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    • 1. Vital Water Alice Newton University of Algarve Joint Master in Water and Coastal Management University of Bergen 2005-2006
    • 2. Bibliography
      • Books :
        • Philip Ball 1999: H 2 O A biography of Water ISBN 0 75381 092 1
        • Peter H. Gleick 1993: Water in Crisis Oxford University Press
        • Open University course team 1997 : Seawater: its composition, properties and behaviour
        • Frank J. Millero 1996 : Chemical Oceanography, CRC Press
    • 3. Bibliography 2
      • Web
        • United Nations Environment Program www.unep.org Vital Water Graphics
        • Global International Water Assessment www.giwa.net
        • Intergovernemntal Panel on Climate Change www.IPCC.org
    • 4. Objectives
      • Vital water is an introductory lecture that relates both to integrated river basin management or integrated coastal zone management
      • It also links up with many other modules in the course
    • 5. Requirements
      • No special skills are required for this lecture
      • A knowledge of basic inorganic and environmental chemistry is useful.
    • 6. Programme
      • The constituents of water
      • The water molecule
      • Properties of water
      • The origin of water
      • The hydrological cycle
      • Composition of natural waters
      • Ice and glaciation
      • Water and life
      • Water the destroyer
      • Water and society, resources, uses and abuses
    • 7. Learning outcomes
      • After completing this module you should know: that although water is a very common substance on Earth, it has strange properties and is a scarce resource
      • After completing this module you should be able to: Explain why water is so special and what some consequences are for water and coastal management
    • 8. Other skills
      • Consult scientific literature and websites
    • 9. The Constituents of Water… a little chemistry
      • Hydrogen (H )
      • Oxygen (O)
      • H 2 O is the basic unit of water
      • Ratio 2:1 is a consequence of the atomic structure
    • 10. Hydrogen (H)
      • About ¾ of the mass of the Universe is Hydrogen!
      • H atom has 1 proton
      • H usually has no neutrons, so the atomic mass is 1
      • 0.000015 % of H has 1 neutron, so atomic mass is 2 (1 proton + 1 neutron)
        • This isotope (different number of neutrons) is called “heavy” water, Deuterium, or Hydrogen-2
    • 11. Oxygen (O)
      • O atom has 8 protons
      • Mass of O is about 16 x mass of H (different isotopes and neutons)
      • O can have 7, 8 , 9 or 10 neutrons
      • O is the third most abundant element in the Universe
      • (the second most abundant element in the Universe is Helium, relatively unreactive)
    • 12. The Origin of H and O… a little cosmo-chemistry
      • Current scientific theory
      • Protons (H + ) formed a millionth of a second after Big Bang, T~ a trillion degrees
      • Nucleosynthesis started one hundredth of a second later (protons+neutrons), T~ three billion degrees
      • Hydrogen atoms form, T~ 4000 ° C
    • 13. The Origin of H, O and Water
      • Gravity leads to formation of Galaxies and Stars Hans Bethe 1939
      • Elements (C-N- O) formed in stars by fusion
      • Mainly generates 15 O but also 16 O 17 O Burbridge,Burbridge, Fowler and Hoyle 1957
      • Water formed by reaction of H and O
    • 14. From “Element” to compound
      • Water classically was thought of as an Element
      • Lavoisiers’ experiments 1784 prove that water is formed by burning Hydrogen in the presence of oxygen. Hydrogen means “water former”
      • Nicholson and Carlisle split water by electrolysis to form hydrogen and oxygen
      • Berzelius recognized the fixed ratios H=2, O=1
    • 15. Water as a Liquid
    • 16. Liquid water
      • At present most of the water on Earth is in the liquid phase
      • Most liquid water (~97%) is in seawater
      • Water is the main component (~96%) of seawater
    • 17. The Water Molecule
      • Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O)
      • H 2 O is the basic unit of water
      • Ratio 2:1
      • Consequence of atomic and molecular structure
    • 18. Molecular Structure of Water
      • Hydrogen atoms have a partial positive charge.
      • Oxygen has 2 unbonded pairs of electrons with partial negative charges.
      • Tetrahedral, distorted by charges to minimize repulsion
      • Molecular structure is "bent" to yield a 104.5° angle between the hydrogen atoms instead of 109.5° for a regular tetrahedron .
