESSIONALS IN AFRICA CONFERENCE LESSONS FROM THE PAST FOR THE PRESENT AND THE FUTURE MARCH 30 TH 2010 SETH AYETTEY
    2. 2. OBJECTIVES OF THE PRESENTATION <ul><li>APPRECIATE THE ORIGINS OF MEDICAL EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>APPRECIATE THE LANDMARKS OF DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICAL EDUCATION AND OF THE HEALTH SERVICES </li></ul><ul><li>IDENTIFY KEY POLICIES THAT HAVE INFLUENCED CHANGE </li></ul><ul><li>IDENTIFY AND AVOID THE OBSTACLES TO REAL GROWTH </li></ul><ul><li>APPRECIATE NEED FOR WISE AND PRODUCTIVE INVESTMENT </li></ul>
    3. 3. HEALTH SERVICE IN GHANA BEFORE THE 20 TH CENTURY <ul><li>MEDICAL SERVICES AVAILABLE BUT SERVED INTEREST OF SLAVE TRADERS </li></ul><ul><li>DOCTORS WORKED EITHER IN THE SLAVE CASTLES OR ON SLAVE SHIPS </li></ul><ul><li>FEW AFRICANS WERE TRAINED AS DOCTORS TO SERVE WHITE MILITARY </li></ul><ul><li>NO PROVISION WAS MADE FOR HEALTH CARE OF INDEGENES </li></ul><ul><li>TRADITIONAL MEDICAL PRACTICE PREVAILED </li></ul>
    4. 4. FIRST MAJOR HEALTH POLICY IN GHANA 1890-1900 <ul><li>FOCUS ON EUROPEAN POPULATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GROWTH OF BRITISH ADMINISTRATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PENETRATION INTO INTERIOR OF GHANA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GROWTH IN COMMERCIAL BUSINESS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EUROPEAN MISSIONARIES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HIGH MORTALITY RATES AMONG EUROPEANS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ARMY MEDICAL SERVICES </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ALSO BENEFITTED AFRICAN GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS; SOLDIERS; POLICE </li></ul>
    5. 5. POLICY TO CATER FOR ALL GHANAIANS <ul><li>GOVERNOR HUGH CLIFFORD 1912-1917 </li></ul><ul><li>EXTENSION OF SERVICES OF MEDICAL DEPARTMENT TO GHANAIANS </li></ul><ul><li>BURDEN OF HEALTH CARE </li></ul><ul><li>EARLY PLANS FOR GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL </li></ul><ul><li>NEED FOR MORE STAFF </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AFRICAN AUXILLIARIES: NURSES, MIDWIVES, DISPENSERS; SANITARY INSPECTORS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NEED FOR MORE FACILITIES </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASING COST OF HEALTH CARE </li></ul>
    6. 6. SECOND MAJOR HEALTH POLICY <ul><li>GOVENOR GORDON GUGGISBERG 1918-1927 </li></ul><ul><li>MAJOR SHIFT TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF GHANA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SCHOOLS, ROADS, PUBLIC HEALTH; WATER AND SANITATION, HARBOR. RAILWAYS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BELIEVED IN THE CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE </li></ul><ul><li>ESTABLISHED KORLE BU - 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>PLANNED FOR LOCAL TRAINING OF DOCTORS IN 1927 </li></ul><ul><li>SOLID FOUNDATION FOR MEDICAL , NURSING AND LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY SCHOOLS AT KORLE BU </li></ul><ul><li>ALSO INVESTED IN MEDICAL RESEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>PREVALENT DISEASES – MALARIA, YAWS, TUBERCULOSIS, YELLOW FEVER, LEPROSY; </li></ul>
    7. 7. DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICAL RESEARCH <ul><li>ESTABLISHMENT OF MEDICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE – 1920 </li></ul><ul><li>ESTABLISHMENT OF KORLE BU 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>HOSPITAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>SEKONDI LABORATORY – 1922 </li></ul><ul><li>ROCKEFELLER YELLOW FEVER COMMISSION 1926-1928 </li></ul><ul><li>HIDEYO NOGUCHI </li></ul>
    8. 8. DECLINE IN DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICAL EDUCATION AND THE HEALTH SECTOR <ul><li>GOVENOR ARNOLD SLATER </li></ul><ul><li>TOOK OVER FROM GUGGISBERG IN 1928 </li></ul><ul><li>POSTPONED GUGGISBERG’S PLANS FOR MEDICAL SCHOOL </li></ul><ul><li>FAVORED TRAINING OF </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MEDICAL ASSISTANTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SANITARY INSPECTORS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MIDWIVES </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RETRENCHMENT OF HEALTH STAFF FOR ECONOMIC REASONS </li></ul>
    9. 9. DEVELOPMENT OF QUALITY HUMAN RESOURCE FOR HEALTH <ul><li>1930 – 1962 GOVERNMENT POLICY TO TRAIN DOCTORS OVERSEAS </li></ul><ul><li>TWO YEAR PREMEDICAL EDUCATION AT ACHIMOTA SECONDARY SCHOOL </li></ul><ul><li>SCHOLARSHIPS PROVIDED FOR GHANAIAN STUDENTS TO STUDY IN THE UK </li></ul><ul><li>PRIVATE MEDICAL STUDENTS </li></ul><ul><li>QUALIFIED DOCTORS EVENTUALLY RETURNED TO OCCUPY KEY POSITIONS – A MAJOR ADVANCE </li></ul>
    10. 10. DEVELOPMENT OF HEALTH TRAINING INSTITUTIONS 1 <ul><li>1900 MEDICAL LABORATORY </li></ul><ul><li>1920 MEDICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE </li></ul><ul><li>1922 SANITARY INSPECTORATE </li></ul><ul><li>1935 ACCRA SANITARY SCHOOL </li></ul><ul><li>1948 SCHOOLS OF HYGIENE </li></ul><ul><li>1945 – FIRST NURSING TRAINING SCHOOL STARTED AT KUMASI: RELOCATED AT KORLE BU 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>1953 DISPENSING SCHOOL AT KORLE BU TRANSFERRED TO KUMASI </li></ul>
