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  • 1. Vital Water Alice Newton University of Algarve Joint Master in Water and Coastal Management University of Bergen 2005-2006
  • 2. Bibliography
    • Books :
      • Philip Ball 1999: H 2 O A biography of Water ISBN 0 75381 092 1
      • Peter H. Gleick 1993: Water in Crisis Oxford University Press
      • Open University course team 1997 : Seawater: its composition, properties and behaviour
      • Frank J. Millero 1996 : Chemical Oceanography, CRC Press
  • 3. Bibliography 2
    • Web
      • United Nations Environment Program www.unep.org Vital Water Graphics
      • Global International Water Assessment www.giwa.net
      • Intergovernemntal Panel on Climate Change www.IPCC.org
  • 4. Objectives
    • Vital water is an introductory lecture that relates both to integrated river basin management or integrated coastal zone management
    • It also links up with many other modules in the course
  • 5. Requirements
    • No special skills are required for this lecture
    • A knowledge of basic inorganic and environmental chemistry is useful.
  • 6. Programme
    • The constituents of water
    • The water molecule
    • Properties of water
    • The origin of water
    • The hydrological cycle
    • Composition of natural waters
    • Ice and glaciation
    • Water and life
    • Water the destroyer
    • Water and society, resources, uses and abuses
  • 7. Learning outcomes
    • After completing this module you should know: that although water is a very common substance on Earth, it has strange properties and is a scarce resource
    • After completing this module you should be able to: Explain why water is so special and what some consequences are for water and coastal management
  • 8. Other skills
    • Consult scientific literature and websites
  • 9. The Constituents of Water… a little chemistry
    • Hydrogen (H )
    • Oxygen (O)
    • H 2 O is the basic unit of water
    • Ratio 2:1 is a consequence of the atomic structure
  • 10. Hydrogen (H)
    • About ¾ of the mass of the Universe is Hydrogen!
    • H atom has 1 proton
    • H usually has no neutrons, so the atomic mass is 1
    • 0.000015 % of H has 1 neutron, so atomic mass is 2 (1 proton + 1 neutron)
      • This isotope (different number of neutrons) is called “heavy” water, Deuterium, or Hydrogen-2
  • 11. Oxygen (O)
    • O atom has 8 protons
    • Mass of O is about 16 x mass of H (different isotopes and neutons)
    • O can have 7, 8 , 9 or 10 neutrons
    • O is the third most abundant element in the Universe
    • (the second most abundant element in the Universe is Helium, relatively unreactive)
  • 12. The Origin of H and O… a little cosmo-chemistry
    • Current scientific theory
    • Protons (H + ) formed a millionth of a second after Big Bang, T~ a trillion degrees
    • Nucleosynthesis started one hundredth of a second later (protons+neutrons), T~ three billion degrees
    • Hydrogen atoms form, T~ 4000 ° C
  • 13. The Origin of H, O and Water
    • Gravity leads to formation of Galaxies and Stars Hans Bethe 1939
    • Elements (C-N- O) formed in stars by fusion
    • Mainly generates 15 O but also 16 O 17 O Burbridge,Burbridge, Fowler and Hoyle 1957
    • Water formed by reaction of H and O
  • 14. From “Element” to compound
    • Water classically was thought of as an Element
    • Lavoisiers’ experiments 1784 prove that water is formed by burning Hydrogen in the presence of oxygen. Hydrogen means “water former”
    • Nicholson and Carlisle split water by electrolysis to form hydrogen and oxygen
    • Berzelius recognized the fixed ratios H=2, O=1
  • 15. Water as a Liquid
  • 16. Liquid water
    • At present most of the water on Earth is in the liquid phase
    • Most liquid water (~97%) is in seawater
    • Water is the main component (~96%) of seawater
  • 17. The Water Molecule
    • Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O)
    • H 2 O is the basic unit of water
    • Ratio 2:1
    • Consequence of atomic and molecular structure
  • 18. Molecular Structure of Water
    • Hydrogen atoms have a partial positive charge.
    • Oxygen has 2 unbonded pairs of electrons with partial negative charges.
    • Tetrahedral, distorted by charges to minimize repulsion
    • Molecular structure is "bent" to yield a 104.5° angle between the hydrogen atoms instead of 109.5° for a regular tetrahedron .