    • 19. Hydrogen bonds
      • A partly positive hydrogen atom of one water molecule attracts the partly negative unbonded electron pair in the oxygen atom, forming a hydrogen bond.
    • 20. Hydrogen bonds
      • The oxygen atom of a water molecule is the hydrogen bond acceptor for two hydrogen atoms .
      • Each O-H group serves as a hydrogen bond donor.
    • 21. 4 Hydrogen bonds
      • Leads to the formation of 4 hydrogen bonds by water
      • The tetrahedral structure of the water hydrogen bonds is a consequence of the sp3 hybridization of the oxygen's electrons.
      • The two hydrogen bonds between the oxygen and the hydrogen atoms on another water molecule utilize the two partly-negative pairs of unbonded electrons on oxygen.
    • 22. Structure of liquid water
      • The hydrogen bonding pattern of water is more irregular than that of ice.
      • The absolute structure of liquid water has not been determined .
      • Many theories e.g. Frank and Wen flickering cluster model : as a liquid, water has partly crystalline “clusters” but some “loose molecules”
    • 23. Properties of Water The Strange Liquid
    • 24. Density anomaly
      • Most substances are denser in the solid than in the liquid phase
      • The structure of ice at 0 o C is less dense than that of liquid water at 0 o C because ice has a more rigid lattice.
      • Density maximum at 4 o C
      • Ice forms at surface and floats
      • Enormous implications for climate
    • 25. High Specific Heat Capacity
      • Very high energy required to change the temperature of water
      • Water is slow to heat and slow to cool
      • Warm ocean currents can therefore transport huge amounts of heat
      • Gulf Stream transports more heat daily than would be produced by burning global quantity of coal mined annually
    • 26. Latent Heat Capacity
      • Energy to change phase without changing temperature
      • When water is heated to 100ºC, is doesn’t all instantly evaporate to steam. A lot of heat has to be supplied to transform all the liquid into vapour.
      • When ice is reaches 0ºC, is doesn’t all instantly melt. A lot more heat must be applied to transform all the ice into liquid water
    • 27. Specific Heat and Latent Heat Heat Energy Supplied 100 ºC 0 ºC T ºC Boiling Point Freezing Point Specific Heat of Water Specific Heat of Ice Latent Heat of Water Latent Heat of Ice
    • 28. Phase transitions solid-liquid-gas
      • Boundaries of phases are controlled by temperature and pressure
      • Phase diagram plots phases on a graph of temperature and pressure
      T P
    • 29. Phase diagram of water
    • 30. Triple Point
      • Solid, Liquid and Gas phases can co-exist
      • Below Triple Point , solid sublimes to gas
      • Gas and Solid extend throughout T and P
      • Liquid is a “contigent” state, not always necessary
    • 31. Critical Point
      • Boundary between Liquid and Solid stops at Critical Point
      • Supercritical region: gas and liquid behave in same way
      • Gas and Liquid are both Fluids phases
    • 32. More anomalous properties
      • Excellent solvent , especially of ionic compounds
      • Highly reactive and therefore corrosive
      • Viscosity increases with pressure
      • High boiling point and freezing point
      • Low dissociation, but can act as an Acid or Alkali and is an electrolyte
    • 33. Water as Ice
    • 34. Molecular structure of ice
      • Water molecules in ice form an open hexagonal lattice in which every water molecule is hydrogen bonded to four others.
      • The geometric regularity of these hydrogen bonds contributes to the strength of the ice crystal.
      • All hydrogen bonds are satisfied in ice.
      Structure of Ice I “ normal” ice
    • 35. “ Normal” ice
      • Ice I has hexagonal symmetry that we associate with snowflakes
      • Dendritic ( branching ) growth from a “seed” particle
    • 36. Many types of ice
      • Under pressure, Ice I can change to other forms e.g. ice II and ice III.
      • 1998 Ice XII was discovered!
      • Some forms are very unstable e.g. ice IV and ice XII
      • I-V the hexagonal lattice is buckled
      • VI-XII several interlocking lattices
    • 37. “ Weird” ice
      • At ~ 3500 atm, Ice I can change to other forms e.g. ice II and ice III.
      • Ice VI will remain solid up to 80ºC, but melts at pressures less than 6500 atm !
