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The nature of materials

The nature of materials



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      • Atomic Structure and the Elements
      • Bonding between Atoms and Molecules
      • Crystalline Structures
      • Noncrystalline (Amorphous) Structures
      • Engineering Materials
    • Why Materials are Important in Manufacturing
      • Manufacturing is a transformation process
        • It is the material that is transformed
        • And it is the behavior of the material when subjected to the forces, temperatures, and other parameters of the process that determines the success of the operation
    • Atomic Structure and the Elements
      • The basic structural unit of matter is the atom
      • Each atom is composed of a positively charged nucleus, surrounded by a sufficient number of negatively charged electrons so the charges are balanced
      • More than 100 elements, and they are the chemical building blocks of all matter
    • Element Groupings
      • The elements can be grouped into families and relationships established between and within the families by means of the Periodic Table
        • Metals occupy the left and center portions of the table
        • Nonmetals are on right
        • Between them is a transition zone containing metalloids or semi‑metals
      • Figure 2.1 ‑ Periodic Table of Elements. The atomic number and symbol are listed for the 103 elements
    • Bonding between Atoms and Molecules
      • Atoms are held together in molecules by various types of bonds
        • Primary bonds - generally associated with formation of molecules
        • Secondary bonds - generally associated with attraction between molecules
      • Primary bonds are much stronger than secondary bonds
    • Primary Bonds
      • Characterized by strong atom‑to‑atom attractions that involve exchange of valence electrons
      • Following forms:
        • Ionic
        • Covalent
        • Metallic
      • Ionic Bonding
      • Atoms of one element give up their outer electron(s), which are in turn attracted to atoms of some other element to increase electron count in the outermost shell to eight
      Figure 2.4 ‑ Three forms of primary bonding: (a) ionic
      • Covalent Bonding
      • Electrons are shared (as opposed to transferred) between atoms in their outermost shells to achieve a stable set of eight
      Figure 2.4 ‑ Primary bonding: (b) covalent
      • Metallic Bonding
      • Sharing of outer shell electrons by all atoms to form a general electron cloud that permeates the entire block
      Figure 2.4 ‑ Primary bonding: (c) metallic
    • Secondary Bonds
      • Whereas primary bonds involve atom‑to‑atom attractive forces, secondary bonds involve attraction forces between molecules
      • No transfer or sharing of electrons in secondary bonding, and bonds are weaker than primary bonds
      • Three forms:
        • Dipole forces
        • London forces
        • Hydrogen bonding
      • Dipole Forces
      • Arise in a molecule comprised of two atoms with equal and opposite electrical charges
      • Each molecule therefore forms a dipole that attracts other molecules
      Figure 2.6 ‑ Types of secondary bonding: (a) dipole forces
      • London Forces
      • Attractive force between nonpolar molecules, i.e., atoms in molecule do not form dipoles
      • However, due to rapid motion of electrons in orbit, temporary dipoles form when more electrons are on one side
      Figure 2.6 ‑ Secondary bonding: (b) London forces
      • Hydrogen Bonding
      • Occurs in molecules containing hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to another atom (e.g., H 2 O)
      • Since electrons to complete shell of hydrogen atom are aligned on one side of nucleus, opposite side has a net positive charge that attracts electrons in other molecules
      Figure 2.6 ‑ Secondary bonding: (c) hydrogen bonding
    • Macroscopic Structures of Matter
      • Atoms and molecules are the building blocks of more macroscopic structure of matter
      • When materials solidify from the molten state, they tend to close ranks and pack tightly, arranging themselves into one of two structures:
        • Crystalline
        • Noncrystalline
    • Crystalline Structure
      • Structure in which the atoms are located at regular and recurring positions in three dimensions
      • Unit cell - basic geometric grouping of atoms that is repeated
      • The pattern may be replicated millions of times within a given crystal
      • Characteristic structure of virtually all metals, as well as many ceramics and some polymers
      • Figure 2.7 ‑ Body‑centered cubic (BCC) crystal structure:
            • unit cell, with atoms indicated as point locations in a three‑dimensional axis system
            • unit cell model showing closely packed atoms (sometimes called the hard‑ball model)
            • repeated pattern of the BCC structure
      • Figure 2.8 ‑ Three types of crystal structures in metals:
              • body‑centered cubic
              • face‑centered cubic
              • hexagonal close‑packed
    • Crystal Structures for Common Metals (at Room Temperature)
      • Body‑centered cubic (BCC)
        • Chromium, Iron, Molybdenum, Tungsten
      • Face‑centered cubic (FCC)
        • Aluminum, Copper, Gold, Lead, Silver, Nickel
      • Hexagonal close‑packed (HCP)
        • Magnesium, Titanium, Zinc
    • Imperfections (Defects) in Crystals
      • Imperfections often arise due to inability of solidifying material to continue replication of unit cell, e.g., grain boundaries in metals
      • Imperfections can also be introduced purposely; e.g., addition of alloying ingredient in metal
      • Types of defects:
        • Point defects
        • Line defects
        • Surface defects
      • Point Defects
      • Imperfections in crystal structure involving either a single atom or a few number of atoms
      Figure 2.9 ‑ Point defects: (a) vacancy, (b) ion‑pair vacancy, (c) interstitialcy, (d) displaced ion (Frenkel Defect)
    • Line Defects
      • Connected group of point defects that forms a line in the lattice structure
      • Most important line defect is a dislocation , which can take two forms:
        • Edge dislocation
        • Screw dislocation
      • Edge Dislocation
      • Edge of an extra plane of atoms that exists in the lattice
      Figure 2.10 ‑ Line defects: (a) edge dislocation
      • Screw Dislocation
      • Spiral within the lattice structure wrapped around an imperfection line, like a screw is wrapped around its axis
      Figure 2.10 ‑ Line defects: (b) screw dislocation
    • Surface Defects
      • Imperfections that extend in two directions to form a boundary
      • Examples:
        • External: the surface of a crystalline object is an interruption in the lattice structure
        • Internal: grain boundaries are internal surface interruptions
      • Elastic Strain
      • When a crystal experiences a gradually increasing stress, it first deforms elastically
      • If force is removed lattice structure returns to its original shape
        • Figure 2.11 ‑
        • Deformation of a crystal structure: (a) original lattice: (b) elastic deformation, with no permanent change in positions of atoms
      • Plastic Strain
      • If stress is higher than forces holding atoms in their lattice positions, a permanent shape change occurs
      • Atoms have permanently moved from their previous locations, and a new equilibrium lattice is formed
        • Figure 2.11 ‑
        • Deformation of a crystal structure: (c) plastic deformation ( slip ), in which atoms in the lattice are forced to move to new "homes"
      • Figure 2.12 ‑ Effect of dislocations in the lattice structure under stress
      • In the series of diagrams, the movement of the dislocation allows deformation to occur under a lower stress than in a perfect lattice
    • Slip on a Macroscopic Scale
      • Slip occurs many times over throughout the metal when subjected to a deforming load, thus causing it to exhibit its macroscopic behavior in the stress-strain relationship
      • Dislocations are a good‑news‑bad‑news situation
        • Good news in manufacturing – the metal is easier to form
        • Bad news in design – the metal is not as strong as the designer would like
      • Twinning
      • A second mechanism of plastic deformation in which atoms on one side of a plane (called the twinning plane ) are shifted to form a mirror image of the other side
      Figure 2.13 ‑ Twinning, involving the formation of an atomic mirror image (i.e., a "twin") on the opposite side of the twinning plane: (a) before, and (b) after twinning
    • The Polycrystalline Nature of Metals
      • A block of metal may contain millions of individual crystals, called grains
      • Such a structure is called polycrystalline
      • Each grain has its own unique lattice orientation; but collectively, the grains are randomly oriented in the block
    • Grains and Grain Boundaries in Metals
      • How do polycrystalline structures form?
        • As a block (of metal) cools from the molten state and begins to solidify, individual crystals nucleate at random positions and orientations throughout the liquid
        • These crystals grow and finally interfere with each other, forming at their interface a surface defect ‑ a grain boundary
        • Grain boundaries are transition zones, perhaps only a few atoms thick
    • Noncrystalline (Amorphous) Structures
      • Many materials are noncrystalline
        • Water and air have noncrystalline structures
        • A metal loses its crystalline structure when melted
      • Important engineering materials have noncrystalline forms in their solid state
        • Glass
        • Many plastics
        • Rubber
    • Features of Noncrystalline (Amorphous) Structures
      • Two features differentiate noncrystalline from crystalline materials:
        • Absence of long‑range order in molecular structure
        • Differences in melting and thermal expansion characteristics
      • Figure 2.14 ‑ Illustration of difference in structure between: (a) crystalline and (b) noncrystalline materials. The crystal structure is regular, repeating, and denser; while the noncrystalline structure is more loosely packed and random
      • Figure 2.15 ‑ Characteristic change in volume for a pure metal (a crystalline structure), compared to the same volumetric changes in glass (a noncrystalline structure)
    • Characteristics of Metals
      • Crystalline structures in the solid state, almost without exception
      • BCC, FCC, or HCP unit cells
      • Atoms held together by metallic bonding
      • Properties: high strength and hardness, high electrical and thermal conductivity
      • FCC metals are generally ductile
    • Characteristics of Ceramics
      • Most ceramics have crystal structure, while glass (SiO 2 ) is amorphous
      • Molecules characterized by ionic or covalent bonding, or both
      • Properties: high hardness and stiffness, electrically insulating, refractory, and chemically inert
    • Characteristics of Polymers
      • Many repeating mers in molecule held together by covalent bonding
      • Polymers usually carbon plus one or more other elements: H, N, O, and Cl
      • Amorphous (glassy) structure or mixture of amorphous and crystalline
      • Properties: low density, high electrical resistivity, and low thermal conductivity, strength and stiffness vary widely