  • 19. Hydrogen bonds
    • A partly positive hydrogen atom of one water molecule attracts the partly negative unbonded electron pair in the oxygen atom, forming a hydrogen bond.
  • 20. Hydrogen bonds
    • The oxygen atom of a water molecule is the hydrogen bond acceptor for two hydrogen atoms .
    • Each O-H group serves as a hydrogen bond donor.
  • 21. 4 Hydrogen bonds
    • Leads to the formation of 4 hydrogen bonds by water
    • The tetrahedral structure of the water hydrogen bonds is a consequence of the sp3 hybridization of the oxygen's electrons.
    • The two hydrogen bonds between the oxygen and the hydrogen atoms on another water molecule utilize the two partly-negative pairs of unbonded electrons on oxygen.
  • 22. Structure of liquid water
    • The hydrogen bonding pattern of water is more irregular than that of ice.
    • The absolute structure of liquid water has not been determined .
    • Many theories e.g. Frank and Wen flickering cluster model : as a liquid, water has partly crystalline “clusters” but some “loose molecules”
  • 23. Properties of Water The Strange Liquid
  • 24. Density anomaly
    • Most substances are denser in the solid than in the liquid phase
    • The structure of ice at 0 o C is less dense than that of liquid water at 0 o C because ice has a more rigid lattice.
    • Density maximum at 4 o C
    • Ice forms at surface and floats
    • Enormous implications for climate
  • 25. High Specific Heat Capacity
    • Very high energy required to change the temperature of water
    • Water is slow to heat and slow to cool
    • Warm ocean currents can therefore transport huge amounts of heat
    • Gulf Stream transports more heat daily than would be produced by burning global quantity of coal mined annually
  • 26. Latent Heat Capacity
    • Energy to change phase without changing temperature
    • When water is heated to 100ºC, is doesn’t all instantly evaporate to steam. A lot of heat has to be supplied to transform all the liquid into vapour.
    • When ice is reaches 0ºC, is doesn’t all instantly melt. A lot more heat must be applied to transform all the ice into liquid water
  • 27. Specific Heat and Latent Heat Heat Energy Supplied 100 ºC 0 ºC T ºC Boiling Point Freezing Point Specific Heat of Water Specific Heat of Ice Latent Heat of Water Latent Heat of Ice
  • 28. Phase transitions solid-liquid-gas
    • Boundaries of phases are controlled by temperature and pressure
    • Phase diagram plots phases on a graph of temperature and pressure
    T P
  • 29. Phase diagram of water
  • 30. Triple Point
    • Solid, Liquid and Gas phases can co-exist
    • Below Triple Point , solid sublimes to gas
    • Gas and Solid extend throughout T and P
    • Liquid is a “contigent” state, not always necessary
  • 31. Critical Point
    • Boundary between Liquid and Solid stops at Critical Point
    • Supercritical region: gas and liquid behave in same way
    • Gas and Liquid are both Fluids phases
  • 32. More anomalous properties
    • Excellent solvent , especially of ionic compounds
    • Highly reactive and therefore corrosive
    • Viscosity increases with pressure
    • High boiling point and freezing point
    • Low dissociation, but can act as an Acid or Alkali and is an electrolyte
  • 33. Water as Ice
  • 34. Molecular structure of ice
    • Water molecules in ice form an open hexagonal lattice in which every water molecule is hydrogen bonded to four others.
    • The geometric regularity of these hydrogen bonds contributes to the strength of the ice crystal.
    • All hydrogen bonds are satisfied in ice.
    Structure of Ice I “ normal” ice
  • 35. “ Normal” ice
    • Ice I has hexagonal symmetry that we associate with snowflakes
    • Dendritic ( branching ) growth from a “seed” particle
  • 36. Many types of ice
    • Under pressure, Ice I can change to other forms e.g. ice II and ice III.
    • 1998 Ice XII was discovered!
    • Some forms are very unstable e.g. ice IV and ice XII
    • I-V the hexagonal lattice is buckled
    • VI-XII several interlocking lattices
  • 37. “ Weird” ice
    • At ~ 3500 atm, Ice I can change to other forms e.g. ice II and ice III.
    • Ice VI will remain solid up to 80ºC, but melts at pressures less than 6500 atm !