      • Ice VII is formed at 22000 atm, is twice as dense as ice I and melts at 100 ºC !
      • Ice IX cannot exist at temperatures above -100 ºC !
    • 38. Amorphous, glassy ice
      • Low density amophous ice forms by rapid freezing to -140 ºC
      • There is no “time” to form the lattice
      • Can only exist between -140 ºC and -120 ºC
      • Behaves like very viscous liquid
      • High density amorphous ice is formed from ice I at 10 000 atm and -196 ºC
    • 39. Supercooled water
      • Liquid water can also be supercooled
      • High altitude, low temperatures and pressures e.g. cirrus clouds ~38 ºC
      • Solutes also decrease the freezing point, e.g. seawater freezes at – 1.9 ºC
    • 40. Where did the water on Earth come from?
    • 41. Water in the Universe
      • “ Excited” molecules of water radiate MASERS (Microwave Amplified Stimulated Emission of Radiation)
      • Water is
      • common in
      • the Universe
      • e.g. Orion’s
      • Horse Head
      • Nebula
      • Townes 1969
    • 42. Solar Systems
      • Material orbiting stars can form a planetary solar system (such as ours)
      • Our solar system consists of
        • Inner “rock” planets e.g. Earth and Mars
        • Outer “gas” planets e.g. Jupiter and Saturn
        • Planetesimals such as asteroids, meteorites and comets that maybe rich in water, CO 2 and NH 3
    • 43. Our Solar System
    • 44. Water in our Solar System
      • Carbonaceous Chondrites (type of meteorite) contain 20% water as ice or in the structure of consitutent minerals
      • Common meterorites (Chondrites) contain 0.1% water
      • Comets contain huge amounts of water, typically one thousand trillion kgs!
    • 45. e.g. Halley’s Comet
      • Size 8km x 16km
      • Mass 100 trillion Kg
      • Mostly ice
    • 46. Origins of Water on Planet Earth
      • Collisions with Planetesimals such as asteroids, meteorites and comets brought water, CO 2 and NH 3 to the Earth
    • 47. Formation of Lithosphere
      • As Earth cooled, a rocky surface, the lithosphere, formed on the molten magma
    • 48. Formation of early Atmosphere
      • Cooling magma released volatiles by degassing to form early atmosphere
      • Early atmosphere was mainly CO 2 , N 2 and water vapour
    • 49. Formation of Hydrosphere
      • Between 4.4 and 4.0 billion years ago
      • Temperature low enough for condensation of water
      • Formation of clouds and rain
      • Formation of oceans
    • 50. The Blue Planet
    • 51. Water controls our Planet
      • Geological change : erosion by rivers, glaciers and coastal erosion
      • Short term climate : El Niño, North Atlantic Oscillation
      • Climate change : Ice-ages
      El Niño
    • 52. El Niño mechanism http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/elnino/nino-home.html#
    • 53. Some facts and figures…
      • Planet Water would be more appropriate as a name than planet Earth!
      • More than 2/3 of planet surface is water
      • More than 1/20 of planet surface is ice
      • Only tiny proportion, 1/10000, is freshwater
    • 54.  
    • 55. The Hydrological Cycle
    • 56. Hydrological cycle
      • Very dynamic cycling, main mechanisms are evaporation and condensation / precipitation
      • Balance between water in 3 states : solid, liquid, gas; ice, water and vapour
      • Hydrological cycle regulates and controls many other biogeochemical cycles
    • 57. Water in the Sky… Clouds
      • Volume equal to all the oceans passes through atmosphere ~3100 years
      • Atmosphere only contains about 0.001% of total water at any one time as clouds
      • Represents only 0.035% of all freshwater
      • Equivalent to about 2.5 cm of rain over all surface of globe
    • 58. Formation of Clouds
      • Process of condensation
      • Condensation nuclei
      • Airborne particles e.g.
