Living Systems. eukaryotes. best pix. figures1.ppt
<ul><li>In addition to the media on this CD, you can also play videos from these products in the classroom: </li></ul><ul><li>The Student CD for Starr’s Biology (bound in envelope in front of text): contains lecture-launching videos corresponding to each chapter’s Impacts, Issues essay. The video for this chapter is: What Am I Doing Here? (filename: csPersGulf.mov) </li></ul><ul><li>Digitized CNN Today Video (available free from your sales representative upon adoption, also available on videotape): available in year-by-year volumes. The list of CNN videos corresponding to this chapter is found online (put this slide into Slide Show view to make this link clickable). </li></ul><ul><li>To create links to a video on a CD from your lecture: </li></ul><ul><li>Click on edge of button at right, then copy it. </li></ul><ul><li>Open your lecture in Normal View and paste button into your lecture slide. </li></ul><ul><li>Click the edge of button (yellow diamond will appear). </li></ul><ul><li>Under Insert in main menu, select “Hyperlink…” Under “Action on click,” select “Hyperlink to,” then select “Other File…” from the pulldown menu below it. </li></ul><ul><li>You will be prompted to find the movie. Find the CD drive (Windows: on My Computer; Mac: on Desktop), open the CD contents and find movie by name. Some files may be nested in folders (the Impacts, Issues video is located in a folder called Media). Select file of interest, then click OK. </li></ul><ul><li>Save your PPT lecture file. Transfer file to computer in classroom and insert CD into that computer. </li></ul><ul><li>When in Slide Show mode, the green button will launch movie when clicked. Before class, check to see if this link works on the classroom computer. If not: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is QuickTime installed in classroom computer? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On Windows, is the the drive letter the same as on your personal computer (usually “D”)? If not, repeat process above on classroom computer and relink to that CD drive. </li></ul></ul>Integrating video into your lecture Click to view video.
Fig. 1-1a, p.5 atom Smallest unit of an element that still retains the element’s properties. Electrons, protons, and neutrons are its building blocks. This hydrogen atom’s electron zips around a proton in a spherical volume of space.
Fig. 1-1b, p.4 molecule Two or more joined atoms of the same or different elements. “Molecules of life” are complex carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, DNA, and RNA. Only living cells now make them.
Fig. 1-1c, p.4 cell Smallest unit that can live and reproduce on its own or as part of a multicelled organism. It has an outer membrane, DNA, and other components.
Fig. 1-1d, p.4 tissue Organized aggregation of cells and substances interacting in a specialized activity. Many cells ( white ) made this bone tissue from their own secretions.
Fig. 1-1e, p.5 organ Structural unit made of two or more tissues interacting in some task. A parrotfish eye is a sensory organ used in vision.
Fig. 1-1f, p.5 organ system Organs interacting physically, chemically, or both in some task. Parrotfish skin is an integumentary system with tissue layers, organs such as glands, and other parts.
Fig. 1-1g, p.5 multicelled organism Individual made of different types of cells. Cells of most multicelled organisms, including this Red Sea parrotfish, are organized as tissues, organs, and organ systems.
Fig. 1-1h, p.5 population Group of single-celled or multicelled individuals of the same species occupying a specified area. This is a fish population in the Red Sea.
Fig. 1-1i, p.5 community All populations of all species occupying a specified area. This is part of a coral reef in the Gulf of Aqaba at the northern end of the Red Sea.
Fig. 1-1j, p.5 ecosystem A community that is interacting with its physical environment. It has inputs and outputs of energy and materials. Reef ecosystems flourish in warm, clear seawater throughout the Middle East.
Fig. 1-1k, p.5 the biosphere All regions of the Earth’s waters, crust, and atmosphere that hold organisms. In the vast universe, Earth is a rare planet. Without its abundance of free-flowing water, there would be no life.
Fig. 1-1, p.4 Stepped Art atom cell tissue organ organ system molecule
Fig. 1-1, p.4 Stepped Art community multicelled organism population ecosystem the biosphere
energy input (mainly sunlight) producers (plants and other self-feeding organisms; they make their own food from simple raw materials) nutrient cycling consumers, decomposers (animals, most fungi, many protists, many bacteria that can’t make their own food) energy output (mainly metabolic heat) Fig. 1-4, p.7
<ul><li>Organisms are grouped together based on descent from a shared ancestor </li></ul><ul><li>Three domains exist: </li></ul>Stepped Art Fig. 1-6, p.8 Eubacteria (Bacteria) Archaebacteria (Archaea) Eukaryotes (Eukarya)
CONTROL GROUP Gets regular potato chips EXPERIMENTAL GROUP Gets Olestra potato chips Make Prediction Eat potato chips Eat potato chips Analyze results Draw conclusion Eating Olestra potato chips does not cause intestinal distress If Olestra ® potato chips cause intestinal distress then people who eat them will get cramps Perform experiment 93 of 529 people (17.6%) suffer from cramps later 89 of 563 people (15.8%) suffer from cramps later About the same number of people in each group get cramps Fig. 1-9, p.12
Stepped Art Report on experimental design, test results, and conclusions drawn from results Fig. 1-9, p.12 Draw samples from some aspect of nature CONTROL GROUP The variable being tested is absent EXPERIMENTAL GROUP The variable being tested is present Compare and analyze the test results Compile results Compile results
Control Group 34 H. cydno individuals with yellow markings Experimental Group 46 H. cydno individuals with white markings Experiment Both yellow and white forms of H. cydno butterflies are introduced into isolated rain forest habitat of yellow H. eleuchia butterflies. Numbers of individuals resighted recorded on a daily basis for two weeks. Results Experimental group ( H. cydno individuals without yellow wing markings) is selected against. 37 of the original group of 46 white butterflies disappear (80%), compared with 20 of the 34 yellow controls (58%). one of the agents of selection Fig. 1-10c, p.13
Table 1.1 Summary of Life’s Characteristics <ul><li>Shared characteristics that reflect life’ s unity </li></ul><ul><li>All life forms contain “molecules of life” (complex carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids). </li></ul><ul><li>2. Organisms consist of one or more cells. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Cells are constructed of the same kinds of atoms and molecules according to </li></ul><ul><li>the same laws of energy </li></ul><ul><li>4. Organisms acquire and use energy and materials to survive and reproduce. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Organisms sense and make controlled responses to conditions in their internal </li></ul><ul><li>and external environments. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Heritable information is encoded in DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Characteristics of individuals in a population can change over generations; </li></ul><ul><li>the population can evolve. </li></ul>Table 1-1, p.14 <ul><li>Foundations for life’s diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Mutations in DNA give rise to variations in traits, or details of body form, function, and behavior </li></ul><ul><li>2. Traits enhancing survival and reproduction become more common in a population over generations. This process is called natural selection. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Diversity is the sum total of variations that accumulated in different lines of descent over the past 3.9 billion years. </li></ul>