    • Ice VII is formed at 22000 atm, is twice as dense as ice I and melts at 100 ºC !
    • Ice IX cannot exist at temperatures above -100 ºC !
  • 38. Amorphous, glassy ice
    • Low density amophous ice forms by rapid freezing to -140 ºC
    • There is no “time” to form the lattice
    • Can only exist between -140 ºC and -120 ºC
    • Behaves like very viscous liquid
    • High density amorphous ice is formed from ice I at 10 000 atm and -196 ºC
  • 39. Supercooled water
    • Liquid water can also be supercooled
    • High altitude, low temperatures and pressures e.g. cirrus clouds ~38 ºC
    • Solutes also decrease the freezing point, e.g. seawater freezes at – 1.9 ºC
  • 40. Where did the water on Earth come from?
  • 41. Water in the Universe
    • “ Excited” molecules of water radiate MASERS (Microwave Amplified Stimulated Emission of Radiation)
    • Water is
    • common in
    • the Universe
    • e.g. Orion’s
    • Horse Head
    • Nebula
    • Townes 1969
  • 42. Solar Systems
    • Material orbiting stars can form a planetary solar system (such as ours)
    • Our solar system consists of
      • Inner “rock” planets e.g. Earth and Mars
      • Outer “gas” planets e.g. Jupiter and Saturn
      • Planetesimals such as asteroids, meteorites and comets that maybe rich in water, CO 2 and NH 3
  • 43. Our Solar System
  • 44. Water in our Solar System
    • Carbonaceous Chondrites (type of meteorite) contain 20% water as ice or in the structure of consitutent minerals
    • Common meterorites (Chondrites) contain 0.1% water
    • Comets contain huge amounts of water, typically one thousand trillion kgs!
  • 45. e.g. Halley’s Comet
    • Size 8km x 16km
    • Mass 100 trillion Kg
    • Mostly ice
  • 46. Origins of Water on Planet Earth
    • Collisions with Planetesimals such as asteroids, meteorites and comets brought water, CO 2 and NH 3 to the Earth
  • 47. Formation of Lithosphere
    • As Earth cooled, a rocky surface, the lithosphere, formed on the molten magma
  • 48. Formation of early Atmosphere
    • Cooling magma released volatiles by degassing to form early atmosphere
    • Early atmosphere was mainly CO 2 , N 2 and water vapour
  • 49. Formation of Hydrosphere
    • Between 4.4 and 4.0 billion years ago
    • Temperature low enough for condensation of water
    • Formation of clouds and rain
    • Formation of oceans
  • 50. The Blue Planet
  • 51. Water controls our Planet
    • Geological change : erosion by rivers, glaciers and coastal erosion
    • Short term climate : El Niño, North Atlantic Oscillation
    • Climate change : Ice-ages
    El Niño
  • 52. El Niño mechanism http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/elnino/nino-home.html#
  • 53. Some facts and figures…
    • Planet Water would be more appropriate as a name than planet Earth!
    • More than 2/3 of planet surface is water
    • More than 1/20 of planet surface is ice
    • Only tiny proportion, 1/10000, is freshwater
  • 54.  
  • 55. The Hydrological Cycle
  • 56. Hydrological cycle
    • Very dynamic cycling, main mechanisms are evaporation and condensation / precipitation
    • Balance between water in 3 states : solid, liquid, gas; ice, water and vapour
    • Hydrological cycle regulates and controls many other biogeochemical cycles
  • 57. Water in the Sky… Clouds
    • Volume equal to all the oceans passes through atmosphere ~3100 years
    • Atmosphere only contains about 0.001% of total water at any one time as clouds
    • Represents only 0.035% of all freshwater
    • Equivalent to about 2.5 cm of rain over all surface of globe
  • 58. Formation of Clouds
    • Process of condensation
    • Condensation nuclei
    • Airborne particles e.g.