        • dust,
        • soot,
        • DMS
    • 59. Dimethyl Sulphide (DMS)
      • Produced by phytoplankton
      • In atmosphere forms sulphate
      • Coalesces with sodium and magnesium ions from sea-salt
      • Forms crystalline particles that are condensation nuclei
    • 60. Clouds
      • Cumulus
      • Stratus
      • Alto-cumulus
      • Alto-stratus
      • Cirrus
      • Cumulo-nimbus
    • 61. Cumulus
      • low altitude
      • formed by convection of air
      • “ warm clouds“ mostly above 0ºC
      • fluffy and billowing
      Image ID: wea00079, Historic NWS Collection Photo Date: September 1980 Photographer: Ralph F. Kresge #1126
    • 62. Stratus
      • low altitude,
      • formed by convection of air meeting a stable layer
      • mostly above 0ºC
      • static
      • typical of overcast sky
      Image ID: wea02051, Historic NWS Collection Location: Oahu, Hawaii Photo Date: March, 1976 Photographer: Ralph F. Kresge
    • 63. Alto-cumulus
      • At higher altitudes
      • Formed at a lower temperature (0 to -39ºC)
      • Also Alto-stratus
      Image ID: wea00039, Historic NWS Collection Photographer: Ralph F. Kresge #1201
    • 64. Cirrus
      • high altitude
      • temperature below -39ºC
      • feathery
      Image ID: wea00062, Historic NWS Collection Location: Looking SSW at Rossmoor, Maryland Photo Date: 10:45 A.M., January 29, 1976 Photographer: Ralph F. Kresge
    • 65. Alto-stratus
      • At higher altitudes
      • formed at a lower temperature (0 to -39ºC)
    • 66. Cumulo-nimbus
      • cumulus topped by cirrus
      • storm cloud
      Image ID: wea00094, Historic NWS Collection Location: Mauna Kea, Hawaii Photo Date: February 1976 Photographer: Ralph F. Kresge #0221
    • 67.  
    • 68. Water Vapour and Global Change
      • Water vapour is a greenhouse gas
      • Global warning may cause positive feedback : warming puts more water-vapour into atmosphere which causes further warming
      • Alternately more water-vapour into atmosphere may cause more, violent precipitation
      • Also consider albedo effect versus greenhouse effect
    • 69. Evaporation and Transpiration
      • ~ 875 cubic km of water evaporate from the oceans every day
      • Equivalent to about 1m of the oceans annually
      • ~ 160 cubic km of water evaporate from land and plants ( transpiration ) every day
    • 70.  
    • 71. Residence times
      • Biospheric water
      • Atmospheric water
      • River channels
      • Swamps
      • Lakes and reservoirs
      • Soil moisture
      • Ice caps and glaciers
      • Ocean and seas
      • Groundwater
      • 1 week
      • 1.5 weeks
      • 2 weeks
      • 1-10 years
      • 10 years
      • 2 weeks-1 year
      • 1000-100 000 years
      • 4000 years
      • 2 weeks-10 000 years
    • 72. Runoff
      • Precipitation on land - Evaporation on land = Runoff
      • ~100 cubic km per day
      • Deserts: precipitation = evaporation
      • Amazon:
        • precipitation >> evaporation
        • 1/5 of freshwater input into oceans
    • 73.  
    • 74. Oceans and Seas are all interconnected basins
      • Atlantic
      • Pacific
      • Indian
      • Southern (Antarctic)
      • 2/3 in South Hemisphere
      • Mediterranean Sea
      • Black Sea
      • North Sea
      • Red Sea
      • Arabian Sea
      • East and South China Seas
      • Arctic
    • 75. Oceans … a little oceanography
      • ½ of the globe is 3 000-6 000m deep!
      • Ocean trenches reach 11 000m, mountains only 8000m
      • Mid-ocean ridges are the greatest mountain chains
    • 76. Topography of Ocean Basins
    • 77. Surface Currents
      • wind
      • rotation (gyres)
      • N. Equatorial
      • S. Equatorial
      • West wind drift
      • Norway
      • North Atlantic
      • Canary
      • Brazil
      • Agulhas
      • Alaska
      • Oyashio
      • Kuroshio
      • Peru
    • 78. Global Ocean Surface Currents http://web.uvic.ca/~rdewey/eos110/webimages.html
    • 79. Deep Circulation, Global Conveyor
      • thermohaline
      • Density driven
      • (T and S)
      http://web.uvic.ca/~rdewey/eos110/webimages.html
    • 80. Tidal currents
      • Up to 14m!
      • Gravitational pull (moon + sun)
      • 24 h and 50 min cycle
      • Semi diurnal (High-Low-High-Low)
      • Lunar cycle (Spring-Neap-Spring-Neap)
    • 81.  