    11. 11. DEVELOPMENT OF HEALTH TRAINING INSTITUTIONS 2 <ul><li>1962 FIRST MEDICAL SCHOOL (DR. KWAME NKRUMAH’S AMBITION TO HAVE ALL GHANAIAN STAFF) </li></ul><ul><li>1964 FIRST TEACHING HOSPITAL </li></ul><ul><li>1962 FIRST DEPARTMENT OF NURSING (AT UG) </li></ul><ul><li>1974 FIRST DENTAL SCHOOL AT UG </li></ul><ul><li>1972 FIRST SCHOOL OF PHARMACY KNUST </li></ul><ul><li>1979 FIRST MAJOR RESEARCH INSTITUTE AT UG </li></ul><ul><li>2000 FIRST SCHOOL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES </li></ul><ul><li>1994 FIRST SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH </li></ul>
    12. 12. ACADEMIC GROWTH IN NURSING <ul><li>CERTIFICATE LEVEL NURSING - 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>DIPLOMA IN NURSING – 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>DEGREE IN NURSING (BA/BSC) -1964 </li></ul><ul><li>MPHIL NURSING - 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>1 ST PHD DEAN OF SCHOOL OF NURSING – 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>PREPARATIONS FOR SANDWICH PHD COURSES </li></ul>
    13. 13. DEVELOPMENT OF FACULTY FOR BASIC BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES - UG <ul><li>1964-73 LOCAL AND EXPATRIATE STAFF </li></ul><ul><li>1964 PART-TIME SURGICAL/MEDICAL SPECIALISTS </li></ul><ul><li>1964-1973 EXTERNAL PHD PROGRAMS </li></ul><ul><li>LOCAL STAFF DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1970-1972 EXTERNAL INTERCALATED BSC PROGRAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1982-1990 INTERNAL INTERCALATED BSC PROGRAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1998-2010 MPHIL PROGRAMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1999-2010 EXTERNAL AND SANDWICHED PHD PROGRAMS </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. MAJOR CHALLENGES TO ADVANCING HEALTH CARE IN GHANA <ul><li>ENSURE QUALITY OF TRAINED STAFF AT ALL LEVELS </li></ul><ul><li>ACHIEVE SUSTAINABILITY IN HRH EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>BUILD CAPACITY TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF CARE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SCALING UP HRH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUILDING THE HEALTH TEAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXPANDING INFRASTRUCTURE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BUILD MEDICAL RESEARCH CAPACITY </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVE COST EFFICIENCY IN PRODUCTION OF HRH </li></ul>
    15. 15. MEETING THE CHALLENGES 1 <ul><li>CHANGE IN MINDSET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EMPHASIS ON INVESTMENTS WITH LONG TERM BENEFITS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EMPHASIS ON ACHIEVING SUSTAINABILITY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>REVIEW COST OF INVESTMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COST OF EXTERNAL TRAINING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EG. 564,346 POUNDS SPENT ON 30 DENTAL SURGEONS A YEAR IN THE UK ; COST OF MPH PROGRAMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VERSUS COST OF LOCAL TRAINING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EG. IT COST ABOUT 750,000 POUND TO BUILD AND EQUIP NEW DENTAL SCHOOL IN ACCRA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH $400,000; COMPARE WITH BENEFITS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>REGULAR REVIEW OF THE IMPACT OF INVESTMENT ON MEDICAL EDUCATION AND ON THE HEALTH SERVICES </li></ul>
    16. 16. MEETING CHALLENGES 2 <ul><li>REGIONAL COOPERATION </li></ul><ul><li>ESTABLISHMENT OF REGIONAL CENTERS OF EXCELLENCE </li></ul><ul><li>EXPANDING AND STRENGTHENING BASIC MEDICAL SCIENCE INSTITUTIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FOCUS ON BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE PHD PROGRAMS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>STRENTHENING BASIC BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>BUILDING EXTERNAL PARTNERSHIPS WITH WELL-ESTABLISHED HEALTH INSTITUTIONS </li></ul>
    17. 17. MEETING THE CHALLENGES 3 <ul><li>POLICY TO ENHANCE PRIVATE SECTOR ROLE IN MEDICAL EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>POLICY TO PROMOTE PUBLIC-PRIVATE-PARTNERSHIPS TO DEVELOP INFRASTRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>POLICY TO PROMOTE INTRAMURAL PRACTICE TO IMPROVE RETENTION OF STAFF </li></ul><ul><li>POLICY TO BOND STUDENTS ON GOVERNMENT SCHOLARSHIP </li></ul>
    18. 18. MEETING THE CHALLENGES 4: QUALITY CONTROL <ul><li>ACCREDITATION OF SCHOOLS </li></ul><ul><li>PEER REVIEW MECHANISMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EXTERNAL EXAMINATIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>STUDENTS EVALUATION OF TEACHERS </li></ul><ul><li>GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COUNCILS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BOARDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EDUCATION COMMITTEES – CURRICULAR REVIEWS </li></ul></ul>

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