      • dust,
      • soot,
      • DMS
  • 59. Dimethyl Sulphide (DMS)
    • Produced by phytoplankton
    • In atmosphere forms sulphate
    • Coalesces with sodium and magnesium ions from sea-salt
    • Forms crystalline particles that are condensation nuclei
  • 60. Clouds
    • Cumulus
    • Stratus
    • Alto-cumulus
    • Alto-stratus
    • Cirrus
    • Cumulo-nimbus
  • 61. Cumulus
    • low altitude
    • formed by convection of air
    • “ warm clouds“ mostly above 0ºC
    • fluffy and billowing
    Image ID: wea00079, Historic NWS Collection Photo Date: September 1980 Photographer: Ralph F. Kresge #1126
  • 62. Stratus
    • low altitude,
    • formed by convection of air meeting a stable layer
    • mostly above 0ºC
    • static
    • typical of overcast sky
    Image ID: wea02051, Historic NWS Collection Location: Oahu, Hawaii Photo Date: March, 1976 Photographer: Ralph F. Kresge
  • 63. Alto-cumulus
    • At higher altitudes
    • Formed at a lower temperature (0 to -39ºC)
    • Also Alto-stratus
    Image ID: wea00039, Historic NWS Collection Photographer: Ralph F. Kresge #1201
  • 64. Cirrus
    • high altitude
    • temperature below -39ºC
    • feathery
    Image ID: wea00062, Historic NWS Collection Location: Looking SSW at Rossmoor, Maryland Photo Date: 10:45 A.M., January 29, 1976 Photographer: Ralph F. Kresge
  • 65. Alto-stratus
    • At higher altitudes
    • formed at a lower temperature (0 to -39ºC)
  • 66. Cumulo-nimbus
    • cumulus topped by cirrus
    • storm cloud
    Image ID: wea00094, Historic NWS Collection Location: Mauna Kea, Hawaii Photo Date: February 1976 Photographer: Ralph F. Kresge #0221
  • 67.  
  • 68. Water Vapour and Global Change
    • Water vapour is a greenhouse gas
    • Global warning may cause positive feedback : warming puts more water-vapour into atmosphere which causes further warming
    • Alternately more water-vapour into atmosphere may cause more, violent precipitation
    • Also consider albedo effect versus greenhouse effect
  • 69. Evaporation and Transpiration
    • ~ 875 cubic km of water evaporate from the oceans every day
    • Equivalent to about 1m of the oceans annually
    • ~ 160 cubic km of water evaporate from land and plants ( transpiration ) every day
  • 70.  
  • 71. Residence times
    • Biospheric water
    • Atmospheric water
    • River channels
    • Swamps
    • Lakes and reservoirs
    • Soil moisture
    • Ice caps and glaciers
    • Ocean and seas
    • Groundwater
    • 1 week
    • 1.5 weeks
    • 2 weeks
    • 1-10 years
    • 10 years
    • 2 weeks-1 year
    • 1000-100 000 years
    • 4000 years
    • 2 weeks-10 000 years
  • 72. Runoff
    • Precipitation on land - Evaporation on land = Runoff
    • ~100 cubic km per day
    • Deserts: precipitation = evaporation
    • Amazon:
      • precipitation >> evaporation
      • 1/5 of freshwater input into oceans
  • 73.  
  • 74. Oceans and Seas are all interconnected basins
    • Atlantic
    • Pacific
    • Indian
    • Southern (Antarctic)
    • 2/3 in South Hemisphere
    • Mediterranean Sea
    • Black Sea
    • North Sea
    • Red Sea
    • Arabian Sea
    • East and South China Seas
    • Arctic
  • 75. Oceans … a little oceanography
    • ½ of the globe is 3 000-6 000m deep!
    • Ocean trenches reach 11 000m, mountains only 8000m
    • Mid-ocean ridges are the greatest mountain chains
  • 76. Topography of Ocean Basins
  • 77. Surface Currents
    • wind
    • rotation (gyres)
    • N. Equatorial
    • S. Equatorial
    • West wind drift
    • Norway
    • North Atlantic
    • Canary
    • Brazil
    • Agulhas
    • Alaska
    • Oyashio
    • Kuroshio
    • Peru
  • 78. Global Ocean Surface Currents http://web.uvic.ca/~rdewey/eos110/webimages.html
  • 79. Deep Circulation, Global Conveyor
    • thermohaline
    • Density driven
    • (T and S)
    http://web.uvic.ca/~rdewey/eos110/webimages.html
  • 80. Tidal currents
    • Up to 14m!
    • Gravitational pull (moon + sun)
    • 24 h and 50 min cycle
    • Semi diurnal (High-Low-High-Low)
    • Lunar cycle (Spring-Neap-Spring-Neap)
  • 81.  