    • 82.  
    • 83.  
    • 84. River basins
    • 85.  
    • 86. Nile
        • Length: 6650 km
        • Catchment: ~ 3 million km 2
    • 87. Amazon
      • Length: 6450 km
      • Catchment:
      • ~ 7 million km 2
    • 88. Volume of water transported
      • Different climatic regions ( e.g. Nile and Amazon)
      • Dams
        • Aswan: Lake Nasser 500km, +900 000 acres of arable land, ¼ of Egypt’s power
        • Itaipu
        • Three gorges estimate 18200 megawatts, reservoir ~660 km long
    • 89. Aswan Dam Lake Nasser
    • 90.  
    • 91.  
    • 92. River basins
      • Different geomorphology
      • Different size of flood plains
      • Erosion of rocks
      • Sediment transport
      • Dams
    • 93.  
    • 94. Groundwater
      • Some rain permeates through ground ( aquifer ) until it reaches impermeable bedrock or clay.
      • Upper limit is water table
    • 95. Groundwater quality
      • Depends on rocks of aquifer
        • Hard water: chalk and limestone
        • Soft water: slate and granite
      • Mineral water: high concentration of dissolved minerals. Maybe volcanically heated, thermal.
      • Maybe contaminated by pesticides, fertilizers from agriculture or leachates from landfills
    • 96. Characterization of Water by Mineral Composition … a little hydrochemistry
    • 97.  
    • 98.  
    • 99. Ca 2+
      • Rain is acidic (~pH 5.5)
      • Dissolves carboniferous rocks Ca CO 3
      • Temperature is important ( solubility decreases with increasing temperature)
      • K= [Ca 2+ ] [CO 3 2- ] = 10 -8,3
      • (1:1)
      • P CO2 in soil < a P CO2 in the atmos ( P CO2 in soil ≈ 3 x 10 -4 atm.)
      • K= [Ca 2+ ] [HCO 3 - ] 2 = 10 -5,8 P CO2
      • (1:2)
    • 100. Bicarbonate HCO 3 -
      • H 2 CO 3 Equilibrium
      • Controlled by pH
      • Normally HCO 3 - is dominant specie
      • Determine alkalinity of water
    • 101. How do we represent the composition of water?
      • Bar charts or Collins diagram
      • Pie charts
      • Kite or stiff diagrams
      • Radial diagrams
      • Triangular or Piper diagrams
      • Semi-logarithmic or Schoeller diagrams
    • 102.  
    • 103.  
    • 104.  
    • 105.  
    • 106.  
    • 107.  
    • 108.  
    • 109.  
    • 110.  
    • 111.  
    • 112.  
    • 113.  
    • 114.  
    • 115.  
    • 116.  
    • 117. Exploitation of aquifers
      • Over exploitation may cause land subsidence e.g. London and Mexico
      • In coastal regions, seawater intrusion
    • 118. Ice… the cryosphere
    • 119. Ice Ages
      • Thought to be caused by astronomical variations called Milankovitch cycles
      • Obliquity
      • Precession
      • Eccentricity
    • 120. Milankovitch cycles
      • The ice ages were due to the so-called Milankovitch cycles, that is a combination of the Earths eccentricity (the difference in distance to the sun throughout the year), the tilt of the Earth relative to the Earth-sun plane (difference summer – winter) and the time of the year when the Earth is closest to the sun.