  • 82.  
  • 83.  
  • 84. River basins
  • 85.  
  • 86. Nile
      • Length: 6650 km
      • Catchment: ~ 3 million km 2
  • 87. Amazon
    • Length: 6450 km
    • Catchment:
    • ~ 7 million km 2
  • 88. Volume of water transported
    • Different climatic regions ( e.g. Nile and Amazon)
    • Dams
      • Aswan: Lake Nasser 500km, +900 000 acres of arable land, ¼ of Egypt’s power
      • Itaipu
      • Three gorges estimate 18200 megawatts, reservoir ~660 km long
  • 89. Aswan Dam Lake Nasser
  • 90.  
  • 91.  
  • 92. River basins
    • Different geomorphology
    • Different size of flood plains
    • Erosion of rocks
    • Sediment transport
    • Dams
  • 93.  
  • 94. Groundwater
    • Some rain permeates through ground ( aquifer ) until it reaches impermeable bedrock or clay.
    • Upper limit is water table
  • 95. Groundwater quality
    • Depends on rocks of aquifer
      • Hard water: chalk and limestone
      • Soft water: slate and granite
    • Mineral water: high concentration of dissolved minerals. Maybe volcanically heated, thermal.
    • Maybe contaminated by pesticides, fertilizers from agriculture or leachates from landfills
  • 96. Characterization of Water by Mineral Composition … a little hydrochemistry
  • 97.  
  • 98.  
  • 99. Ca 2+
    • Rain is acidic (~pH 5.5)
    • Dissolves carboniferous rocks Ca CO 3
    • Temperature is important ( solubility decreases with increasing temperature)
    • K= [Ca 2+ ] [CO 3 2- ] = 10 -8,3
    • (1:1)
    • P CO2 in soil < a P CO2 in the atmos ( P CO2 in soil ≈ 3 x 10 -4 atm.)
    • K= [Ca 2+ ] [HCO 3 - ] 2 = 10 -5,8 P CO2
    • (1:2)
  • 100. Bicarbonate HCO 3 -
    • H 2 CO 3 Equilibrium
    • Controlled by pH
    • Normally HCO 3 - is dominant specie
    • Determine alkalinity of water
  • 101. How do we represent the composition of water?
    • Bar charts or Collins diagram
    • Pie charts
    • Kite or stiff diagrams
    • Radial diagrams
    • Triangular or Piper diagrams
    • Semi-logarithmic or Schoeller diagrams
  • 102.  
  • 103.  
  • 104.  
  • 105.  
  • 106.  
  • 107.  
  • 108.  
  • 109.  
  • 110.  
  • 111.  
  • 112.  
  • 113.  
  • 114.  
  • 115.  
  • 116.  
  • 117. Exploitation of aquifers
    • Over exploitation may cause land subsidence e.g. London and Mexico
    • In coastal regions, seawater intrusion
  • 118. Ice… the cryosphere
  • 119. Ice Ages
    • Thought to be caused by astronomical variations called Milankovitch cycles
    • Obliquity
    • Precession
    • Eccentricity
  • 120. Milankovitch cycles
    • The ice ages were due to the so-called Milankovitch cycles, that is a combination of the Earths eccentricity (the difference in distance to the sun throughout the year), the tilt of the Earth relative to the Earth-sun plane (difference summer – winter) and the time of the year when the Earth is closest to the sun.