      Milutin Milankovitch
    • 121. The 3 Milankovitch cycles
      • Precession : Orientation of the rotation axis with respect to Sun, 20 000 year cycle
      • Obliquity : tilt of rotation axis currently at 23.5º to plane of orbit, 40 000 year cycle
      • Eccentricity : elliptical shape of orbit, 100 000 year cycle
    • 122. Precession
      • Orientation of the rotation axis with respect to Sun 20 000 year cycle
    • 123. Obliquity : tilt of rotation axis currently at 23.5º to plane of orbit 40 000 year cycle Eccentricity : elliptical shape of orbit, 100 000 year cycle
    • 124. Last Ice Age
      • 18 000 years ago
      • Sea-level 120 m below present
      • Water bound up as continental icesheets
        • Laurentide ice sheet of N.America
        • Fennoscandinavian ice sheet of N.Europe
    • 125. Present Occurrence of Ice
      • Water bound up in ice as:
      • Continental icesheets
      • Sea ice: iceshelves or pack-ice and icebergs
      • Mountain glaciers
    • 126. Present cryosphere
      • Includes permafrost in tundra and snow at high altitudes
      • 2% of total water volume
      • ¾ of Earth’s freshwater
      • 5.7% of surface of globe (seasonal fluctuations)
      • Most ice is stored in Antarctica
      • High albedo
    • 127. Antarctic Icesheets and ice-shelves
      • Mean thickness 2100m
      • Maximum thickness 4800m
      • East Antarctic icesheet is larger than West Antarctic icesheet
      • East Antarctic icesheet on bedrock above sea level
      • West Antarctic icesheet on rock below sealevel
      • Also Ross and Ronne ice-shelves over sea
    • 128. Ice cores
      • Icesheets are maintained by application of new coats of ice compressing previous layers
      • East Antarctic icesheet at 3000m is 250 000 years old
      • Analysis of cores of polar ice reveal previous composition of atmosphere
    • 129. Greenland Plateau and Vostok, Antarctica Ice plateau on Greenland Vostok
    • 130. Antarctic temperatures – during the last 400 000 years
    • 131. Last four ice ages recorded in Antarctica http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc_tar/wg1/fig2-22.htm                                                                                            
    • 132. Icestreams and Icebergs
      • Melting of icesheets
      • can form icestreams
      • or icebergs
    • 133. Mountain Glaciers
      • Frozen rivers
      • Flow slowly down with gravity
    • 134. Glacial features
      • U-shaped valleys
      • Truncated spurs
      • Hanging valleys
      • Moraines
      • Fjords
    • 135. Glacier melt water
      • Discharged into rivers, or directly into sea at high latitudes
    • 136. Cryosphere and global change
      • Seasonal glacial retreat
      • Retreat over several years maybe symptom of global change and warming
      • Increase number of icebergs in N. Atlantic
      • Decrease thickness of pack-ice in Arctic
    • 137. Glacier retreat
    • 138.  
    • 139. The Nigard valley. The picture shows the retreat of the glacier. Photo: Bjørn Wold, NVE.
    • 140. Changes in sea-ice thickness in the Arctic United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) –Grid Arendal Overall change -1.3 m (40%) Positions with comparison USS Archerfish Measurements ’60s and ’90s
    • 141. The destructive forces of Water
    • 142. Floods
      • River floods and ice jams
      • Coastal floods
      • Hurricanes and cyclones
      • Tsunamis
    • 143. Floods and mortalities
      • 40% of deaths from natural disasters are due to floods
      • 1965-85 half of Federal disasters in USA due to floods
      • Hurricane Agnes: 3.5 billion US, 120 lives
      • In USA, floods cost 2-4 Billion US dollars annually and about 200 lives
      • Figures much higher in some other parts of world
    • 144. River floods
      • 1992 Pakistan and India: 2000 lives
      • China: 2297 BC
      • 1332 AD 7 000 000 lives
      • 1887 6 000 000 lives
      • Bangladesh: Ganges, Bramaputra and Megna rivers, low elevation frequent floods
      • Egypt: historical flooding of Nile
    • 145.
      • 1993 Mississipi flood: 15 billion U$ 487 lives
    • 146. Ice jams and melts
      • 1936 New England: 107 lives
    • 147. Coastal floods
      • High tides and storm surges 1953 North Sea
      • Tropical cyclones
        • Hurricanes (Caribbean)
        • Typhoons (W. Pacific)
      • Tsunami
    • 148. Hurricanes
      • 1900 Galveston 10 000 lives
      • Hugo 1989 and Andrew 1992 30 billion US dollars
      • Formed over warm seas
    • 149. Hurricane Hugo http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/historic/nws/hugo1.html Digitized Charleston WSR-57 radar image of Hugo with superimposed winds Real-time winds measured onboard NOAA research aircraft flying into Hugo Wind velocity transmitted to NHC through a satellite link as eyewall hit coast Sustained winds of 155 mph at 10,000 feet and 135 mph at surface Higher gusts were estimated in area of landfall Image ID: wea00455, Historic NWS Collection Photographer: Dr. Frank Marks, AOML Hurricane Research Division
    • 150. Hurricane Andrew http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/historic/nws/andy1.html Hurricane Andrew - visible satellite image taken by METEOSAT 3 This picture depicts Andrew during period of maximum intensity over Bahamas August 23,1992                             Image ID: wea00520, Historic NWS Collection
    • 151. Hurricane Katrina, USA
      • August 2005
      • Levee holding back lake Pontchartrain breeched
      • New Orleans flooded
      • Science , Vol 309, Issue 5741, 1656-1659 , 9 September 2005
      • Scientists' Fears Come True as Hurricane Floods New Orleans
      • John Travis
      • Katrina held few surprises for hurricane experts, who have repeatedly warned about the potential catastrophic consequences for New Orleans if such a storm were to make landfall nearby.
    • 152. Lake Pontchartrain and New Orleans
    • 153. New Orleans flooded
    • 154. Breeched Levee
    • 155. Breeched Levee
    • 156. Loss of Wetlands An ambitious $14 billion plan known as Coast 2050 attempts to protect more than 10,000 square kilometers of Louisiana's wetlands, which are disappearing at a rate of up to 90 square kilometers per year, one of the highest rates of land loss in the world. But a number of unanswered scientific questions swirl around the plan. And it could run afoul of powerful interests in the shipping, petroleum, and fishing industries. Louisiana's Vanishing Wetlands: Going, Going ... Joel Bourne Science 2000 290: 456. (in Letters) [Full Text]
    • 157. Altered Delta
    • 158. Tropical cyclones in Indian Ocean
      • Bangladesh: large areas only 3m altitude
      • 1737: 1 000 000 lives
      • 1876
      • 1970: 200 000 lives
      • 1991: 100 000 lives
    • 159. The 1998 flood in Bangladesh
    • 160. Floods in Bangladesh
    • 161. Tsunami
      • caused by:
      • Earthquakes and Sea-floor displacement : e.g. 26 December 2004 Aceh
      • Landslides : e.g. Alaska 1957
      • Volcanoes : e.g. Krakatau 1883
    • 162. Tsunami
      • 1792 Japan: 15 000 lives
      • 1896 Japan: 27 000 lives
      • 1957 Alaska: wave 60m devasted trees upland to 530m
      • 1883 Krakatau: 36 000 lives
      • 2004 Aceh and Indian Ocean: 300 000+ lives
    • 163. 26 December 2004 off Aceh, Indonesia
    • 164. Indonesia: lhoknga_iko_2004364
    • 165. Sri Lanka_qbd_2004361
    • 166. Sea Level Change
      • Linked to climate change and ice ages
      • Last ice age, sea level 120m below present
      • Still enough ice in ice-sheets and glaciers to raise sea level by 66m!
      • A rise of only 5m would be catastrophic for Pacific Islands, Bangladesh, the Netherlands, Vietnam, Florida
      • Current estimates vary 20cm-1m by 2100
      • Thermal expansion is main cause of rise
    • 167. Water and Society
      • Religions: water Gods, creation, floods
      • Ceremonies: baptism, cleansing before worship, sacred and holy water
    • 168. Ancient Civilizations and Waterways
      • Mesopotamia
      • India
      • China
      • Egypt
      • Tigris and Euphates
      • Ganges
      • Yellow River
      • Nile
    • 169. Water and Health
      • Cholera
      • Typhoid
      • Dysentry
      • Hepatitis A
      • Maleria and other mosquito-borne diseases (Dengue, West Nile fever)
    • 170. Water as a Resource
    • 171. The uses of water
      • Domestic
        • Drinking
        • Hygiene
        • Cleaning
      • Industrial
        • Heavy industry
        • Light industry
        • Food industry
        • Power generation
      • Recreation
        • Bathing
        • Sailing
      • Agricultural
        • Irrigation
        • Aquaculture
        • Fisheries
    • 172. Water and Energy
      • Hydroelectric power
      • Water as a “fuel” by splitting
        • Electolysis,
        • Photolysis,
        • Photosynthesis
        • H-O fuel cells
      • Tidal mills and barrages
      • Ocean currents
    • 173. Water as a scarce resource
      • Uneven distribution of rainfall
    • 174.