    Milutin Milankovitch
  • 121. The 3 Milankovitch cycles
    • Precession : Orientation of the rotation axis with respect to Sun, 20 000 year cycle
    • Obliquity : tilt of rotation axis currently at 23.5º to plane of orbit, 40 000 year cycle
    • Eccentricity : elliptical shape of orbit, 100 000 year cycle
  • 122. Precession
    • Orientation of the rotation axis with respect to Sun 20 000 year cycle
  • 123. Obliquity : tilt of rotation axis currently at 23.5º to plane of orbit 40 000 year cycle Eccentricity : elliptical shape of orbit, 100 000 year cycle
  • 124. Last Ice Age
    • 18 000 years ago
    • Sea-level 120 m below present
    • Water bound up as continental icesheets
      • Laurentide ice sheet of N.America
      • Fennoscandinavian ice sheet of N.Europe
  • 125. Present Occurrence of Ice
    • Water bound up in ice as:
    • Continental icesheets
    • Sea ice: iceshelves or pack-ice and icebergs
    • Mountain glaciers
  • 126. Present cryosphere
    • Includes permafrost in tundra and snow at high altitudes
    • 2% of total water volume
    • ¾ of Earth’s freshwater
    • 5.7% of surface of globe (seasonal fluctuations)
    • Most ice is stored in Antarctica
    • High albedo
  • 127. Antarctic Icesheets and ice-shelves
    • Mean thickness 2100m
    • Maximum thickness 4800m
    • East Antarctic icesheet is larger than West Antarctic icesheet
    • East Antarctic icesheet on bedrock above sea level
    • West Antarctic icesheet on rock below sealevel
    • Also Ross and Ronne ice-shelves over sea
  • 128. Ice cores
    • Icesheets are maintained by application of new coats of ice compressing previous layers
    • East Antarctic icesheet at 3000m is 250 000 years old
    • Analysis of cores of polar ice reveal previous composition of atmosphere
  • 129. Greenland Plateau and Vostok, Antarctica Ice plateau on Greenland Vostok
  • 130. Antarctic temperatures – during the last 400 000 years
  • 131. Last four ice ages recorded in Antarctica http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc_tar/wg1/fig2-22.htm                                                                                            
  • 132. Icestreams and Icebergs
    • Melting of icesheets
    • can form icestreams
    • or icebergs
  • 133. Mountain Glaciers
    • Frozen rivers
    • Flow slowly down with gravity
  • 134. Glacial features
    • U-shaped valleys
    • Truncated spurs
    • Hanging valleys
    • Moraines
    • Fjords
  • 135. Glacier melt water
    • Discharged into rivers, or directly into sea at high latitudes
  • 136. Cryosphere and global change
    • Seasonal glacial retreat
    • Retreat over several years maybe symptom of global change and warming
    • Increase number of icebergs in N. Atlantic
    • Decrease thickness of pack-ice in Arctic
  • 137. Glacier retreat
  • 138.  
  • 139. The Nigard valley. The picture shows the retreat of the glacier. Photo: Bjørn Wold, NVE.
  • 140. Changes in sea-ice thickness in the Arctic United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) –Grid Arendal Overall change -1.3 m (40%) Positions with comparison USS Archerfish Measurements ’60s and ’90s
  • 141. The destructive forces of Water
  • 142. Floods
    • River floods and ice jams
    • Coastal floods
    • Hurricanes and cyclones
    • Tsunamis
  • 143. Floods and mortalities
    • 40% of deaths from natural disasters are due to floods
    • 1965-85 half of Federal disasters in USA due to floods
    • Hurricane Agnes: 3.5 billion US, 120 lives
    • In USA, floods cost 2-4 Billion US dollars annually and about 200 lives
    • Figures much higher in some other parts of world
  • 144. River floods
    • 1992 Pakistan and India: 2000 lives
    • China: 2297 BC
    • 1332 AD 7 000 000 lives
    • 1887 6 000 000 lives
    • Bangladesh: Ganges, Bramaputra and Megna rivers, low elevation frequent floods
    • Egypt: historical flooding of Nile
  • 145.
    • 1993 Mississipi flood: 15 billion U$ 487 lives
  • 146. Ice jams and melts
    • 1936 New England: 107 lives
  • 147. Coastal floods
    • High tides and storm surges 1953 North Sea
    • Tropical cyclones
      • Hurricanes (Caribbean)
      • Typhoons (W. Pacific)
    • Tsunami
  • 148. Hurricanes
    • 1900 Galveston 10 000 lives
    • Hugo 1989 and Andrew 1992 30 billion US dollars
    • Formed over warm seas
  • 149. Hurricane Hugo http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/historic/nws/hugo1.html Digitized Charleston WSR-57 radar image of Hugo with superimposed winds Real-time winds measured onboard NOAA research aircraft flying into Hugo Wind velocity transmitted to NHC through a satellite link as eyewall hit coast Sustained winds of 155 mph at 10,000 feet and 135 mph at surface Higher gusts were estimated in area of landfall Image ID: wea00455, Historic NWS Collection Photographer: Dr. Frank Marks, AOML Hurricane Research Division
  • 150. Hurricane Andrew http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/historic/nws/andy1.html Hurricane Andrew - visible satellite image taken by METEOSAT 3 This picture depicts Andrew during period of maximum intensity over Bahamas August 23,1992                             Image ID: wea00520, Historic NWS Collection
  • 151. Hurricane Katrina, USA
    • August 2005
    • Levee holding back lake Pontchartrain breeched
    • New Orleans flooded
    • Science , Vol 309, Issue 5741, 1656-1659 , 9 September 2005
    • Scientists' Fears Come True as Hurricane Floods New Orleans
    • John Travis
    • Katrina held few surprises for hurricane experts, who have repeatedly warned about the potential catastrophic consequences for New Orleans if such a storm were to make landfall nearby.
  • 152. Lake Pontchartrain and New Orleans
  • 153. New Orleans flooded
  • 154. Breeched Levee
  • 155. Breeched Levee
  • 156. Loss of Wetlands An ambitious $14 billion plan known as Coast 2050 attempts to protect more than 10,000 square kilometers of Louisiana's wetlands, which are disappearing at a rate of up to 90 square kilometers per year, one of the highest rates of land loss in the world. But a number of unanswered scientific questions swirl around the plan. And it could run afoul of powerful interests in the shipping, petroleum, and fishing industries. Louisiana's Vanishing Wetlands: Going, Going ... Joel Bourne Science 2000 290: 456. (in Letters) [Full Text]
  • 157. Altered Delta
  • 158. Tropical cyclones in Indian Ocean
    • Bangladesh: large areas only 3m altitude
    • 1737: 1 000 000 lives
    • 1876
    • 1970: 200 000 lives
    • 1991: 100 000 lives
  • 159. The 1998 flood in Bangladesh
  • 160. Floods in Bangladesh
  • 161. Tsunami
    • caused by:
    • Earthquakes and Sea-floor displacement : e.g. 26 December 2004 Aceh
    • Landslides : e.g. Alaska 1957
    • Volcanoes : e.g. Krakatau 1883
  • 162. Tsunami
    • 1792 Japan: 15 000 lives
    • 1896 Japan: 27 000 lives
    • 1957 Alaska: wave 60m devasted trees upland to 530m
    • 1883 Krakatau: 36 000 lives
    • 2004 Aceh and Indian Ocean: 300 000+ lives
  • 163. 26 December 2004 off Aceh, Indonesia
  • 164. Indonesia: lhoknga_iko_2004364
  • 165. Sri Lanka_qbd_2004361
  • 166. Sea Level Change
    • Linked to climate change and ice ages
    • Last ice age, sea level 120m below present
    • Still enough ice in ice-sheets and glaciers to raise sea level by 66m!
    • A rise of only 5m would be catastrophic for Pacific Islands, Bangladesh, the Netherlands, Vietnam, Florida
    • Current estimates vary 20cm-1m by 2100
    • Thermal expansion is main cause of rise
  • 167. Water and Society
    • Religions: water Gods, creation, floods
    • Ceremonies: baptism, cleansing before worship, sacred and holy water
  • 168. Ancient Civilizations and Waterways
    • Mesopotamia
    • India
    • China
    • Egypt
    • Tigris and Euphates
    • Ganges
    • Yellow River
    • Nile
  • 169. Water and Health
    • Cholera
    • Typhoid
    • Dysentry
    • Hepatitis A
    • Maleria and other mosquito-borne diseases (Dengue, West Nile fever)
  • 170. Water as a Resource
  • 171. The uses of water
    • Domestic
      • Drinking
      • Hygiene
      • Cleaning
    • Industrial
      • Heavy industry
      • Light industry
      • Food industry
      • Power generation
    • Recreation
      • Bathing
      • Sailing
    • Agricultural
      • Irrigation
      • Aquaculture
      • Fisheries
  • 172. Water and Energy
    • Hydroelectric power
    • Water as a “fuel” by splitting
      • Electolysis,
      • Photolysis,
      • Photosynthesis
      • H-O fuel cells
    • Tidal mills and barrages
    • Ocean currents
  • 173. Water as a scarce resource
    • Uneven distribution of rainfall
  • 174.