      • 2/3 of rainfall flows to sea
    • 175. Global use of water
      • Tripled between 1950-90
      • Half of available runoff used by 1996
    • 176.  
    • 177.  
    • 178.  
    • 179. Use of water by sector differs
    • 180. Use of domestic water differs…
      • Uganda and Burundi 5-25 Liters per day per person
      • Europe 100 to 260 liters per day per person
      • USA 400-500 liters per day
      • Same water quality for brushing teeth, flushing toilet and washing car
    • 181. Agriculture
      • Most increases in crop production due to irrigation
    • 182.  
    • 183. Increasing water stress
    • 184. Abuses of water
      • Wastage in distribution, leaks e.g. UK
      • Inefficient irrigation e.g. Middle East
      • Over extraction and salinization e.g. Mediterranean
      • Desertification e.g. MidWest dust bowl Sahel
      • Pollution
    • 185. Pollution
      • Drinking water can be affected
      • Pesticides, Herbicides, Fungicides
      • Fertilizers
      • Industrial PCBs (paints, plastics, adhesives)
      • Metals from mines and industry
      • Hydrocarbons and Crude oil
      • Sewage pathogens
      • Organic Matter
      • Detergents
      • Acid rain
    • 186. New or recycled water
      • Recycle grey water for agriculture
      • Desalination
      • Shipping water from countries where it is abundant e.g. Alaska to China, Norway to S. Europe
    • 187. The Global International Waters Assessment
      • GIWA
      • Comprehensive strategic assessment
      • Designed to identify priorities for remedial and mitigatory actions in international waters.
    • 188. GIWA's assessment tools Incorporate 5 major environmental concerns and application of the DPSIR framework.
    • 189. DPSIR framework
      • Driving forces
      • Pressures
      • Impacts
      • State
      • Responses
    • 190.
      • Black Sea,
      • Amazon,
      • Gr. Barrier Reef,
      • Agulhas Current
      GIWA Case Studies
    • 191. Water and Life
    • 192. Carbon life-forms…
      • All known life-forms are C-based
      • Many other elements essential for organic (C) life, e.g. N, P
      • All known life-forms also require water
      • Many organisms more than 70% water, some more than 90%
      • Humans require min. 1 liter per day
    • 193. The Beginning of Life
      • ~3.8 billion years ago.
      • Atmosphere contained N, CO 2 and water as well as H 2 S and CH 4 from volcanoes
      • Very little oxygen, anoxic, reducing
      • Current scientific theory: first life-forms were aquatic in shallow lagoons, or hydrothermal vents
    • 194. Early life forms
      • Oldest fossils:
        • Rocks in SW Greenland
        • Australian Stromatolites 3.5 billion years
      • First life-forms:
        • anaerobic heterotrophs using simple organic molecules available by glycolysis or fermentation
        • chemosynthetic autotrophs using H 2 S
        • photosynthetic autotrophs using H 2 S
    • 195. Oxygen and early life-forms
      • Oxygen produced by one type of photosynthesis
      • Uses H 2 O as a proton donor instead of H 2 S
      • Oxygen is oxidating, reactive, corrosive gas
      • Oxygen is TOXIC to aerobic life-forms
      • Oxygen accumulated slowly in the atmosphere
      • Permited the evolution of facultative anerobes and aerobic heterotrophs and
      • Aerobic respiration is far more energetic than fermentation
    • 196. Aquatic life-forms
      • Aquatic life-forms usually restricted in their distribution to fresh or salt water
      • Osmotic pressure one of the colligative properties of water
      • Special adaptations needed for estuarine organisms to survive salinity changes and migratory organisms such as eels and salmon
    • 197. Terrestrial plant-forms
      • Photosynthetic cyanobacteria probably first organisms to survive on land
      • 460 million years ago bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) and ferns
      • 325 million years ago tropical forests
      • Vascular plants “higher” supported by water-based fluids xylem and phloem
      • Depend on properties of water such as osmosis and capillary action
      • Transpiration from plants is important in Hydrological cycle
    • 198. Terrestrial animal-forms
      • Many land-based animals need special adaptations to live out of water such e.g.
        • Molluscs such as gastropod snails
        • Crustacea such as crabs
      • Amphibians first vertebrates on land
      • Animals also have many water based fluids such as cytoplasm, blood plasma and lymph