    • 2/3 of rainfall flows to sea
  • 175. Global use of water
    • Tripled between 1950-90
    • Half of available runoff used by 1996
  • 176.  
  • 177.  
  • 178.  
  • 179. Use of water by sector differs
  • 180. Use of domestic water differs…
    • Uganda and Burundi 5-25 Liters per day per person
    • Europe 100 to 260 liters per day per person
    • USA 400-500 liters per day
    • Same water quality for brushing teeth, flushing toilet and washing car
  • 181. Agriculture
    • Most increases in crop production due to irrigation
  • 182.  
  • 183. Increasing water stress
  • 184. Abuses of water
    • Wastage in distribution, leaks e.g. UK
    • Inefficient irrigation e.g. Middle East
    • Over extraction and salinization e.g. Mediterranean
    • Desertification e.g. MidWest dust bowl Sahel
    • Pollution
  • 185. Pollution
    • Drinking water can be affected
    • Pesticides, Herbicides, Fungicides
    • Fertilizers
    • Industrial PCBs (paints, plastics, adhesives)
    • Metals from mines and industry
    • Hydrocarbons and Crude oil
    • Sewage pathogens
    • Organic Matter
    • Detergents
    • Acid rain
  • 186. New or recycled water
    • Recycle grey water for agriculture
    • Desalination
    • Shipping water from countries where it is abundant e.g. Alaska to China, Norway to S. Europe
  • 187. The Global International Waters Assessment
    • GIWA
    • Comprehensive strategic assessment
    • Designed to identify priorities for remedial and mitigatory actions in international waters.
  • 188. GIWA's assessment tools Incorporate 5 major environmental concerns and application of the DPSIR framework.
  • 189. DPSIR framework
    • Driving forces
    • Pressures
    • Impacts
    • State
    • Responses
  • 190.
    • Black Sea,
    • Amazon,
    • Gr. Barrier Reef,
    • Agulhas Current
    GIWA Case Studies
  • 191. Water and Life
  • 192. Carbon life-forms…
    • All known life-forms are C-based
    • Many other elements essential for organic (C) life, e.g. N, P
    • All known life-forms also require water
    • Many organisms more than 70% water, some more than 90%
    • Humans require min. 1 liter per day
  • 193. The Beginning of Life
    • ~3.8 billion years ago.
    • Atmosphere contained N, CO 2 and water as well as H 2 S and CH 4 from volcanoes
    • Very little oxygen, anoxic, reducing
    • Current scientific theory: first life-forms were aquatic in shallow lagoons, or hydrothermal vents
  • 194. Early life forms
    • Oldest fossils:
      • Rocks in SW Greenland
      • Australian Stromatolites 3.5 billion years
    • First life-forms:
      • anaerobic heterotrophs using simple organic molecules available by glycolysis or fermentation
      • chemosynthetic autotrophs using H 2 S
      • photosynthetic autotrophs using H 2 S
  • 195. Oxygen and early life-forms
    • Oxygen produced by one type of photosynthesis
    • Uses H 2 O as a proton donor instead of H 2 S
    • Oxygen is oxidating, reactive, corrosive gas
    • Oxygen is TOXIC to aerobic life-forms
    • Oxygen accumulated slowly in the atmosphere
    • Permited the evolution of facultative anerobes and aerobic heterotrophs and
    • Aerobic respiration is far more energetic than fermentation
  • 196. Aquatic life-forms
    • Aquatic life-forms usually restricted in their distribution to fresh or salt water
    • Osmotic pressure one of the colligative properties of water
    • Special adaptations needed for estuarine organisms to survive salinity changes and migratory organisms such as eels and salmon
  • 197. Terrestrial plant-forms
    • Photosynthetic cyanobacteria probably first organisms to survive on land
    • 460 million years ago bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) and ferns
    • 325 million years ago tropical forests
    • Vascular plants “higher” supported by water-based fluids xylem and phloem
    • Depend on properties of water such as osmosis and capillary action
    • Transpiration from plants is important in Hydrological cycle
  • 198. Terrestrial animal-forms
    • Many land-based animals need special adaptations to live out of water such e.g.
      • Molluscs such as gastropod snails
      • Crustacea such as crabs
    • Amphibians first vertebrates on land
    • Animals also have many water based fluids such as cytoplasm, blood plasma and lymph